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Archive

    2019:
  • Issue 226
  • 1. FORESTRY

    Andreyev G.V. Form­ing, growth and devel­op­ment of spruce and fir gener­a­ra­tions of sec­ond storey of a few series of age-regen­er­a­tive Dynam­ics at South­ern Ural. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 6–19 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.6–19

    Anno­ta­tion

    The exam­i­na­tion of form­ing, growth and devel­op­ment of sec­ond storey spruce and fir of few series of age-regen­er­a­tive dynam­ics by geo­graph­i­cal-genet­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of for­est type at South­ern Ural had been the goal of these inves­ti­ga­tions. The work had been made in pre­dom­i­nant for­est site type of Yuruzan’-Upper-Ai dis­trict of South­ern­bo­re­al and mixed forests sub­zone in Chelyabin­sk region. These inves­ti­ga­tions had been car­ried out at alti­tude 450–550 m above seal lev­el in pre­dom­i­nant for­est type on gen­tle slopes with thick drained soils. This cor­re­sponds orig­i­nal small grass and green moss for­est type. The quan­ti­ta­tive indices of form­ing, growth and devel­op­ment of spruce and fir of sec­ond (II) storey in a dif­fer­ent series of age-regen­er­a­tion dynam­ics are giv­en on this arti­cle. The spruce and fir of sec­ond storey are younger of main gen­er­a­tion of these species from 0 to 145 years. II (sec­ond) storey of short-sec­ondary birch stands is formed with spruce and fir which are the same age or old­er than birch age to 15 years, equal age it, or younger from 0 to 115 years. The spruce age of II storey of long term-sec­ondary aspen stands may be not old­er age of aspen than 25 years, or equal it, or younger it to 50 years. The fir age of II storey of such stands may be old­er the aspen to 27 years, or equal it, or younger to 45 years. The growth of height and diam­e­ter of spruce is near and reli­able didn’t dif­fer in dark conif­er­ous stands, also in short-sec­ondary birch stands and long term-sec­ondary aspen stands. The fir growth of height and diam­e­ter char­ac­ter­izes reli­able worse in short-sec­ondary birch stands and long term-sec­ondary aspen stands. This cased small­er den­si­ty of main storey of dark conif­er­ous stands com­par­a­tive­ly with sec­ondary stands and loca­tion of spruce and fir II storey in gaps of main canopy in spruce-fir stands. The fir is pre­dom­i­nant in all inves­ti­gat­ed age-regeni­ra­tion series in sec­ond storey. The dark conif­er­ous stands short-sec­ondary birch stands and long termsec­ondary aspen stands well are dif­fered from sta­ble sec­ondary birch and aspen stands with basis quan­ti­ta­tive cor­re­la­tion seedlings and sec­ond storey. The spruce and fir regen­er­a­tion in sta­ble sec­ondary leaf stands is dif­fi­cult because of strong soil devel­op­ment of grass cov­er and also absent of seed origin.

    Key­words: South­ern Ural, spruce and fir of sec­ond storey, their gen­e­sis, growth and development

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    Zdornov I.A., Nag­i­mov Z.Ya. Phy­tomass of birch trees in sus­tain­able road­side pro­tec­tive for­est strips of North­ern Kaza­khstan. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 20–32 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.20–32

    Anno­ta­tion

    Some for­ma­tion pecu­liar­i­ties of the above­ground phy­tomass of birch trees in the road­side pro­tec­tive for­est belts has been stud­ied on 4 tri­al plots with 60 felled and mea­sured mod­el trees spec­i­men as the exper­i­men­tal mate­r­i­al. It is estab­lished that in the for­est belts of var­i­ous designs the nature of the dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion of trees accord­ing to the mass of trunks and crowns (foliage) has the same ten­den­cies as in nat­ur­al plan­ta­tions. It was revealed, that some frac­tions changes in the of their above­ground phy­tomass char­ac­ter­is­tic for nat­ur­al plan­ta­tions depend on the age and size of the trees. Trees of the same diam­e­ter in the old­er age are char­ac­ter­ized by high­er val­ues of the weight of the trunks and low val­ues of the mass of crowns (foliage). In pro­tec­tive for­est belts, the opaque (mar­gin­al) effect as the addi­tion­al fac­tor has a sig­nif­i­cant influ­ence on the for­ma­tion of the above­ground phy­tomass of trees. Trees of the same diam­e­ter and age in the extreme rows of for­est belts are char­ac­ter­ized by low val­ues of height and species num­bers and more growth of crowns inten­sive, com­par­a­tive­ly with the cen­tral ones. There­fore, they have a small­er mass of trunks and a larg­er mass of crowns (foliage). The feath­er­ing effect gives grounds for con­sid­er­ing pro­tec­tive for­est belts when assess­ing their phy­tomass as a spe­cial object of for­est tax­a­tion. There is a nat­ur­al change in the ratio of the struc­tur­al parts of the above­ground phy­tomass to each oth­er depend­ing on the age, size and loca­tion of trees in for­est belts.

    Key­words: phy­tomass of birch trees, road­side pro­tec­tive for­est strips, North­ern Kaza­khstan, pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion, opaque (mar­gin­al) effect

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    Nag­i­mov Z.Ya., Sheveli­na I.V., Sal­niko­va I.S., Metelev D.V. Devel­op­ment of stan­dards of assess­ment of vol­ume of log­ging residues pro­duced in the process of ille­gal log­ging. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 33–46 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.33–46

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle proves the pos­si­bil­i­ty and expe­di­en­cy of com­pil­ing for­est tax­a­tion stan­dards based on math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els of the above­ground phy­tomass of trees for esti­mat­ing the vol­umes of log­ging residues left after ille­gal log­ging. Data dock­ing of the phy­tomass of the trees and the vol­ume tables ensure the man­u­fac­tura­bil­i­ty and high accu­ra­cy of such stan­dards. It is not­ed that the using the vol­ume stem in dock­ing equa­tions of phy­tomass gives the best results. It should be stressed that to take into account the nat­ur­al laws of the for­ma­tion of crowns and their struc­tur­al parts, it is advis­able to use the vol­ume, age and ratio D : H of trees in the equa­tions. On the basis of the obtained equa­tions, it is estab­lished that the weight of the crown and nee­dles in trees of the same thick­ness increas­es reg­u­lar­ly from the top height class­es to the bot­tom ones, and with­in one height class increas­es with a decrease in the age of the tree stands. It is report­ed that infor­ma­tive­ness and demand for stan­dards increas­es if weight and vol­ume para­me­ters are used togeth­er. The pro­ce­dure for the tran­si­tion to vol­ume para­me­ters in a sol­id mea­sure is solved with the use of the cor­re­spond­ing den­si­ty coef­fi­cients of the phy­tomass frac­tions, to the vol­ume para­me­ters in the stacked mea­sure with the use of their stack­ing fac­tors. Rec­om­men­da­tions are giv­en on the basis of the devel­oped stan­dards for deter­min­ing the vol­ume of log­ging residues in for­est stra­ta, left after ille­gal logging.

    Key­words: phy­tomass of trees, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, vol­ume tables, height class­es, den­si­ty coef­fi­cient, stack­ing fac­tor, ille­gal log­ging, log­ging residues

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    2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

    Alek­san­drov V.A., Alek­san­drov A.V., Gomon D.Yu. Vibrat­ing load of the oper­a­tor of the feller-bunch­er in the process of clean­ing the base of the tree from snow by turn­ing the han­dle. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 47–54 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.47–54

    Anno­ta­tion

    In arti­cle the mod­el of bio­dy­nam­ic sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor – feller – the pack­ag­ing car (feller – bunch­er machine)». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagrange sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion sus­pen­sion seats of the oper­a­tor by a method of Runge–Kutta, by Math­CAD. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly let out feller-bunch­er LP-17A in the dis­per­sal mode at start-off from the place. As a result of research­es it is estab­lished: vibroload­ing oper­a­tors of feller-pack­ag­ing cars exceeds the san­i­tary code in 4–6 times.

    Key­words: feller bunch­er, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, vibra­tion, seat

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    Bazarov S.M., Belenkiy Yu.I., Bacherikov I.V., Ilyushenko D.A., Bazaro­va M.V., Nguen Phuc Sue Improv­ing the effi­cien­cy of for­est man­age­ment based on the opti­miza­tion of non-con­tin­u­ous felling of grow­ing plan­ta­tions. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 55–65 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.55–65

    Anno­ta­tion

    Analy­sis of the dynam­ic state of the sys­tem «forest–harvesting» from the stand­point of solv­ing the kinet­ic equa­tions of the eco­log­i­cal mod­el «hares–foxes» (hares – for­est, fox­es – har­vest­ing) indi­cates the pos­si­bil­i­ty of a sus­tain­able oscil­lat­ing state of for­est man­age­ment with the nat­ur­al renew­al of resources. As a result of the kinet­ic equa­tions solu­tion it becomes pos­si­ble to deter­mine the fre­quen­cy of sta­ble oscil­la­tions of the foresthar­vest­ing sys­tem (direct prob­lem solu­tion) and to real­ize the prin­ci­ple of nat­ur­al and man­made sys­tems har­mo­ny. Here the process of har­vest­ing is car­ried out by non-flat (even­ly­grad­ual) felling, the role of the age class per­forms the peri­od of oscil­la­tion cor­re­spond­ing to the deter­mined fre­quen­cy. With this approach, it is pos­si­ble to for­mu­late the same inverse prob­lem: the cho­sen fre­quen­cy of sta­ble oscil­la­tions of the sys­tem and the growth dynam­ics of plant­i­ngs to deter­mine the appro­pri­ate para­me­ters of the work piece.

    Key­words: fre­quen­cy, age class, sys­tem, sta­bil­i­ty, drop

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    Pham Ngoc Linh, Valyazhonkov V.D., Pushkov Yu.L. Prob­a­bilis­tic-sta­tis­ti­cal esti­ma­tion of tim­ing modes of skid­ding and trans­porta­tion of assort­ment by a skid­der. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 66–81 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.66–81

    Anno­ta­tion

    The pur­pose of the arti­cle is to iden­ti­fy tem­po­rary modes of oper­a­tion wheeled trac­tor selec­tor assort­ment (WTSA) on the per­for­mance of the log­ging process (LP) move­ment of assort­ments direct­ly from the cut­ting area to the con­sumer using math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing. To accom­plish the goal, a struc­tur­al scheme of cycle time costs LP and a set of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els of tem­po­ral modes of oper­a­tion WTSA. The prob­a­bilis­tic-sta­tis­ti­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of the time-con­sum­ing com­po­nents of the cycle of deliv­ery of assort­ments by selec­tor assort­ment MTW-952.4 + ONIAR 12Т WD in the mid-taiga con­di­tions of the North-West. To iden­ti­fy the nature and extent of the influ­ence of the length of the path and speed dur­ing the freight move­ment of the WTSA in the above con­di­tions on the total cost of cycle time LP obtained mul­ti­ple non­lin­ear regres­sion equation.

    Key­words: tem­po­rary oper­at­ing modes wheeled trac­tor selec­tor assort­ment, log­ging process of assortments

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    Valyazhonkov V.D., Dobrynin Yu.A., Mosh­takov A.A. Mod­el of ener­gy assess­ment of the ratio­nal­i­ty of com­bin­ing up of forestry machines. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 82–89 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.82–89

    Anno­ta­tion

    The choice of the best ver­sion of the machine and trac­tor unit (MTU) is usu­al­ly car­ried out by means of the trac­tion effi­cien­cy (E) of the trac­tor ηm or unit effi­cien­cy ηа. Appli­ca­tion of these index­es by draw­ing up units is not absolute­ly suc­cess­ful. With the help ηm it is pos­si­ble to give a pow­er assess­ment only to the basic trac­tor, but not the unit in gen­er­al as it opens the use­ful share of pow­er not on an action of the aggre­gat­ed tool, and on a trac­tor hook. The pow­er brought to a tool action con­sid­ers ηа, but there is no reli­able method of its mea­sure­ment. How­ev­er the main lack of these indi­ca­tors is that they do not reflect very impor­tant par­ty of the phe­nom­e­non – what num­ber of tech­no­log­i­cal work can be cre­at­ed on it is use­ful the spent ener­gy. For assess­ment of ratio­nal­i­ty of draw­ing up machine and trac­tor units when per­form­ing forestry and land­scape works the com­plex index – the spe­cif­ic pow­er effi­cien­cy rep­re­sent­ing the atti­tude of tech­ni­cal effi­cien­cy towards the used engine capac­i­ty of the basic trac­tor is offered to use. This index reflects the num­ber of the per­formed tech­no­log­i­cal work at the spent pow­er that the design per­fec­tion of forestry and land­scape machine and trac­tor units and their adapt­abil­i­ty to real­iza­tion of the cor­re­spond­ing tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tion gives the chance of assess­ment from the pow­er point of view.

    Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, pow­er assess­ment, forestry, ratio­nal­i­ty of com­bin­ing up machine and trac­tor units

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    Cao Huy Giap, Kochnev A.M., Nguyen Long Lam. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the inter­ac­tion of wheeled skid­der with skid trail in the rotate mode. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 90–98 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.90–98

    Anno­ta­tion

    The inter­ac­tion of the wheeled skid­der with a pack of wood and fiber in the mode of rota­tion is not giv­en enough atten­tion. The devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els do not take into account such impor­tant prop­er­ties of the object of study as elas­tic-damp­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics of tires in the lon­gi­tu­di­nal, trans­verse direc­tions and twist­ing, elas­tic­damp­ing prop­er­ties of the mech­a­nism with the lay­ing and the trill pack­et of wood, the non­lin­ear nature of the sys­tem ele­ments and their rela­tion­ship to each oth­er, etc. The pur­pose of this arti­cle is to devel­op a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of inter­ac­tion wheel skid­der trac­tor with fiber in the mode of rota­tion, tak­ing into account the elas­tic prop­er­ties of tires, fold­ing mech­a­nism and a trill pack­et of wood. Research method-math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing. The study of the obtained sys­tem of dif­fer­en­tial con­trols on a com­put­er makes it pos­si­ble to solve both direct and inverse prob­lems of dynam­ics. Stud­ies have con­firmed the ade­qua­cy of the devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of inter­ac­tion wheel skid­der with a bun­dle of wood and fiber in the mode of rota­tion, the dis­crep­an­cy of results – 12–16%, which allows to rec­om­mend it for use in ASNI and CAD «Wheel skidder».

    Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, wheel skid­der, mode of rota­tion, a pack of wood

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    Velikonivt­se­va S.A., Pitukhin A.V., Shilovsky V.N. The eval­u­a­tion of reli­a­bil­i­ty con­struc­tions ele­ments of log­ging machines in the con­di­tions of the Repub­lic of Kare­lia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 99–110 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.99–110

    Anno­ta­tion

    In mov­ing to a mar­ket econ­o­my and increased com­pe­ti­tion require­ments for the lev­el of reli­a­bil­i­ty of log­ging equip­ment sig­nif­i­cant­ly increased. In the Repub­lic of Kare­lia there is short log log­ging tech­nol­o­gy and har­vesters and for­warders of firms John Deere, Pon­sse, Komat­su are gen­er­al­ly used. Indus­try insti­tu­tions pre­vi­ous­ly involved in for­est machines have been vir­tu­al­ly elim­i­nat­ed and objec­tive data on fail­ures can only be eva­l­ut­ed direct­ly at log­ging enter­pris­es. There­fore, the objec­tive of this arti­cle is to present meth­ods of eval­u­a­tion accu­mu­la­tion on fail­ure con­struc­tions ele­ments of the har­vesters and for­warders of the com­pa­ny’s pro­duc­tion of Komat­su on the basis of infor­ma­tion in the account­ing state­ments about the write-off of spare parts in the oper­a­tion of com­plex­es in the Repub­lic of Kare­lia. The cost of spare parts, their name and quan­ti­ty are record­ed in the report­ing peri­od in which they were replaced. The aver­age total cost of parts for one unit per cal­en­dar 2015 on for­warders made 2398,46 thou­sand RUB over medi­um engine hours 2956; har­vesters the aver­age total cost for the same peri­od amount­ed to 2617,79 thou­sand RUB over medi­um engine hours 3167. Sta­tis­ti­cal data pro­cess­ing is per­formed on all machines for parts that are most fre­quent­ly changed dur­ing oper­a­tion. The arti­cle presents the results of the esti­mat­ed time between fail­ures and their dis­per­sions for the har­vester saw tire and for the for­warder dehu­mid­i­fi­er fil­ter, char­ac­ter­ized by the low­est time between fail­ures. Sta­tis­ti­cal infor­ma­tion on machine fail­ures col­lect­ed on the basis of month­ly cost account­ing state­ments is lim­it­ed (incom­plete) because there is insuf­fi­cient data to esti­mate the dis­tri­b­u­tion of time between fail­ures. When ana­lyz­ing the data using Bartlet­t’s cri­te­ri­on, it was revealed that the sam­ples sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer from each oth­er and there­fore they can not be com­bined. Con­se­quent­ly, the reli­a­bil­i­ty esti­mates cal­cu­lat­ed using the sam­ples obtained dif­fer sig­nif­i­cant­ly. For a com­plete analy­sis, it is nec­es­sary to con­duct longer obser­va­tions of the equip­ment dur­ing oper­a­tion and to record each fail­ure with the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of the cause.

    Key­words: har­vester, for­warder, spare part, mean time between failures

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    Khitrov E.G., Kotenev E.V., Andronov A.V., Taradin G.S., Bozh­bov V.E. The­o­ret­i­cal cal­cu­la­tion of bear­ing capac­i­ty of cohe­sive soil on the cone index and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 111–123 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.111–123

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle devotes to study­ing the rela­tion­ship of mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, cone index and bear­ing capac­i­ty of var­i­ous types of cohe­sive soils. The mate­r­i­al for the study are ref­er­ence data and the­o­ret­i­cal for­mu­las for cal­cu­lat­ing the bear­ing capac­i­ty and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil. Research meth­ods include com­pu­ta­tion­al exper­i­ment, approx­i­ma­tion of the cal­cu­lat­ed data, the least squares method. The arti­cle uses domes­tic method of cal­cu­lat­ing the bear­ing capac­i­ty of a deformable soil lay­er under influ­ence of a stamp, tak­ing into account the lay­er thick­ness, geom­e­try of the con­tact patch, cohe­sive prop­er­ties and spe­cif­ic weight of the soil, devi­a­tion of stamp direc­tion from the nor­mal to the soil sur­face. Accord­ing to the results of cal­cu­la­tions, bear­ing capac­i­ty of cohe­sive soils is deter­mined by the inner cohe­sion and angle of inter­nal fric­tion and express­es by a pow­er equa­tion regard­less of the cohe­sive soil type. At the sec­ond stage, the study makes com­par­i­son of the defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus and the cone index of cohe­sive soil with its cohe­sive prop­er­ties and bear­ing capac­i­ty. The val­ues of defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus, shear mod­u­lus, inner cohe­sion and angle of inter­nal fric­tion obtained for soils of dif­fer­ent poros­i­ty and con­sis­ten­cy, depend­ing on the soil type. The val­ues of the cone index are deter­mined by the­o­ret­i­cal solu­tion of the prob­lem of pen­e­tra­tion of con­i­cal inden­ter into half-space. It has been estab­lished that cal­cu­lat­ed val­ue of bear­ing capac­i­ty of clay, loam, sandy loam, for­est and marshy soil is asso­ci­at­ed with the defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus also by pow­er depen­dence, the coef­fi­cients of which depend on the type of soil. The cal­cu­lat­ed val­ue of bear­ing capac­i­ty of clay, loam, sandy loam, for­est and marshy soil can be obtained by the cone index, which is deter­mined by sound­ing, also using a pow­er equa­tion, the coef­fi­cients of which are deter­mined by the type of cohe­sive soil.

    Key­words: for­est soil, marshy soil, cohe­sive soils, inden­ta­tion, bear­ing capac­i­ty, cohe­sive prop­er­ties, defor­ma­tion modulus

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    3. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

    Bay­dakov D.L., Vigra­nenko Yu.T. Elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty and elec­trode prop­er­ties of the chalco­genide films PbS-AgI-As2S3, PbS-Ag2S‑As2S3 и PbI2-Ag2SAs2S3, obtained by chem­i­cal depo­si­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 124–138 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.124–138

    Anno­ta­tion

    Chalco­genide films PbS-AgI-As2S3, PbS-Ag2S-As2S3 and PbI2-Ag2S-As2S3, were syn­the­sized from the solu­tions of chalco­genide glass­es in n‑butylamine. The elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty and elec­trode prop­er­ties of glass­es and films of the same com­po­si­tions were stud­ied. The syn­the­sis of glass­es was car­ried out accord­ing to the pro­ce­dure described in [Legin, 1985]. The films were pre­pared as fol­lows. The sam­ple of the glass was placed in boil­ing n‑butylamine, then stirred for 3–4 hours until the glass was com­plete­ly dis­solved in the amine. To pre­vent oxi­da­tion by air oxy­gen, the films were applied in a closed box under a nitro­gen atmos­phere. The sub­strate was placed on a rotat­ing device, a solu­tion was applied there­to, and then the sub­strate was rotat­ed at a speed of 3000–4000 rpm for 1 minute. Anneal­ing of the films was car­ried out in the box at a tem­per­a­ture of 90–100 C for 30–60 min. Elec­trodes with mem­branes PbSAg2S-As2S3 and PbI2-Ag2S-As2S3 showed high sen­si­tiv­i­ty to cations Pb2+. The Nernst region of the elec­trode response lies in the range 10–2–10–6 mol/l lead nitrate, and the detec­tion lim­it reach­es 10–7 mol/l. Thin film elec­trodes with PbS-AgI-As2S3 mem­branes showed a fair­ly high sen­si­tiv­i­ty to the Ag+ cations. The Nernst region of the elec­trode response is 10–1–10–6 mol/l sil­ver nitrate, the detec­tion lim­it of Ag+ cations reach­es 10–7 mol/l. It has been estab­lished that the elec­trode prop­er­ties of chalco­genide glass­es and films of sim­i­lar com­po­si­tion are prac­ti­cal­ly the same.

    Key­words: chalco­genide glass­es and films, chem­i­cal depo­si­tion from nbuty­lamine, elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty and elec­trode prop­er­ties of glass­es and films of the sim­i­lar composition.

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    Vurasko A.V., Simono­va I.E., Minako­va A.R. Sorp­tion mate­ri­als on the basis of tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from straw and rice husk. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 139–154 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.139–154

    Anno­ta­tion

    Cel­lu­lose from the fruit shells of cere­als has a high sorp­tion capac­i­ty. How­ev­er, rel­a­tive­ly short fibers make it dif­fi­cult to obtain durable paper mate­r­i­al. At the same time, straw cel­lu­lose, on the con­trary, has a rel­a­tive­ly long fiber length and accept­able sorp­tion prop­er­ties. For the devel­op­ment of effec­tive cel­lu­lose sor­bents of inter­est is a com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al of cel­lu­lose husks and cel­lu­lose straw. The aim of the work is to obtain sorp­tion mate­ri­als on the basis of tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from straw and rice husks obtained by oxi­da­tion-organo­sol­vent method with pre-alka­line treat­ment of veg­etable raw mate­ri­als. In the course of work, tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from straw and rice husks with ash con­tent of 0.05% of com­plete­ly dry cel­lu­lose was obtained. Upon receipt of the sorp­tion mate­r­i­al, cel­lu­lose from rice straw is used as a base cel­lu­lose, and cel­lu­lose from rice husk as cel­lu­lose is an adsor­bent. With a con­stant con­tent of cel­lu­lose base in the com­po­si­tion, regard­less of its degree of grind­ing, cap­il­lary absorben­cy varies with­in the mea­sure­ment error. With a con­stant con­tent of cel­lu­lose-base in the com­po­si­tion and the addi­tion of cel­lu­lose-adsor­bent with an increas­ing degree of grind­ing cap­il­lary absorben­cy decreas­es slight­ly (1…2,5 mm). The sorp­tion capac­i­ty of iodine depends on the degree of grind­ing, as cel­lu­lose-adsor­bent, and the degree of grind­ing of cel­lu­lose-base. With increas­ing degree of grind­ing sorp­tion capac­i­ty of iodine increas­es. Adsorp­tion capac­i­ty of meth­yl­ene blue at a con­stant con­tent of cel­lu­lose-base 50 % in the com­po­si­tion and the addi­tion of cel­lu­losead­sor­bent with an increas­ing degree of grind­ing (35, 39, 43.5, 47.5 0SHR) increas­es. It was found that the quan­ti­ta­tive eval­u­a­tion of the com­po­si­tion effi­cien­cy con­firmed the pres­ence of syn­er­gism effect, which is typ­i­cal for the adsorp­tion capac­i­ty of meth­yl­ene blue and increas­es with increas­ing the degree of cel­lu­lose-adsor­bent grind­ing from 1.07 to 1.12, tak­ing into account the exper­i­men­tal error.

    Key­words: cel­lu­lose, sorp­tion mate­ri­als, oxida­tive-organo­sol­vent cook­ing, husks, straw, non-wood raw materials

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    Viunkov S.N. The effect of urea on the cur­ing of urea formalde­hyde resins. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 155–161 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.155–161

    Anno­ta­tion

    Cur­ing of urea-formalde­hyde resins with dif­fer­ent molar ratio in the sys­tem urea : formalde­hyde flows through dif­fer­ent mech­a­nisms. Thus, at a molar ratio of urea : formalde­hyde 1 : 2, the cur­ing process is direct­ed towards the for­ma­tion of inter­mol­e­c­u­lar bonds – meth­yl­ene and meth­yl­ene-ether, as evi­denced by a decrease in the con­tent of hydroksimethyl groups. The intro­duc­tion of urea into the resin to the molar ratio urea : formalde­hyde 1 : 1.65 leads to the destruc­tion of meth­yl­ene-ether bonds under the action of amide groups of urea, the for­ma­tion of meth­yl­ene bridges in their place, the for­ma­tion of monomer prod­ucts, which include urea and its hydroskimethyl derivatives.

    Key­words: urea-formalde­hyde resin, urea, formalde­hyde, hydrox­ymethyl group, cur­ing, meth­yl­ene bond, meth­yl­ene-ether bond

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    Kovernin­skiy I.N., Prokopenko K.D., Duboviy V.K., Krinitsin N.A., Suslov G.A. The study of the frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of bleached chem­i­cal ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal pulp and com­po­si­tions with waste-cel­lu­lose fiber. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 162–170 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.162–170

    Anno­ta­tion

    In this paper, the study of the frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion and physi­co-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of bleached chem­i­cal-ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal pulp (BCTMM) from poplar wood and the effect on the mechan­ic prop­er­ties of paper from com­pos­ites with recy­cled fiber from MS-5B paper was con­duct­ed. The nov­el­ty and fea­ture of BCTMM is its pro­duc­tion using extru­sion tech­nol­o­gy, which is fun­da­men­tal­ly dif­fer­ent from the clas­si­cal oper­a­tions of pre­treat­ment of wood in the form of chips and turn­ing it into a fiber-like scutch for sub­se­quent grind­ing steps. The stud­ied BCTMM from wood of poplar with a degree of grind­ing not low­er than 40 оSR has phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties com­pa­ra­ble to the sec­ondary fiber of MS-5B waste paper. Its addi­tives to the fibrous com­po­si­tion of paper for cor­ru­ga­tion and card­board-lin­er for flat lay­ers of cor­ru­gat­ed card­board are expe­di­ent in the range of 30–50%. Unbleached CTMM obtained by extru­sion tech­nol­o­gy, as a pri­ma­ry high-qual­i­ty cel­lu­losic fiber semi­fin­ished prod­uct can be effec­tive­ly used in the man­u­fac­ture of cor­ru­gat­ed pack­ag­ing. Extru­sive tech­nol­o­gy is promis­ing for the pro­cess­ing of illiq­uid wood and waste of tim­ber indus­try enter­pris­es and is rec­om­mend­ed for use in Russia.

    Key­words: chem­i­cal ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal pulp, recy­cled fiber, waste-cel­lu­lose fiber, frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion, cor­ru­gat­ed paper, card­board-lin­er, physi­co-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, extru­sive tech­nol­o­gy, extrud­er, fiber-like scotch

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    Laty­she­vich I.A., Hapanko­va A.I., Klyuev A.Yu., Kozlov N.G., Bara­novsky A.V., Bezyazy­ch­naya T.V. Struc­ture of the main com­po­nents of mod­i­fied ter­penoid-male­ic adducts. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 171–184 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.171–184

    Anno­ta­tion

    A method for the syn­the­sis of reac­tion prod­ucts of the main com­po­nents of ter­penoid-male­ic adducts with zinc acetate is pre­sent­ed. Based on the obtained NMR spec­troscopy data, it can be stat­ed that chem­i­cal trans­for­ma­tion as a result of the inter­ac­tion of male­opi­mar­ic acid with the mod­i­fi­er is observed at C‑18, and the anhy­dride ring is not affect­ed. IR and atom­ic emis­sion spec­troscopy, ele­men­tal analy­sis and com­put­er sim­u­la­tion by quan­tum chem­istry con­firm the struc­ture of the syn­the­sized prod­uct. Com­par­i­son of chem­i­cal shifts in the 13C-NMR spec­tra of male­opi­mar­ic acid and the salt shows that sig­nif­i­cant changes are observed for the car­bon nuclei C‑3, C‑5, C‑18 and C‑19. The great­est dif­fer­ence in the chem­i­cal shift is observed for the C‑18 nucle­us, and this sig­nal is strong­ly broad­ened. For the remain­ing nuclei, Δδ is less than 0,3 ppm. In the NMR spec­trum of the 1H prod­uct, the sig­nals are broad­ened, a fine struc­ture is not observed, and the dif­fer­ence in chem­i­cal shifts is insignif­i­cant in com­par­i­son with the male­opi­mar­ic acid and for most pro­tons is with­in the mea­sure­ment error (0,02 ppm). The great­est changes were record­ed for pro­tons at C‑24, which is some­what unex­pect­ed and requires fur­ther study. Because of the con­sid­er­able broad­en­ing of the lines in the NMR spec­trum of the 1H prod­uct, the spec­tral data of the COSY and HMBC exper­i­ments turned out to be poor­ly infor­ma­tive and the assign­ment of some sig­nals was per­formed by com­par­i­son with the data obtained from the analy­sis of the spec­tra of the male­opi­mar­ic acid. To con­firm the estab­lished struc­ture, ele­men­tal analy­sis was car­ried out, %: С – 66,63; H – 7,19; О – 18,38; Zn – 7,8. The pres­ence of zinc was proved by atom­ic-emis­sion spec­trom­e­try with induc­tive­ly cou­pled plas­ma. In the IR spec­trum of the syn­the­sized prod­uct, absorp­tion bands char­ac­ter­is­tic of the –C=О groups are found: 1697 and 1558 cm–1. This led to the con­clu­sion that the reac­tion pro­ceeds along the car­boxyl group at C‑18. It fol­lows from the cal­cu­la­tions that the zinc atom is local­ized in a cer­tain «mid­dle» state between the four oxy­gen atoms at C‑18 and C‑18′ atoms, while the Zn–O dis­tances agree with the val­ue of the sum of the ion­ic zinc and oxy­gen radii – 2,06Å. In this case, the cal­cu­lat­ed val­ues of the mag­ni­tudes of the bond orders, char­ac­ter­iz­ing the strength of each bond, indi­cate that the zinc atom is equal­ly con­nect­ed with all the oxy­gen in this struc­ture. It was found that, under giv­en con­di­tions, the α‑terpenene adduct does not react with zinc acetate.

    Key­words: rosin, tur­pen­tine, ter­penoid-male­ic adducts, ter­peno­male­ic adduct, ros­in­male­ic adduct, rоs­in­ter­pen­male­ic adduct, male­opi­mar­ic acid, α‑terpenene adduct, tran­si­tion met­al acetate, modifier

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    Arsenye­va D.Yu., Kaza­kov Ya.V., Okulo­va E.O. Fea­tures of obtain­ing cel­lu­lose from flax straw by per­ox­ide acetate method of cook­ing. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 185–196 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.185–196

    Anno­ta­tion

    The paper dis­cuss­es the prop­er­ties of cel­lu­lose obtained from flax fires – waste flax pro­duc­tion, by using per­ox­ide-acetate method. The influ­ence of the con­cen­tra­tion of the main reagent on the results of cook­ing was stud­ied. Flax fire with a cel­lu­lose con­tent of 38.5%, lignin con­tent 15%, ash con­tent of 4.1% was cooked under lab­o­ra­to­ry con­di­tions at a liquor ratio of 7.5 : 1, 6.25 : 1, 5.0 : 1. The per­acetic acid (NAA) with a con­cen­tra­tion of 15% was used for cook­ing. Cook­ing con­di­tions were reg­u­lat­ed by chang­ing the total vol­ume of the cook­ing solu­tion by the ratio of NAA : water 1 : 0 and 2 : 1. In the obtained sam­ples, chem­i­cal, struc­tur­al-mor­pho­log­i­cal and hygro­scop­ic prop­er­ties were deter­mined by stan­dard meth­ods. It has been estab­lished that the use of the per­ox­ide-acetate pulp­ing method from flax fires makes it pos­si­ble to obtain a semi­fin­ished prod­uct in one step with a yield of 52%, white­ness up to 78%, ash con­tent of 0.6% and a kap­pa num­ber of 2–3 units. Dilu­tion of the cook­ing solu­tion in the ratio of NAA : water 2 : 1 results in a prod­uct with a reduced yield of 34%, a white­ness of 75% and an increased ash con­tent of 1.5%. Reduc­ing the liquor mod­ule to 6.25 : 1 reduces the con­sump­tion of NAA for cook­ing by 44% and con­tributes to improv­ing the qual­i­ty indi­ca­tors of flax pulp – reduc­ing the lignin con­tent, reduc­ing ash con­tent to 0.8%, main­tain­ing the aver­age fiber length and increas­ing water-hold­ing capacity.

    Key­words: lin­seed cel­lu­lose, per­ox­ide-acetate method, per­acetic acid, flax, waste processing

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    Fedoro­va O.V., Kaza­kov V.G., Sub­boti­na K.O. Absorp­tion of H2S with sodi­um hydrox­ide from the black liq­uid of sul­fate pulp pro­duc­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 197–207 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.197–207

    Anno­ta­tion

    While black liquor from sul­fate pulp process treat­ment with sul­fu­ric acid (for par­tial or full sul­fate lignin pre­cip­i­ta­tion) emis­sion of hydro­sul­fide and oth­er sul­fur con­tain­ing gasses hap­pens. It is reviewed process of the gasses absorp­tion by sodi­um hydrox­ide solu­tion. The process of acid­i­fi­ca­tion of black liquor with sul­fu­ric acid is accom­pa­nied by the release of hydro­gen sul­fide, which must under­go absorp­tion. Indus­tri­al meth­ods for pro­duc­ing sul­phate lignin involve the use of hydro­gen sul­fide absorp­tion by aque­ous solu­tions of sodi­um hydrox­ide. Alka­li solu­tions or water are used as absorbents for absorp­tion of sul­fur-con­tain­ing gas­es, depend­ing on the com­po­si­tion of hydro­gen sul­fide gas­es and the fur­ther use of absorp­tion prod­ucts. Aque­ous solu­tions of sodi­um hydrox­ide are used for absorp­tion in cas­es where sig­nif­i­cant vol­umes of gas­es con­tain­ing pre­dom­i­nant­ly hydro­gen sul­fide are processed. In the process of absorp­tion is obtained a solu­tion of sodi­um sul­fide. In the case of acid­i­fi­ca­tion of black liquor with sul­fu­ric acid, hydro­gen sul­fide is sub­ject­ed to absorp­tion, which con­tains oth­er impu­ri­ties. In order for the absorp­tion of hydro­gen sul­fide by sodi­um hydrox­ide to form the final prod­uct of sodi­um sul­fide, it is nec­es­sary to use a cer­tain con­cen­tra­tion of alka­li. To achieve the required results, a sim­plex method was used for the inte­ger matrix, which allows choos­ing the opti­mal para­me­ters for the process of hydro­gen sul­fide absorp­tion by sodi­um hydrox­ide. As a result of the exper­i­ment, a solu­tion of white liquor with high sul­fid­i­ty is obtained. which is a pos­i­tive char­ac­ter­is­tic of the sul­phate pulp boil­ing process, as it reduces the cook­ing time to a cer­tain degree of pen­e­tra­tion, facil­i­tates the delig­ni­fi­ca­tion process, and also increas­es the cel­lu­lose yield. This allows reduc­ing the con­sump­tion of reagents in the prepa­ra­tion of white liquor fed to the cook­ing chips. Accord­ing to the pro­posed method, the pre­cip­i­ta­tion of the black liquor lig­no­hy­dro­car­bon com­plex is car­ried out with­out the use of soda recov­ery boil­ers, where the process of obtain­ing white liquor is asso­ci­at­ed with obtain­ing alka­line water and sub­se­quent pro­duc­tion of green liquor from it, with fur­ther regen­er­a­tion of white liquor used for cook­ing sul­phate pulp. As a result of the exper­i­ment, the prin­ci­pal pos­si­bil­i­ty of hydro­gen sul­fide absorp­tion by a hydrox­ide solu­tion was estab­lished with the ful­fill­ment of the require­ments for white liquor.

    Key­words: hydro­gen sul­fide absorp­tion, alka­line solu­tions, black liquor, sul­phate pulp

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    Shkol’nikov E.V. Kinet­ics of sital­liza­tion of semi­con­duct­ing AsSe1.5Snx (x = 0,13, 0,20) glass­es. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 208–221 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.208–221

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the arti­cle [Shkol­nikov, 2014], struc­tur­al-chem­i­cal fea­tures of AsSe1.5Snx semi­con­duct­ing glass­es, prone to sital­liza­tion (uni­form bulk crys­tal­liza­tion), were inves­ti­gat­ed. Glass­es with 5 and 7.4 at. % Sn (x = 0.13 and 0.20) were syn­the­sized by vac­u­um melt­ing, usu­al­ly from extreme­ly pure ele­men­tal sub­stances at var­i­ous tem­per­a­tures in the range of 700–950 C fol­lowed by quench­ing ampoules with melts in air. The kinet­ics of step­wise trans­for­ma­tions dur­ing bulk isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of AsSe1.5Snx glass­es has been stud­ied in the tem­per­a­ture range of 210−310 °С using 119Sn Mȍss­bauer spec­troscopy, x‑ray phase analy­sis, and the den­si­ty and micro­hard­ness mea­sure­ments of the quenched sam­ples. The kinet­ics of the gross bulk crys­tal­liza­tion of glass­es have been ana­lyzed accord­ing to the data on den­si­ty mea­sure­ment using the Kolmogorov–Avrami equa­tion, which was gen­er­al­ized on step­wise and incom­plete isother­mal trans­for­ma­tions. It was found that the first stage of isother­mal sital­liza­tion of glass­es in the low-tem­per­a­ture range of 210–255 С is dom­i­nat­ed by homo­ge­neous nucle­ation and three-dimen­sion­al growth of fine­ly dis­persed SnSe phase crys­tals, which ini­ti­ate het­ero­ge­neous nucle­ation and two-dimen­sion­al growth of crys­tals of the main crys­tal­lo­chem­i­cal­ly sim­i­lar phase of As2Se3 at the sec­ond stage. Recon­struc­tive crys­tal­liza­tion of the inves­ti­gat­ed glass­es is asso­ci­at­ed with a con­tin­u­ous change in the chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion and is described by an inter­val of val­ues of the acti­va­tion ener­gy. At the tem­per­a­tures of 260–310 °C the first step sep­a­rates a mix­ture of SnSe and SnSe2 phas­es with the pre­dom­i­nance of the SnSe phase in the ini­tial stages, and the pre­cip­i­ta­tion of the basic crys­talline phase of As2Se3 is strong­ly retard­ed or not fixed.

    Key­words: step­wise bulk crys­tal­liza­tion of glass­es, sitalls, com­ple­tion degree of crys­tal­liza­tion, kinet­ic para­me­ters of isother­mal gross crys­tal­liza­tion, 119Sn Mȍss­bauer spec­tra, Kolmogorov–Avrami gen­er­al equation

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    4. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

    Zatenko S.I., Tara­ban M.V. Com­par­i­son of mod­i­fied inter­val mod­els using the inho­mo­ge­neous Pois­son process­es with their stan­dard coun­ter­parts. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 222–232 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.222–232

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle pro­vides a com­par­a­tive analy­sis of inter­val gen­er­al­ized Bayesian soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els based on non-uni­form Pois­son process­es with well-known and well-proven clas­si­cal mod­els of Joel–Okumoto and Musa–Okumoto. The new inter­val mod­els com­bine the max­i­mum like­li­hood func­tion prin­ci­ple and the Bayesian approach. To find the mod­el para­me­ters, the set of all para­me­ters is divid­ed into two sub­sets. Using the para­me­ters of the first sub­set and sta­tis­ti­cal data, a gen­er­al­ized Bayesian mod­el is con­struct­ed, with the help of which the bound­aries of the sets of prob­a­bil­i­ty dis­tri­b­u­tion func­tion sets are formed, depend­ing on the para­me­ters of the sec­ond sub­set. Fur­ther, these para­me­ters are cal­cu­lat­ed using the max­i­mum like­li­hood func­tion prin­ci­ple. This approach allows to obtain a qual­i­ta­tive pre­dic­tion of soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty even at the design stage, when sta­tis­ti­cal infor­ma­tion is insuf­fi­cient. The mod­el takes into account the increase in soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty in the process of debug­ging and can be adjust­ed by chang­ing the para­me­ter of cau­tion. The qual­i­ty of the pre­dic­tion of mod­els is ver­i­fied by com­par­ing the pre­dict­ed val­ues with the real val­ues of time to fail­ure in the process of debug­ging soft­ware. To assess the qual­i­ty of the pre­dic­tion of mod­els, the fol­low­ing indi­ca­tors are cal­cu­lat­ed: the max­i­mum devi­a­tion, the aver­age devi­a­tion and the stan­dard devi­a­tion of the pre­dict­ed data from the real val­ues. The aver­age val­ues of the devi­a­tions for the mod­els, cal­cu­lat­ed after pre­dict­ing 17 and 6 val­ues of the num­ber of fail­ures with the cau­tion para­me­ters s = 1 and s = 0,5, are ana­lyzed. From the results of the cal­cu­la­tion, it fol­lows that the qual­i­ty of the pro­posed inter­val mod­i­fi­ca­tions is high­er com­pared to the clas­si­cal mod­els. In addi­tion, it is clear­ly seen that the qual­i­ty of the pro­posed inter­val mod­els is sig­nif­i­cant­ly improved com­pared with con­ven­tion­al mod­els, when the num­ber of tests is small, that is, the amount of sta­tis­ti­cal infor­ma­tion is small. Ana­lyz­ing the qual­i­ty of the fore­cast of inter­val mod­els for dif­fer­ent val­ues of the para­me­ter of cau­tion, one can see that small­er val­ues lead to a high­er qual­i­ty of the fore­cast when there is a large amount of sta­tis­ti­cal data. How­ev­er, the qual­i­ty of the fore­cast falls with a rel­a­tive­ly small num­ber of sta­tis­ti­cal data. The oppo­site con­clu­sion can be made when ana­lyz­ing the case when the para­me­ter of cau­tion increas­es. The results of the analy­sis are pre­sent­ed in the form of graphs. This com­par­a­tive analy­sis showed that new reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els based on the use of inter­val reli­a­bil­i­ty indi­ca­tors allow us to obtain a high­er qual­i­ty pre­dic­tion com­pared to clas­si­cal prob­a­bilis­tic models.

    Key­words: soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty, inter­val Bayesian reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els, pes­simism coef­fi­cient, growth function

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    Zay­ats A.M., Khabarov S.P. Con­struc­tion of neur­al net­work clas­si­fi­ca­tion of Fish­er iris­es based on JavaSCript. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 233–247 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.233–247

    Anno­ta­tion

    The pro­ce­dure for select­ing the struc­ture and para­me­ters of the neur­al net­work for the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of a data set known as Iris Fish­er, which includes data on 150 plant spec­i­mens of three dif­fer­ent species, is con­sid­ered. An approach to solv­ing this prob­lem with­out using addi­tion­al soft­ware and pow­er­ful neur­al net­work pack­ages using only the tools of the stan­dard OS brows­er is pro­posed. This required the imple­men­ta­tion of a num­ber of JavaScript pro­ce­dures with their load­ing into the devel­oped HTML inter­face page. The study of a large num­ber of dif­fer­ent struc­tures of mul­ti­lay­er neur­al net­works, trained on the basis of the back-prop­a­ga­tion error algo­rithm, made it pos­si­ble to choose the struc­ture of a neur­al net­work with only one hid­den lay­er of three neu­rons for a test dataset. This great­ly sim­pli­fies the imple­men­ta­tion of the Fish­er Iris clas­si­fi­er, allow­ing it to be for­mat­ted as an HTML page down­loaded from the server..

    Key­words: neur­al net­works, clas­si­fi­ca­tion, expert sys­tems, web technology

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    2018:
    1. FORESTRY

    Kovyazin V.F., Demi­dov P.M., Nguyen Thi Thuy. The estab­lish­ment of square ele­ments of gar­den land­scapes using GIS-tech­nolo­gies. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 6–16 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.6–16

    Anno­ta­tion

    Land­scape gar­dens and parks are part of the urban forests of St. Peters­burg. They per­form envi­ron­men­tal func­tions, are the basis of urban plan­ning and need cadas­tral reg­is­tra­tion. To account for pub­lic green spaces need a car­to­graph­ic and seman­tic data­base of ele­ments of land­scape gar­den­ing. When devel­op­ing the cadas­tre of veg­e­ta­tion, it is nec­es­sary to take into account all the objects of the city, tak­ing into account each ele­ment of land­scap­ing: the total area, the area of trees, shrubs, lawns, flower beds and oth­er real estate at the research object. A holis­tic view of the land­scape of gar­dens and parks can give a car­to­graph­ic image and the use of mod­ern geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tems (GIS). The results of sur­veys of green spaces are nec­es­sary for the pur­pos­es of com­pe­tent man­age­ment of plant resources of St. Petersburg.

    Key­words: land­scape gar­den­ing, land­scap­ing ele­ment, area, geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tem (GIS tech­nol­o­gy), dig­i­tal map.

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    Tetyukhin S.V., Shu­bi­na M.A., Pavskaya M.V. Elec­tron­ic maps as a tool to ana­lyze spa­tial-tem­po­ral dynam­ics of for­est fund lands Lisin­skaya part of the teaching­ex­per­i­men­tal for­est in Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 17–27 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.17–27

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the pos­si­bil­i­ty of using dif­fer­ent mul­ti-tem­po­ral e‑cartographic mate­r­i­al in sci­en­tif­ic and indus­tri­al activ­i­ties of Edu­ca­tion­al-exper­i­men­tal forestry of the Leningrad region. It is estab­lished that due to pos­si­bil­i­ty to com­bine and simul­ta­ne­ous­ly ana­lyze in the diverse com­bi­na­tion of remote sens­ing data and var­i­ous mul­ti-tem­po­ral elec­tron­ic the­mat­ic maps (geo­graph­i­cal, geo­log­i­cal, soil, geob­otan­i­cal, for­est plan­ta­tion plans, etc.) we can talk about the new use of the car­to­graph­ic method. These mate­ri­als clear­ly show that the study of for­est ecosys­tems built on the wide­spread use of mul­ti-tem­po­ral e‑cards allows much more effec­tive than con­ven­tion­al meth­ods, to solve many sci­en­tif­ic and pro­duc­tion problems.

    Key­words: elec­tron­ic car­to­graph­ic mate­ri­als, for­est lands, remote sens­ing data

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    Usolt­sev V.А., Tse­pordey I.S., Osmirko А.А., Kovyazin V.F., Chasovskikh V.P., Аzarenok V.А., Аzarenok М.V., Kuz’min N.I. Mod­el­ing of the addi­tive bio­mass struc­ture of Pinus L. stands in cli­mat­ic gra­di­ents of Eura­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 28–46 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.28–46

    Anno­ta­tion

    For­est bio­mass is a key ecosys­tem part and an impor­tant com­po­nent of the glob­al car­bon cycle. Mod­el­ling of bio­mass, sen­si­tive to cli­mate change, is ful­filed up-to-date at lev­els as for­est stands and sam­ple trees. How­ev­er, all cur­rent stud­ies of this mat­ter are car­ried out with­in lim­it­ed ecore­gions. The data­base on for­est bio­mass of the sub­genus Pinus L. in Eura­sia in a num­ber of 2460 sam­ple plots com­piled by the authors is the basis for reveal­ing transcon­ti­nen­tal reg­u­lar­i­ties. The first attempt is made to devel­op a bio­mass struc­ture mod­el har­mo­nized by means of addi­tive com­po­nent com­po­si­tion algo­rithm describ­ing bio­mass change in trans-Eurasian hydrother­mal gra­di­ents, name­ly, mean annu­al pre­cip­i­ta­tion and mean Jan­u­ary air tem­per­a­ture. Addi­tiv­i­ty of bio­mass com­po­nent com­po­si­tion means that the total of bio­mass com­po­nents (stems, branch­es, foliage, roots) derived from com­po­nent equa­tions is equal to the result obtained using the com­mon bio­mass equa­tion. It is stat­ed that in cold cli­mat­ic zones any increase in pre­cip­i­ta­tion leads to cor­re­spond­ing decrease in the bio­mass val­ues, but in warm zones – to its increase. In wet areas, the rise in tem­per­a­ture caus­es an increase of bio­mass val­ues, but in arid areas – their reduc­tions. Geo­met­ric view of this mod­el rep­re­sent­ed by a «pro­peller-shaped» sur­face is con­sis­tent with the results, for­mer­ly revealed by the oth­er authors in Rus­sia on local and region­al lev­els. The pro­posed transcon­ti­nen­tal mod­el of addi­tive struc­ture of for­est bio­mass gives a pos­si­bil­i­ty to pre­dict the change of bio­mass struc­ture in rela­tion to simul­ta­ne­ous increase or decrease of Jan­u­ary tem­per­a­ture and annu­al pre­cip­i­ta­tion. The devel­op­ment of such mod­els for basic for­est-form­ing species grown in Eura­sia enables to fore­cast any changes in the bio­log­i­cal pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of for­est cov­er of Eura­sia in rela­tion to cli­mate change.

    Key­words: two-nee­dled pines of Eura­sia, for­est bio­mass, addi­tive bio­mass mod­el, mean Jan­u­ary air tem­per­a­ture, mean annu­al precipitation.

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    Kho­dachek O.A., Popovichev B.G. Addi­tion­al nutri­tion of pine-eels in plant­i­ng with high recre­ation­al load in the Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 47–57 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.47–57

    Anno­ta­tion

    A study was made of the dynam­ics of the state of the pine stand of an ordi­nary pine tree grow­ing in the vil­lage of Lem­bolo­vo in the Leningrad Region over a 4‑year peri­od: an esti­mate of the phy­tosan­i­tary state of trees with an aver­age stand­point over the years, the cal­cu­la­tion of dead trees, and the main fac­tors of weak­en­ing of the stand. It was estab­lished that trees with attempts to col­o­nize the pest were in most cas­es exposed to neg­a­tive anthro­pogenic effects. The method of count­ing the num­ber of pine lubo-food by the inten­si­ty of its sup­ple­men­tary feed­ing has been tested.In the course of field stud­ies it was revealed that the num­ber of shoots dam­aged by pests and their total mass per unit area of the sur­veyed area may dif­fer depend­ing on the size of the reg­is­tra­tion areas where the fall­en shoots were recorded.Based on the results of the sta­tis­ti­cal pro­cess­ing of the exper­i­men­tal data, infor­ma­tion is giv­en on the num­ber and size of the reg­is­tra­tion areas required, depend­ing on the accu­ra­cy of the exper­i­ment, and rec­om­men­da­tions are giv­en for choos­ing the opti­mal account­ing option.The prob­lem of win­ter­ing of the young gen­er­a­tion of bee­tles is considered.An approx­i­mate cal­cu­la­tion is made of the pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of the win­ter­ing stock of a pine bee­tle with the deter­mi­na­tion of the loss of green nee­dles by trees with addi­tion­al nutri­tion of the pest. An analy­sis is made of the data on the num­ber and weight of dam­aged shoots on a per­ma­nent tri­al plot obtained in dif­fer­ent years.As a result of the research it was found that the num­ber of pine bee­tle in the lab­o­ra­to­ry is sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent, but in all cas­es it does not exceed the thresh­old of dam­age (up to 5 thou­sand pieces per hectare), hence the pest does not sig­nif­i­cant­ly influ­ence the state of the exam­ined stand.

    Key­words: scots pine, atten­u­a­tion fac­tors, pine-eel, pop­u­la­tion account­ing, sup­ple­men­tary nutrition.

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    Mel’nik M.A., Volko­va E.S., Bisiro­va E.M., Kriv­ets S.A. Assess­ment of the eco­log­i­cal and eco­nom­ic dam­age to for­est use caused by the inva­sion of the four-eyed bark bee­tle into dark conif­er­ous ecosys­tems in Siberia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 58–75 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.58–75

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents a method­olog­i­cal toolk­it for assess­ing the eco­log­i­cal and eco­nom­ic dam­age to for­est use from the death and degra­da­tion of fir forests as a result of the inva­sion of the Far East­ern bark bee­tle Poly­gra­pus prox­imus in Siberia. Tak­ing into account exist­ing domes­tic and for­eign sci­en­tif­ic and method­olog­i­cal approach­es used in the field of forestry to assess dam­age from adverse anthro­pogenic and nat­ur­al fac­tors, a method­ol­o­gy has been devel­oped for cal­cu­lat­ing the inte­grat­ed dam­age from loss of wood, sec­ondary wood resources and of eco­log­i­cal func­tions of the for­est due with activ­i­ty of the invad­er. For­mu­las are pro­posed for cal­cu­lat­ing the direct actu­al and poten­tial dam­age from the loss of wood, fir resin, fir paw and New Year fir, as well as indi­rect dam­age from the dis­tur­bance of the car­bon-deposit­ing, oxy­gen-pro­duc­ing and water pro­tec­tion func­tions of the stands. Appro­ba­tion of the method was car­ried out using mon­i­tor­ing data on 6 test sites in dark conif­er­ous forests in the south of the Tom­sk Oblast. On aver­age for all test sites, the amount of direct loss­es, based on the min­i­mum rates of pay­ment for wood at the root, was about 22 thou­sand rubles / ha, indi­rect dam­age – 25 thou­sand rubles / ha. The amount of dam­age to for­est use in the fir forests in the south of the Tom­sk Oblast, most affect­ed by P. prox­imus, cal­cu­lat­ed accord­ing to the pro­posed method­ol­o­gy, was esti­mat­ed at 92.14 mil­lion rubles, includ­ing direct dam­age of 44 mil­lion rubles, and indi­rect loss­es of 48.14 mil­lion rubles.

    Key­words: inva­sion, four-eyed bark bee­tle, Poly­gra­pus prox­imus, Siber­ian fir forests, direct and indi­rect loss­es, actu­al and poten­tial dam­age, wood resources, eco­log­i­cal func­tions of forest.

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    Polyako­va V.V., Shury­gin S.G. The Influ­ence of the Ring Road on the growth of pine stands in Zher­novsky dis­trict forestry. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 76–89 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.76–89

    Anno­ta­tion

    The ter­ri­to­ry of large cities is increas­ing, larg­er areas of bio­geo­cenoses are used for the con­struc­tion of lin­ear objects (urban infra­struc­ture). This leads to an increase of the load on the ecosys­tems of sur­round­ing areas. The most sig­nif­i­cant lin­ear object of the city of St. Peters­burg is the Ring Road. The con­struc­tion and oper­a­tion of the Ring Road leads to the dis­rup­tion of the links between the com­po­nents of bio­geo­cenoses and to changes in bio­geo­cenoses them­selves. In this paper the influ­ence of the Ring Road of St. Peters­burg on the com­po­nent of bio­geo­ceno­sis – pine stands was stud­ied. The quan­ti­ta­tive indi­ca­tor of pine stands growth is radi­al incre­ment. Para­me­ters of radi­al incre­ment reflect the qual­i­ty of grow­ing con­di­tions. The influ­ence of posi­tion of the Ring Road and cli­mat­ic con­di­tions on the radi­al incre­ments of pine stands was tak­en into account. The cor­re­la­tion analy­sis revealed a sig­nif­i­cant reli­able rela­tion­ship between the radi­al incre­ments of the pine stands of site 3 and the aver­age tem­per­a­ture over the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od by 25%. Also, the cor­re­la­tion analy­sis revealed a sig­nif­i­cant reli­able rela­tion­ship between the radi­al incre­ments of the stands of site 6 and the total amount of pre­cip­i­ta­tion tem­per­a­ture over the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od by 30%. Sin­gle-fac­tor analy­sis of vari­ance showed that the influ­ence of the Ring Road on the growth of pine stands of under­flood­ed sites 5 and 6 is reli­able and is 38 and 30%, respec­tive­ly, of all exter­nal fac­tors affect­ing the growth of stands. The Ring Road was built with the con­struc­tion tech­nol­o­gy infringe­ment. The road embank­ment works as a dam on the way of soil water and ground­wa­ter. The obtained results con­firm the reli­able influ­ence of the Ring Road on the growth of pine stands. The most sig­nif­i­cant devi­a­tion of the incre­ments of stands was on under­flood­ed sites with dis­turbed water and air conditions.

    Key­words: the Ring Road, radi­al incre­ment of for­est stands, pine stands, water regime.

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    Demi­do­va N.A., Durk­i­na T.M., Gogol­e­va L.G., Bykov Y.S., Para­monov A.A. The results of 35-years lodge­pole pine tests in the Euro­pean North of Rus­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 90–105 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.90–105

    Anno­ta­tion

    The aim of the study is to assess the sur­vival, growth and devel­op­ment of lodge­pole pine in com­par­i­son with the Scots pine on the exper­i­men­tal plan­ta­tions on the Euro­pean North of Rus­sia (the Arkhangel­sk and Volog­da regions, and the Komi Repub­lic). The growth analy­sis of lodge­pole pine on the plan­ta­tions in the Arkhangel­sk region in dif­fer­ent grow­ing con­di­tions showed that the lodge­pole pine, over­takes Scots pine in terms of the cur­rent growth: in height  1.2–1.5 times, in diam­e­ter — 1.4–2.0 times; in vol­ume and size of the aver­age growth by vol­ume — 1.2–2.3 times. Sim­i­lar results were obtained in the Repub­lic of Komi. The best in terms of growth and sur­vival in the Volog­da region were trees of more south­ern Cana­di­an ori­gin (55–58° N), which exceed the Scots pine in growth both in diam­e­ter and in height by 1.2 times. We should note that with age, the ten­den­cy of the supe­ri­or­i­ty of lodge­pole pine over Scots pine has remained, but the growth of lodge­pole pine has slowed. The fast growth and inten­sive accu­mu­la­tion of phy­tomass from the first years of life make the lodge­pole pine less resis­tant to wind and snow loads, espe­cial­ly on fer­tile soils and slopes. Accord­ing to the results of long-term cul­ti­va­tion of lodge­pole pine in the Euro­pean North of Rus­sia we did not notice its nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion that does not involve the dan­ger of con­t­a­m­i­na­tion of our forests by alien species. A sig­nif­i­cant peri­od of time (more than 30 years) has passed since the begin­ning of the first lodge­pole pine exper­i­men­tal plant­i­ng, there­fore, one can judge the prospects of its indus­tri­al cul­ti­va­tion in the north-west of Rus­sia. Based on the results of the con­duct­ed stud­ies, it was con­clud­ed that the Arkhangel­sk and Volog­da Regions and Komi Repub­lic are per­spec­tive areas for Pinus con­tor­ta Loud var. lat­i­fo­lia S. Wats. cul­ti­va­tion, that is con­firmed with domes­tic expe­ri­ence of this species cul­ti­va­tion in the regions of North-West of Rus­sia. It supe­ri­ors the native species by pro­duc­tiv­i­ty in this area.

    Key­words: lodge­pole pine, Scots pine, ori­gin, plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al, conif­er­ous plan­ta­tion of exot­ic species, growth speed, inven­to­ry indices.

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    Tikhonov A.S. Cri­te­ri­on for the esti­ma­tion of for­est repro­duc­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 106–119 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.106–119

    Anno­ta­tion

    The for­est code of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion requires the repro­duc­tion of forests – the process of for­est restora­tion with its inher­ent nat­ur­al prop­er­ties. In prac­tice, the cri­te­ri­on should take into account the rel­a­tive com­plete­ness of the first tier in order to avoid exces­sive thin­ning of stands in order to achieve greater par­tic­i­pa­tion of tar­get species. From these posi­tions ana­lyzed stands of spruce, pine and oak after con­tin­u­ous and even­ly-grad­ual felling for sev­er­al decades under the influ­ence of felling care. Found that more objec­tive­ly reflects the qual­i­ty of the resump­tion of the main species, not the scale of state forestry on the den­si­ty of the under­growth, and scale of occur­rence of its on exper­i­men­tal plots mea­sur­ing 10 m². The mag­ni­tude of occur­rence we can pre­dict the equi­ty share prin­ci­ple species formed in the com­po­si­tion of the for­est stand. Effec­tive was even­ly-grad­ual felling in spruce, the com­plete­ness of the first tier was 0.50. Pine resumed suc­cess­ful­ly after clear cut­ting with the salin­i­ty of the soil by cater­pil­lar skid­der in autumn.

    Key­words: for­est sci­ence, forestry, refor­esta­tion, main fellings.

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    Nikitenko E.A. About pos­si­bil­i­ty of a Kore­an pine arti­fi­cial refor­esta­tion in Khasan­skij region of Pri­morskij bound­ary. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 120–130 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.120–130

    Anno­ta­tion

    The aim of the work was to answer the ques­tions: did Kore­an pine (Pinus koraien­sis Siebold et Zucc.) grow in the Hasan dis­trict of Pri­morsky region, and if it grew, where and in what con­di­tions and how to restore it in these con­di­tions. The Hasan dis­trict occu­pies the south­ern­most part of the Pri­morsky region – south of 43° 25’N. In the sec­ond half of the XIXth cen­tu­ry Kore­an pine was found here as a sin­gle exam­ple in the decid­u­ous forests in the upper reach­es of the rivers at an alti­tude of more than 250 m above sea lev­el along steep slopes. The ques­tion of the indige­nous or sec­ondary char­ac­ter of the oak forests of the south of the Pri­morye remains debat­able from the time of the first researchers of the Far East. Fol­low­ing many authors of sci­en­tif­ic works, we believe that the south­ern slopes of south­ern Pri­morye were orig­i­nal­ly occu­pied by oak forests, and plant­i­ng Kore­an pine in xero­phyt­ic con­di­tions would be fruit­less. Exper­i­men­tal plant­i­ng in the Khasan­sky dis­trict was not cre­at­ed, but the pro­duc­tion plant­i­ng for 40 years were cre­at­ed under the canopy of oak trees, includ­ing those that were passed through selec­tive felling. Accord­ing to the for­est inven­to­ry book, since 1975, under the canopy of oak trees, 1877 hectares of pure and mixed Pinus koraien­sis Siebold et Zucc. with Abies holophilla Max­im. or Abies nephrolepis (Trautv.) Max­im. were plant­ed. The old­est pre­served plant­i­ng in the south­ern part of the Khasan­sky dis­trict were plant­ed in 1979. Plant­i­ng are under the canopy of a 55-year old oak for­est with an addi­tive of lin­den and ash; den­si­ty of 0.6. The aver­age height of the plant­i­ng is about 4 m, how­ev­er, part of the Kore­an pine trees came out in the first lay­er and has a height of 10–12 m. In addi­tion, plant­i­ng are large­ly affect­ed by wild boars. Cre­ation of Kore­an pine plant­i­ng can be rec­om­mend­ed under the canopy of oak forests with the den­si­ty of the stock­ing not exceed­ing 0.6, after recon­struc­tive felling in decid­u­ous forests, as well as on non-forest­ed areas in sub­area 3a of the facies of south­ern oak forests of the Khasan­sky district.

    Key­words: kore­an pine, sub­or­di­nate plant­i­ngs, oak forest.

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    2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

    Skryp­nikov A.V., Chernysho­va E.V., Sam­cov V.V., Abasov M.A. Meth­ods of non-lin­ear pro­gram­ming used in the design of the route. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 131–143 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.131–143

    Anno­ta­tion

    The paper con­sid­ers the gen­er­al tech­nol­o­gy for design­ing a for­est road route in space and the ratio­nale for choos­ing the most effec­tive method for spe­cif­ic con­di­tions. In the method of approx­i­ma­tion of a sequence of points, a dia­log mode, that is, a mode of oper­a­tive com­mu­ni­ca­tion between a design­er and a com­put­er in the process of solv­ing a prob­lem, is wide­ly used. In order to save com­put­er time, the cal­cu­la­tion of the route is car­ried out seg­ment­ed. The bound­aries of the seg­ments are assigned pro­gram­mat­i­cal­ly tak­ing into account the rec­om­men­da­tions received exper­i­men­tal­ly. Some­times they need to be adjust­ed, for exam­ple, if the seg­ment over­lap zone is insuf­fi­cient for sat­is­fac­to­ry con­ju­ga­tion of adja­cent sec­tions of the route. In these cas­es, use the inter­ac­tive func­tion with code 1. Under this direc­tive, the trace ele­ment num­ber at the begin­ning of the seg­ment and the num­ber of the last point of the sketch line on the seg­ment are dis­played on the dis­play screen. Both char­ac­ter­is­tics can be adjust­ed. The sys­tem pro­vides sev­er­al ways to obtain infor­ma­tion about a sketch line, the vol­ume of which is quite large (up to 2000 sixdig­it num­bers). Although auto­mat­ic data log­gers are usu­al­ly used to obtain it, the pos­si­bil­i­ty of errors is not ruled out. There­fore, the authors imple­ment­ed soft­ware con­trol of infor­ma­tion, which allows to detect gross errors by ana­lyz­ing the angles between adja­cent seg­ments of the sketch line. Since the meth­ods of steep­est and coor­di­nate-wise descent allow us to deter­mine only the local min­i­mum, it is nec­es­sary to ensure the con­struc­tion of the ini­tial approx­i­ma­tion locat­ed in the grav­i­ta­tion­al zone to the glob­al min­i­mum. The obtained results of exper­i­men­tal stud­ies indi­cate a suf­fi­cient­ly high reli­a­bil­i­ty of the meth­ods of form­ing the ini­tial approx­i­ma­tion, and a sat­is­fac­to­ry speed of the methods.

    Key­words: design, for­est roads, method of sequence of points.

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    Salmi­nen E.О., Boroz­na A.A., Pushkov D.V., Cher­vo­nenko Yu.A., Kobyl­skov I.P. Increase of reli­a­bil­i­ty, dura­bil­i­ty and reduc­tion of pow­er con­sump­tion of forestry machin­ery. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 144–154 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.144–154

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents the tech­nique and tech­nol­o­gy of main­te­nance of forestry machin­ery and equip­ment, which ensures the increase of reli­a­bil­i­ty, dura­bil­i­ty and reduc­tion of ener­gy inten­si­ty in the process of exploita­tion due to the use of repair and recov­ery mix­tures based on ser­pen­tine min­er­als. What is espe­cial­ly impor­tant, repair and restora­tion work is car­ried out with­out dis­as­sem­bly of machin­ery and with­out stop­ping the pro­duc­tion process. In the train­ing and research lab­o­ra­to­ry of the St. Peters­burg State Forestry Uni­ver­si­ty, an exper­i­ment was car­ried out using RVS tech­nol­o­gy to restore the old worn out engine ZIL-130 of the 1969 issue. The sci­en­tif­ic exper­i­ment was car­ried out on a exper­i­men­tal device, which con­sists of a rolling-brake stand KO-2204 and a ZIL-130 engine. Dur­ing the oper­a­tion of the mech­a­nism, a reac­tion occurs under the influ­ence of high tem­per­a­ture and pres­sure between the RVS par­ti­cles and the phas­es of the met­al, as a result of which a stronger lay­er with improved tri­bo­log­i­cal prop­er­ties is formed at the bound­ary. As a result of the research it was found that the com­pres­sion in the cylin­ders of a worn-out engine was restored to the spec­i­fi­ca­tions pro­vid­ed for the new engine, and the fuel econ­o­my was at a vary­ing load of 7 to 15%. The use of RVS tech­nol­o­gy in the forestry com­plex allows to extend the ser­vice life of exist­ing equip­ment and machines, sav­ing fuel, which is espe­cial­ly impor­tant in case of a dif­fi­cult eco­nom­ic sit­u­a­tion, to allo­cate freed funds for the restora­tion of domes­tic forestry machin­ery, to aban­don the cap­i­tal repair sys­tem, extend­ing the life cycle of machines and equipment.

    Key­words: life cycle, reli­a­bil­i­ty, dura­bil­i­ty, geo­mod­i­fiers, ser­pen­ti­nite, RVStechnologies.

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    Kudryavt­sev G.V., Posy­panov S.V. Inves­ti­ga­tion find­ings of accel­er­a­tion of rigid float­ing con­tain­ers. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 155–167 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.155–167

    Anno­ta­tion

    Eco­nom­ic acces­si­bil­i­ty of a sig­nif­i­cant part of for­est resources in the main for­est regions of the coun­try can be pro­vid­ed only by using a dense net­work of rivers, con­sist­ing main­ly of medi­um and small rivers. Ship­ments can play sig­nif­i­cant role in this. Typ­i­cal­ly, the barges are used for the trans­port of tim­ber along inland water­ways, because of their large size are not applic­a­ble at the small rivers and at medi­um sized rivers dur­ing peri­ods of low water lev­el. On these rivers pro­posed to use barge train, which dimen­sions are deter­mined by the giv­en riv­er con­di­tions. Their dimen­sions are deter­mined by the num­ber of con­tain­ers or barge mod­ule (BM) installed in the barge train. Engi­neer­ing val­u­a­tions of a BM and barge train are based on infor­ma­tion con­cern­ing water resis­tance to motion of a body. The goal of the work: deriva­tion of infor­ma­tion for deter­min­ing the para­me­ters motion dur­ing accel­er­a­tion of the BM. The method of inves­ti­ga­tion: exper­i­men­tal-the­o­ret­i­cal. In the course of the­o­ret­i­cal stud­ies deter­mi­na­tion the fac­tors that influ­ence the process of accel­er­a­tion of a BM in water and deter­mine the val­ue inter­val coef­fi­cient of imag­i­nary mass incre­ment (CIMI). Exper­i­men­tal stud­ies were car­ried out on mod­el accord­ing to the quadric plan. The regres­sion mod­el of the inter­val coef­fi­cient of imag­i­nary mass incre­ment (CIMI) of a BM dur­ing its accel­er­a­tion were worked out. Cog­ni­tion of the coef­fi­cient allows to deter­mine the para­me­ters motion of a BM in the men­tioned con­di­tions. As a result of the analy­sis of the mod­el, it was estab­lished that the inter­val coef­fi­cient of imag­i­nary mass incre­ment (CIMI) Ф lin­ear­ly increas­es with increas­ing Froude num­ber Fr. The inten­si­ty of this increase becomes larg­er with increas­ing draught of BM, that is, with a decrease in its rel­a­tive width. The increase of rel­a­tive length of the BM caus­es decrease of the coef­fi­cient Φ. It also decreas­es with increas­ing degree of com­plete­ness process of accel­er­a­tion. The influ­ence degree and pat­tern of the deter­min­ing fac­tors depend sig­nif­i­cant­ly on their inter­ac­tion. To esti­mate this influ­ence it is pos­si­ble to per­form cal­cu­la­tions cor­re­spond­ing to a cer­tain com­bi­na­tion of factors.

    Key­words: float­ing con­tain­er, barge mod­ule, exper­i­men­tal research, non­sta­tion­ary motion, water resis­tance, speed, tim­ber trans­port, coefficient.

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    Alek­san­drov V.A., Alek­san­drov A.V., Gasy­mov G.Sh. Stress­es of feller bunch­er on thin­nings dur­ing tech­no­log­i­cal moves. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 168–175 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.168–175

    Anno­ta­tion

    A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of a dynam­ic sys­tem has been devel­oped: «The feller bunch­er – sub­ject of labor – the tree». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is made up in the form of the Lagrange equa­tion of the 2nd kind. The sys­tem of equa­tions is solved by the Runge–Kutta method, using the Math­CAD pro­gram­ming envi­ron­ment. Appro­ba­tion of the mod­el is car­ried out on the exam­ple of the com­mer­cial­ly avail­able LP-19A feller bunch­er machines in accel­er­a­tion and stop­ping modes. Con­clud­ed that the dynam­ic load on the process equip­ment dur­ing tech­no­log­i­cal moves is com­pa­ra­ble to the load dur­ing the pro­cess­ing (pack­ag­ing) of the tree.

    Key­words: feller bunch­er, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, dynam­ic load.

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    Bazarov S.M., Belenkiy Yu.I., Bacherikov I.V., Ilyushenko D.A., Bazaro­va M.V., Nguen Phuc Sue. Solu­tion mod­el of nat­ur­al growth for­est stands. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 176–187 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.176–187

    Anno­ta­tion

    The prob­lem of sus­tain­able for­est man­age­ment should be based on knowl­edge of the laws of the dynam­ic state of the for­est, as a man­i­fes­ta­tion of the Gen­er­al pat­tern of the phase devel­op­ment of nat­ur­al space-time struc­tures (begin­ning, struc­tur­ing, asymp­tot­ic state, destruc­tura­tion). Lin­ear and non­lin­ear equa­tions of vibra­tions (waves) describ­ing the phase dynam­ics of var­i­ous phe­nom­e­na reveal the uni­ty of nat­ur­al phe­nom­e­na and their uni­ver­sal­i­ty (mechan­i­cal, elec­tro­mag­net­ic, chem­i­cal, bio­log­i­cal, eco­nom­ic, etc.). Non­lin­ear­i­ty is an inher­ent prop­er­ty of any sys­tem evolv­ing over time. A spe­cial place in the the­o­ry of non­lin­ear oscil­la­tions is occu­pied by soli­tons. Soli­tons are sta­ble phase dynam­ic struc­tures, which are obtained by solv­ing non­lin­ear equa­tions of oscil­la­tions (and waves). Accord­ing to mod­ern con­cepts, soli­tons play an impor­tant role in the evo­lu­tion of nature, so a pos­si­ble analy­sis of the nat­ur­al growth of for­est stands from the per­spec­tive of the the­o­ry of non­lin­ear oscil­la­tions will show their com­mon­al­i­ty with a vari­ety of nat­ur­al phe­nom­e­na. It is known that the growth of plan­ta­tions, as a dynam­ic process, cor­re­spond to three main points: there is a begin­ning, devel­op­ment and asymp­tot­ic val­ue of the inven­to­ry para­me­ters (diam­e­ter, height, bio­mass). These are the prop­er­ties of soli­tons, they have a begin­ning, phase devel­op­ment and asymp­tot­ic state in time. The soli­tons result­ing from the solu­tion of non­lin­ear equa­tions of oscil­la­tions, enough to accu­rate­ly sum­ma­rize the avail­able exper­i­men­tal for­est (diam­e­ter, height, bio­mass) and reveal the dynam­ics of phase growth of for­est trees. The con­struct­ed soli­ton mod­el of the phase rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the growth dynam­ics of for­est stands fits it into the Gen­er­al log­i­cal pic­ture of the for­ma­tion of nat­ur­al struc­tures and can become an ele­ment of the foun­da­tions of the prin­ci­ple of har­mo­ny in the man­age­ment of for­est resources.

    Key­words: phase, time, sta­bil­i­ty, asymp­tot­ic, structure.

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    3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

    Shara­pov E.S., Smirno­va E.V., Toropov A.S. Com­par­a­tive analy­sis of drilling tools for wood prop­er­ties eval­u­a­tion by the drilling resis­tance mea­sure­ments. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 188–201 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.188–201

    Anno­ta­tion

    The use of dif­fer­ent para­me­ters for wood prop­er­ties eval­u­a­tion by the drilling resis­tance mea­sure­ments makes dif­fi­cul­ties in data com­par­i­son, and also reduces the lev­el of sci­en­tif­ic com­po­nent of the results. Drilling and feed­ing pow­er (W) can be used as uni­ver­sal out­put para­me­ters which char­ac­ter­ize the drilling process and prop­er­ties of wood. An IML-RESI PD 400 (IML Sys­tem GmbH, Wies­loch, Ger­many) and ResistYX (LLC NovlesTech, Yoshkar-Ola, Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion) drilling tools were used for com­par­a­tive analy­sis. Lab­o­ra­to­ry drilling resis­tance exper­i­ments were con­duct­ed using a stan­dard spade drill bit (IML Sys­tem GmbH) and defect free spec­i­mens of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Pon­derosa pine (Pinus pon­derosa Dougl. ex Laws.), Euro­pean beech (Fagus syl­vat­i­ca L.), Eng­lish oak (Quer­cus robur L.) and birch (Betu­la pen­du­la L.). Spec­i­mens were con­di­tioned in nor­mal cli­mate (20 °C/65%RH). Ratio coef­fi­cients between mean drilling resis­tance (%, PD-400) and drilling pow­er (W, ResistYX) were cal­cu­lat­ed for each spec­i­men. It was found that wood species has a sig­nif­i­cant effect (p=0.05) on the mean ratio coef­fi­cient of wood drilling resis­tance and drilling pow­er. A suf­fi­cient degree of con­ver­gence between drilling resis­tance and drilling pow­er in terms of ampli­tude and drilling depth was found for every sep­a­rate spec­i­men. Rota­tion­al speed and feed rate of drill bit influ­ence the nom­i­nal chip thick­ness (feed rate per major cut­ting edge) and should be tak­en into account for com­par­i­son of results obtained from used drilling tools. Lin­ear cor­re­la­tion (R2=0.99) was found between mean drilling resis­tance (PD-400) and drilling pow­er (ResistYX). The mod­el can be used for the results of the drilling resis­tance and drilling pow­er con­vert­ing or com­par­i­son obtained from the test­ed drilling tools.

    Key­words: wood qual­i­ty assess­ment, wood prop­er­ties, den­si­ty, drilling resis­tance mea­sure­ment, drilling power.

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    Fedyaev A.A., Chu­bin­sky A.N. Inves­ti­ga­tion of the strength of the glu­ing of conif­er­ous saw-tim­ber. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 202–212 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.202–212

    Anno­ta­tion

    The study of the strength of glued joints of glued beams has been devot­ed to a large num­ber of works of domes­tic sci­en­tists, the analy­sis of which allows us to iden­ti­fy sig­nif­i­cant fac­tors, the main ones being the mois­ture and den­si­ty of wood and the type of glue used. With an increase in mois­ture con­tent of more than 12% when glu­ing with urea and phe­nol-formalde­hyde adhe­sives, the lev­el of their adhe­sive inter­ac­tion with wood is unac­cept­ably reduced. Inves­ti­ga­tion was made of glued joints of sawn tim­ber vary­ing mois­ture (6–14%) from pine and spruce on melamine-ure­aformalde­hyde and emul­sion poly­mer-iso­cyanate glues. Fin­ger joints were test­ed for strength. The qual­i­ty of glu­ing lamel­las was eval­u­at­ed by the shear strength along the wood fibers accord­ing to stan­dard meth­ods. The results of the stud­ies showed that the cur­rent­ly wide­ly used melamine-urea ‑formalde­hyde and emul­sion poly­mer-iso­cyanate adhe­sives are less sen­si­tive to increased mois­ture in wood. The prin­ci­pal influ­ence is exert­ed by its den­si­ty. How­ev­er, it is known that in the process of exploita­tion, wood tends to estab­lish an equi­lib­ri­um mois­ture con­tent. If the ini­tial mois­ture con­tent of the sawn tim­ber in the glued beam is 6–14%, then at high tem­per­a­ture and low rel­a­tive humid­i­ty, the wood will dry up, and its shrink­age will be dif­fer­ent in dif­fer­ent parts of not only the beam, but also each lamel­la as a result of uneven dis­tri­b­u­tion of mois­ture, the het­ero­gene­ity of the struc­ture and its anisotropy of prop­er­ties. As a result of dif­fer­ent shrink­age in the adhe­sive lay­er, nor­mal stress­es capa­ble of destroy­ing the adhe­sive bond will arise . Dan­ger­ous are the tan­gen­tial stress­es aris­ing in the adhe­sive lay­er between the lamel­las of dif­fer­ent mois­ture con­tent. The ratio­nale for the max­i­mum per­mis­si­ble dif­fer­ence in humid­i­ty of adja­cent lamel­las is the sub­ject of fur­ther research.

    Key­words: strength, glu­ing of sol­id wood, destruc­tion of adhe­sive layer.

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    4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

    Ermolin­sky V.G., Koval­e­va O.P. Opin­ions and facts in the the­o­ret­i­cal foun­da­tions of arti­fi­cial fiber and pulp and paper pro­duc­tion tech­nolo­gies. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 213–225 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.213–225

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle deals with dif­fer­ent approach­es to under­stand­ing the nature of bonds in cel­lu­lose-fibrous sys­tems. Analy­sis of the results of numer­ous stud­ies shows that in the man­u­fac­ture of high-tech pulp and paper prod­ucts it is nec­es­sary to take into account the specifics of the process­es of struc­ture for­ma­tion in dis­persed sys­tems, the dis­per­sion medi­um in which is water or its solu­tions, at each stage in mul­ti-stage sys­tems of chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing of veg­etable raw mate­ri­als. The arti­cle high­lights the fea­tures of dialec­tics of applied sci­ence (denial of nega­tion) and its impact on solv­ing the prob­lems of the domes­tic sci­en­tif­ic school of tex­tile and pulp and paper indus­try. The sep­a­ra­tion of phys­i­cal chem­istry of solu­tions of high-mol­e­c­u­lar com­pounds from col­loidal chem­istry into a sep­a­rate sci­ence was the rea­son for the cre­ation of the the­o­ret­i­cal foun­da­tions of the tech­nol­o­gy of arti­fi­cial fibers and pulp and paper pro­duc­tion. Ignor­ing the sci­en­tif­ic pro­vi­sions on the struc­ture for­ma­tion of dis­persed sys­tems from the point of view of the phase inter­ac­tion of their com­po­nents and the relax­ation state is the rea­son for hold­ing back progress in improv­ing the tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of pulp and paper pro­duc­tion. The devel­oped the­o­ret­i­cal basis for obtain­ing dis­persed struc­tures with spec­i­fied mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties were not brought to the cre­ation of mod­els of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es nec­es­sary for the man­u­fac­ture of domes­tic tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment. Thus, the exclu­sion of col­loidal chem­istry, and its sec­tion – phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal mechan­ics, from the dai­ly prac­tice of pulp and paper pro­duc­tion pre­vents the pur­pose­ful solu­tion of prob­lems in the pro­duc­tion of high-tech materials.

    Key­words: fibers, sul­phate cel­lu­lose, paper, phase inter­ac­tions, struc­ture for­ma­tion, defor­ma­tion, ther­mofix­a­tion, acti­va­tion, hydropho­bic interaction.

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    Сhu Cong Nghi, Spit­syn A.A., Pono­marev D.A., Chukhchin D.G., Sazanov Yu.N., Fedoro­va G.N. Prepa­ra­tion and acti­va­tion of bio-car­bon from bam­boo. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 226–236 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.226–236

    Anno­ta­tion

    To inves­ti­gate the process of bio­car­bon prepa­ra­tion the car­boniza­tion of bam­boo stems was inves­ti­gat­ed. With this pur­pose the bam­boo stems were cut into pieces of 150 x 40 x 25 mm and then heat­ed in stain­less steel reac­tor with the speed 2 °С/min. After cool­ing in the atmos­phere of pyrol­y­sis gas­es a crude char­coal was sub­ject­ed to acti­va­tion in rotat­ing reac­tor by steam at the tem­per­a­ture 970 °C and per­ma­nent flow of gaseous nitro­gen and final­ly the mass loss­es were deter­mined. To detect the char­ac­ter­is­tic fea­tures of ther­mode­struc­tion of bam­boo stems com­pared with those for birch wood the depen­dences of mass loss­es ver­sus tem­per­a­ture were used which reveal clear endother­mic peak at 360 °С. Tak­ing into con­sid­er­a­tion the sim­i­lar­i­ty of chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion of bam­boo and birch this dif­fer­ence could be attrib­uted only to mor­pho­log­i­cal struc­ture of bam­boo tis­sues. By scan­ning elec­tron microscopy it was demon­strat­ed that acti­va­tion of crude biochar leads to the rise in num­ber of pores in char­coal with simul­ta­ne­ous changes of cross-sec­tion of pores which becomes ellip­soid in the shape after acti­va­tion. Iodine method to mea­sure an adsorp­tion activ­i­ty of acti­vat­ed char­coal was applied and it was deter­mined that its activ­i­ty ranges from 20 to 60%. A good agree­ment of this val­ue with weight loss­es dur­ing acti­va­tion is found. An increase of the time of acti­va­tion results in increase of adsorp­tion activ­i­ty of tar­get bam­boo charcoal.

    Key­words: bam­boo, bio­car­bon, acti­vat­ed carbon

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    Sinit­syn N.N., Telin N.V., Polevodo­va L.A. The dynam­ics of heat­ing a sin­gle piece of high-mois­ture wood bark locat­ed in a dense lay­er, blown by a high-tem­per­a­ture coolant. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 237–247 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.237–247

    Anno­ta­tion

    The pur­pose of the study is to study the dynam­ics of heat­ing a sin­gle piece of high – mois­ture tree bark locat­ed in a dense lay­er of blown, high-tem­per­a­ture coolant. The analy­sis of the ener­gy use of wood bark in the process of its burn­ing in a lay­ered way in the fur­naces of heat gen­er­a­tors. The con­di­tions of effec­tive use of wood bark as fuel are revealed. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of warm­ing up a piece of high-mois­ture bark of wood locat­ed in a dense lay­er of blown, high-tem­per­a­ture coolant. The study of the dynam­ics of warm­ing pieces of high-mois­ture tree bark in the form of a par­al­lelepiped and an equiv­a­lent ball. The method of esti­ma­tion of time of warm­ing up of a piece of bark which is in a sta­tion­ary heat­ed dense lay­er is devel­oped. The math­e­mat­i­cal depen­dences allow­ing to deter­mine the time of heat­ing the sur­face lay­er of a piece of bark to the tem­per­a­ture of the begin­ning of the exit of volatile sub­stances are obtained by numer­i­cal method. The final rela­tions are giv­en to a dimen­sion­less form and expressed in terms of Fouri­er and Koso­vic num­bers. The obtained ratios take into account the geo­met­ric dimen­sions of the piece of bark, its ini­tial mois­ture and the para­me­ters of the heat­ing coolant. Prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tion of the results of this research is the orga­ni­za­tion of the com­bus­tion process in the boil­er unit.

    Key­words: fuel com­bus­tion, bark dry­ing, fur­nace units

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    Evstigneyev E.I. Quan­tifi­ca­tion of non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides and oth­er com­po­nents in veg­etable raw mate­ri­als. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 248–259 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.248–259

    Anno­ta­tion

    The method of quan­ti­ta­tive deter­mi­na­tion of non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides in veg­etable raw mate­ri­als (wood and agri­cul­tur­al plants) is offered. He pro­vides deter­mi­na­tion in the ana­lyzed sam­ples the gen­er­al con­tent of poly­sac­cha­rides and cel­lu­lose, and non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides are deter­mined by a dif­fer­ence. As a method of deter­mi­na­tion of cel­lu­lose used Kürschn­er method which dif­fers in sim­plic­i­ty and lack of need of pre­lim­i­nary extrac­tion of a sam­ple as ethanol is the best sol­vent of extrac­tive sub­stances among indi­vid­ual sol­vents. For cor­rec­tion of con­tent of Kürschn­er cel­lu­lose on «pure» cel­lu­lose resid­ual pen­tosans are deter­mined by bro­mide bro­mat­ed method. As have shown results of the analy­sis of sam­ples with the known con­tent of non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides, the devel­oped method allows to deter­mine the spec­i­fied com­po­nents with high pre­ci­sion (the rel­a­tive error of def­i­n­i­tion does­n’t exceed 4.3%). Besides, in work the scheme deter­mi­na­tion of the main com­po­nents of veg­etable raw mate­ri­als is offered. It includes deter­mi­na­tion of poly­sac­cha­rides, cel­lu­lose, non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides, lignin, extrac­tive sub­stances and ash­es. With her help it is pos­si­ble to char­ac­ter­ize rather ful­ly com­po­nent com­po­si­tion of veg­etable raw mate­ri­als with­out resort­ing to use of the spe­cial equip­ment. Dif­fer­ences in con­tents and com­po­si­tion of poly­sac­cha­rides of wood of conif­er­ous and decid­u­ous breeds are defined by the new scheme of the analysis.

    Key­words: poly­sac­cha­rides, non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides, Kürschn­er cel­lu­lose, resid­ual pentosans.

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    5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

    Fedorenko N.I. Some con­di­tions for con­ver­gence of the method of iter­a­tions for solv­ing a non­lin­ear equa­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 260–267 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.260–267

    Anno­ta­tion

    One of the dif­fi­cul­ties aris­ing in con­nec­tion with the use of branch­ing process­es for solv­ing non­lin­ear equa­tions is the ful­fill­ment of the so-called majo­rant con­di­tions respon­si­ble for the exis­tence and finite­ness of the math­e­mat­i­cal expec­ta­tion of esti­mates built on the tra­jec­to­ries of the branch­ing process. The ques­tion of the ful­fill­ment of the majo­rant con­di­tion relat­ed to the con­ver­gence of the iter­a­tive method. The arti­cle dis­cuss­es some of the state­ments about the con­ver­gence of the iter­a­tion method for solv­ing a non­lin­ear equa­tion of the def­i­nite type. A less restric­tive majo­rant con­di­tion is estab­lished on the example.

    Key­words: branch­ing process, non­lin­ear equa­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal expec­ta­tion, iter­a­tion method, majo­rant condition.

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  • Issue 224
  • Name of article Page Arti­cle
    1. FORESTRY
    1

    Raevsky B.V., Schuro­va M.L., Chep­ic F.A. Some results of scotch pine plus trees breed­ing assess­ment in prog­e­ny tri­al in Karelia

    Anno­ta­tion: Nowa­days Scotch pine prog­e­ny tri­al laid down in Pri­one­jskiy cen­tral lesnich­est­vo (Chep­ic plant­i­ngs) is the old­est and the best one in its way in Kare­lia. Among 107 prog­e­nies inves­ti­gat­ed at the age of 30 years – 17 ones (15.9%) had sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant excess in growth para­me­ters com­pared with plot’s mean val­ues. These prog­e­nies had gen­er­al com­bin­ing abil­i­ty (GCA) equal to 13.6% (3.6–28.4%) in stem diam­e­ter and 32.8% (8.0–71.9%) in stem vol­ume. The results obtained in the prog­e­ny tri­al have a cru­cial val­ue in breed­ing assess­ment of plus trees inves­ti­gat­ed from the point of their selec­tion for seed orchards of the I.5 gen­er­a­tion. But it was con­clud­ed that esti­ma­tions giv­en for seed prog­e­nies should be nec­es­sar­i­ly accom­pa­ined by cor­re­spond­ing grades of habi­tus fea­tures and repro­duc­tive abil­i­ty of the same plus trees veg­e­ta­tive prog­e­nies grow­ing at graft­ed seed orchards. Only in this case breed­ing assess­ment could be con­sid­ered as ful­ly com­plet­ed. It was revealed that in the ear­ly onto­ge­n­e­sis stages saplings belong­ing to I and II mor­phogeny types had more rapid growth and devel­op­ment rates con­cern­ing veg­e­ta­tive growth and repro­duc­tive activ­i­ty. But by the time of our inves­ti­ga­tion the dif­fer­ences observed were not sta­tis­ti­cal­ly suf­fi­cient. So evi­dent­ly mor­phogeny type clsas­si­fi­ca­tion can’t be use­full for ear­ly eval­u­a­tion and breed­ing assess­ment purposes.

    Key­words: scotch pine, seedlings, mor­phogeny types, ear­ly detec­tion, breed­ing assess­ment, plus trees.

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    2

    Nakvasi­na E.N., Voevod­ki­na A.V., Volkov A.G.Influ­ence of tin­ning to soil prop­er­ties in young forest

    Anno­ta­tion: Thin­ning is influ­ence to eco­log­i­cal-cenot­ic con­di­tion that affects the for­ma­tion of the low­er tiers of the for­est ecosys­tem. The research was con­duct­ed on sta­tion­ary objects that cre­at­ed in 1959 by Arkhangel­sk’s Insti­tute of For­est and Wood Chem­istry (now North research insti­tute of forestry). There are 3 vari­ants of thin­ning with dif­fer­ent sam­ple by num­ber of tree trunks in pine-birch for­est with whortle­ber­ry-clus­ter­ber­ry cov­er. The first vari­ant is two-stage thin­ning with 27 years inter­val and inten­si­ty of cut­ting in the first recep­tion of 36% in the num­ber of trees, in the sec­ond recep­tion 30% in stock. At the moment there is 100% pine stock­ing with 837 trunks at hectare. Oth­er two vari­ants are one-stage thin­ning with inten­si­ty of cut­ting equal 76 and 84%. At the moment its 100% pine stock­ing with 894 and 596 trunks at hectare. Ref­er­ence is not thin­ning for­est. We stud­ied chem­i­cal and phys­i­cal prop­er­ties top­soil (O and E) of pod­zols, such as: thick­ness, den­si­ty, pH, organ­ic car­bon, humus and mobile forms of P2O5 and K2O.We eval­u­at­ed weight of for­est lit­ter (O) and detect its sig­nif­i­cant changes as results of thin­ning. Under the influ­ence of eco­log­i­cal-cenot­ic fac­tors grow lit­ter for­est thick­ness, den­si­ty, weight and organ­ic car­bon. This affects to albic hori­zon that organ­ic car­bon grow at 2–3 times com­pared ref­er­ence. Less influ­ence to soil and for­est lit­ter has two-stage thinning.

    Key­words: Thin­ning, pine-birch young for­est, for­est lit­ter, soil, chem­i­cal and phys­i­cal properties.

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    3

    Slavskiy V.A., Chernyshov M.P. Com­pre­hen­sive assess­ment of wal­nut win­ter har­di­ness in the Voronezh region

    Anno­ta­tion: Wide intro­duc­tion of wal­nut in cul­ture to the North of the zone of the exist­ing area of dis­tri­b­u­tion, in par­tic­u­lar in the Voronezh region, is ham­pered by a num­ber of rea­sons, the most sig­nif­i­cant of which is insuf­fi­cient win­ter har­di­ness. In this regard, the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion, selec­tion and improve­ment of the prop­er­ties of win­ter-hardy vari­eties and forms of wal­nut, capa­ble of full valu­able growth and fruit­ing out­side the nat­ur­al area, is the main breed­ing task. This prob­lem looks quite solv­able, tak­ing into account the high lev­el of indi­vid­ual vari­abil­i­ty of adap­tive fea­tures in the select­ed wal­nut forms in the stud­ied region. Stud­ied gar­den and field plant­i­ngs, plan­ta­tions, land­scape group and sep­a­rate­ly stand­ing trees. In deter­min­ing the resis­tance of plants to adverse cli­mat­ic fac­tors used con­ven­tion­al tech­niques. For the assess­ment of win­ter har­di­ness the new approach to deter­mi­na­tion of com­plex sta­bil­i­ty of plants in the win­ter peri­od con­sist­ing of total indi­ca­tors of frost resis­tance, frost resis­tance and resis­tance to sharp changes of tem­per­a­tures is devel­oped, since these adap­tive fea­tures had the high­est lev­els of sig­nif­i­cance. The pro­posed accel­er­at­ed com­plex assess­ment of win­ter har­di­ness has a great advan­tage com­pared to the stan­dard method­ol­o­gy, for the reli­able deter­mi­na­tion of which it was nec­es­sary to observe for sev­er­al years. Dis­cov­ered sig­nif­i­cant sim­i­lar­i­ties between the expe­ri­enced and the approx­imable results of win­ter har­di­ness (assess­ment cri­te­ri­on Pir­son = 12.6). At the same time, the the­o­ret­i­cal val­ues of win­ter har­di­ness were slight­ly high­er than the prac­ti­cal ones. This is due, first of all, to the adapt­abil­i­ty to the cli­mat­ic con­di­tions of the Voronezh region and the high regen­er­a­tive capac­i­ty of most plants.

    Key­words: wal­nut, har­di­ness, adap­tive fea­ture, intro­duc­tion, selection

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    4

    Nguyen Thi Thu Huong, Beli­ae­va N.V., Danilov D.A. Stand struc­ture, restore on posta­gro­genic and lands of the for­mer set­tle­ment in the con­di­tions of Vietnam

    Anno­ta­tion: The arti­cle deals with the struc­ture of stands that have been restored on posta­gro­genic lands and lands of for­mer set­tle­ments in Viet­nam. It is estab­lished that the pres­ence of high-tree trees is not­ed on the lands of for­mer set­tle­ments, but their den­si­ty is not large and the species com­po­si­tion is sim­ple. The dom­i­nant trees are rep­re­sent­ed by the light-lov­ing rocks Brous­sone­tia papyrifera (L.), Lit­sea gluti­nosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob., Macaranga den­tic­u­la­ta (Blume) Muell. Arg, Bischofia javan­i­ca Blume (B. Tri­fo­li­ate (Roxb.) Hook.f.). These rocks are pio­neers at the ini­tial stage of restora­tion of woody veg­e­ta­tion on the lands of for­mer set­tle­ments and have great eco­log­i­cal sig­nif­i­cance, how­ev­er, a short life cycle. In addi­tion to the dom­i­nant species, new species also appear in plan­ta­tions: Cin­namo­mum bejol­gho­ta (Buch. Ham.) Sweet, Cin­namo­mum obtusi­foli­um (Roxb) Nees, Cary­o­daph­no­sis tonk­i­nen­sis (Leg) A‑Shaw. They are usu­al­ly seed-borne, light-lov­ing, fast-grow­ing and able to with­stand com­pe­ti­tion with oth­er species for bat­ter­ies and light. In adult­hood, they are present in the com­po­si­tion of the stand. The source of their renew­al are the seeds from the neigh­bor­ing for­est walls. The pres­ence of these species increas­es the species diver­si­ty of tree species and increas­es the sta­bil­i­ty of the plan­ta­tion as a whole. On the lands of the for­mer set­tle­ments there are only species of trees that were pre­vi­ous­ly grown by the inhab­i­tants of the set­tle­ments: Arto­car­pus het­ero­phyl­lus Lam., Melia azedarach L., Dimo­car­pus lon­gan Lour., Chukra­sia tab­u­laris M. Roem. The num­ber of species of tree species is small in the degrad­ed land. Here grow light-lov­ing, fast-grow­ing species. They are dom­i­nant at the ini­tial stage of for­est restora­tion: Macaranga den­tic­u­la­ta (Blume) Muell. Arg, Lit­sea gluti­nosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob., Bischofia javan­i­ca Blume (B. tri­fo­li­a­ta (Roxb.) Hook. F.) and espe­cial­ly Brous­sone­tia papyrifera (L.). These breeds have a short life cycle and are unsta­ble to neg­a­tive envi­ron­men­tal impact, there­fore in the future they are replaced by breeds that have a longer life cycle. In gen­er­al, the stand on the lands of the for­mer set­tle­ments is more diverse in species com­po­si­tion and struc­ture than in the plowed lands.

    Key­words: posta­gro­genic land, land for­mer set­tle­ments, refor­esta­tion, woods struc­ture, species com­po­si­tion, bio­di­ver­si­ty, lay­er­ing, com­pact­ness, dis­tri­b­u­tion trees in diam­e­ter and height

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    5

    Duong Thi Anh Tuyet, Neshataev V.Yu. Plant asso­ci­a­tions of tree stands of the park of the Peter the Great Poly­tech­nic Uni­ver­si­ty (Saint-Peters­burg, Russia)

    Anno­ta­tion: The study of the veg­e­ta­tion of cities has both the­o­ret­i­cal and prac­ti­cal sig­nif­i­cance. For the city of St. Peters­burg, there are pub­li­ca­tions only on some areas. Clas­si­fi­ca­tion of veg­e­ta­tion is an eco­log­i­cal basis for the care of the green plan­ta­tions of the city. The park of the Poly­tech­nic Uni­ver­si­ty was found on the place of bil­ber­ry rich pine for­est on sand deposits simul­ta­ne­ous­ly with the con­struc­tion of the Uni­ver­si­ty in 1900. The park is under the influ­ence of atmos­pher­ic pol­lu­tion, with a fall of 192 to 200 kg/haper year of nitro­gen oxides (in amount of nitro­gen). Infor­ma­tion on plant com­mu­ni­ties was col­lect­ed on sam­ple plots 2020 m each. Accord­ing to 35 rev­elés, birch with 3 asso­ci­a­tions and pine for­ma­tions with 5 asso­ci­a­tions were dis­tin­guished. In the ground cov­er, most often dom­i­nate the obscure – Aegopodi­um poda­grara­ia, less often urban grav­el – Geum urbanum, hedge­hogs – Dactylis glom­er­a­ta, bone­less beet – Bro­mop­sis iner­mis, net­tle – Urtica dioica, wavy hair grass – Avenel­la flex­u­osa, species resis­tant to tram­pling (Poa annua annu­al – grasshop­per, Plan­ta­go major – plan­tain). Codom­i­nant and con­stant are species of the weed-sub­nemoral group (Aegopodi­um poda­grara­ia, Antriscus sylvestis, Geum urbanum, Gle­choma hed­er­acea, Lami­um album, Stel­lar­ia media, Urtica dioica). The forests of the park grow on more fer­tile soils (FS – fer­tile-salin­i­ty index after Ramen­skiy, 7.5–11.5) than the sub­ur­ban forests of the most rich drained habi­tats (nemoral series of for­est types, FS 7.0–7.5), and more fer­tile that soils of pine bil­ber­ry (FS 3.3–4.6) forests, in the place of which the park appeared. This is due to nitro­gen contamination.

    Key­words: asso­ci­a­tion, birch, city, clas­si­fi­ca­tion of veg­e­ta­tion, for­est type, ordi­na­tion, pine, plant species, St. Petersburg

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    6

    Firsov G.A., Byalt A.V., Tkachenko K.G. Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Max­im. (Capri­fo­li­aceae) at Peter the Great Botan­ic Gar­den (Saint-Peters­burg, Russia).

    Anno­ta­tion: The Maak’s hon­ey­suck­le (Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herd.) was described in hon­or of R.K. Maack (1825–1886), a well-known nat­u­ral­ist and researcher of Siberia and the Far East. It was first intro­duced into the world cul­ture by the Impe­r­i­al St. Peters­burg Botan­i­cal Gar­den (BIN) around 1860. In the Peter the Great Botan­i­cal Gar­den it is known until 1880 and has since been pre­sent­ed con­tin­u­ous­ly to the present, with­out inter­rup­tions. This species belongs to the ser. Maack­ianae Pojark. ex Nedol. (sub­sec­tion Tatar­i­cae Rehd., sec­tion Lonicera), which includes, along with some oth­er rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the genus – L. deflex­i­ca­lyx Batal., L. pros­tra­ta Rehd., L. tri­chosan­tha Bureau & Franch. and L. xero­ca­lyx Diels. The old­est spec­i­mens, cul­ti­vat­ed in St. Peters­burg, have reached the age of 150 years. The species is dis­tin­guished by high win­ter har­di­ness. In the last years of the begin­ning of the 21st cen­tu­ry, frost­ing is absent or does not exceed the length of a year’s growth. In the past, only the harsh­est win­ters were frozen by shoots of an old­er age. Seeds are dif­fer­ent, and seed prog­e­ny are grown from them. In addi­tion to win­ter har­di­ness, Maak’s hon­ey­suck­le is valu­able for its dura­bil­i­ty and drought resis­tance, as well as high dec­o­ra­tive qual­i­ties. The expe­ri­ence of its grow­ing her in the Botan­i­cal Gar­den of Peter the Great showed that she is well tol­er­at­ed by urban con­di­tions. Dur­ing the flow­er­ing peri­od, the shrub is cov­ered with white fra­grant flow­ers, dur­ing fruit­ing, with red, notice­able fruits. Dec­o­ra­tive dark shiny foliage is pre­served until late autumn. And berries hang long after falling leaves, keep­ing dec­o­ra­tive­ness before the begin­ning of win­ter. Maack­’s hon­ey­suck­le, in con­di­tions of cli­mate warm­ing, main­tains high win­ter har­di­ness, repro­duc­tive capac­i­ty and dec­o­ra­tive qual­i­ties. The shrink­age of shoots and the spread of dis­eases and pests has not been observed. The species is promis­ing for the gar­den­ing of St. Peters­burg, it is resis­tant to pests and dis­eases and is more dec­o­ra­tive than the more famous and wide­spread Lonicera tatar­i­ca L. The cul­ture can be sig­nif­i­cant­ly advanced to the North, pri­mar­i­ly to the Kare­lian Isth­mus and to South Karelia.

    Key­words: hon­ey­suck­le, Lonicera, Capri­fo­li­aceae, arbori­cul­ture, bio­log­i­cal pecu­liar­i­ties, qual­i­ty of seeds, Peter the Great Botan­ic Gar­den, Saint-Petersburg

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    7

    Firsov G.A., Byalt A.V., Tkachenko K.G. Win­ter har­di­ness and prospects of cul­ti­va­tion of Lonicera chamis­soi Bunge ex P. Kir­il­low (Capri­fo­li­aceae) at the Saint-Peters­burg in con­di­tions of the cli­mate change.

    Anno­ta­tion: The range of species of trees and shrubs that are promis­ing for breed­ing in St.Petersburg under mod­ern con­di­tions is sub­ject to revi­sion. Cli­mate change in St.Petersburg at the begin­ning of the XXI cen­tu­ry com­pared with the last cen­tu­ry is man­i­fest­ed in the increase in min­i­mum, aver­age and annu­al air tem­per­a­tures, in the exten­sion of the grow­ing sea­son, and in the increase in the amount of pre­cip­i­ta­tion. Long win­ter thaws with a lack of snow cov­er become more like­ly. Woody intro­duc­ers react to such changes in dif­fer­ent ways. Hon­ey­suck­le Hon­ey­suck­le (Lonicera chamis­soi Bunge ex P. Kir­il­low) was intro­duced to St. Peters­burg in the mid­dle of the XIX cen­tu­ry, and lat­er this species was repeat­ed­ly rec­om­mend­ed for the green­ing of the city. It is a close species of the more famous black hon­ey­suck­le (L. nigra L.), togeth­er with which they form the series Nigrae Pojark. ex Nedol. (sub­sec­tion Rho­dan­thae (Max­im.) Rehd. sec­tion Isi­ka (Adans.) Rehd.). In con­di­tions of a marked warm­ing of the cli­mate in the 21st cen­tu­ry, the Chamis­so hon­ey­suck­le wors­ened its adap­tive capa­bil­i­ties and dec­o­ra­tive qual­i­ties. It can no longer be rec­om­mend­ed for mass breed­ing. How­ev­er, in St. Peters­burg it remains, as before, a botan­i­cal­ly inter­est­ing species for den­drol­o­gy col­lec­tions. The size of the Chamis­so hon­ey­suck­le, which it reach­es in St. Peters­burg, cor­re­sponds to those in the nat­ur­al range. The age of plants in the mod­ern col­lec­tion is 17 years. Analy­sis of the seeds shows that they are viable and char­ac­ter­ized by high qual­i­ty. As a species with proven and high win­ter har­di­ness, Chamis­so hon­ey­suck­le can be rec­om­mend­ed for cul­ti­va­tion in more north­ern con­di­tions, on the Kare­lian Isth­mus of the Leningrad Region, in Kare­lia and on the Kola Peninsula.

    Key­words: Lonicera chamis­soi, Capri­fo­li­aceae, arbori­cul­ture, seeds qual­i­ty, changes of the cli­mate, Saint-Petersburg.

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    8

    Sevru­go­va Ju.B. Urban bio­di­ver­si­ty index for water­fronts in St. Petersburg.

    Anno­ta­tion: Trans­for­ma­tion of the land­scapes under the urban­iza­tion process has led to fun­da­men­tal changes in struc­ture and dynam­ics of ecosys­tems. These tran­si­tions make it nec­es­sary to seek for resilient solu­tions for urban devel­op­ment. Estab­lish­ment of sus­tain­able green-blue infra­struc­ture is becom­ing one of the pri­or­i­ty tasks in urban design. The auton­o­my and iso­la­tion of large ele­ments of the eco­log­i­cal net­work is a sig­nif­i­cant dis­ad­van­tage of urban green space sys­tem. It is cru­cial to increase land­scape con­nec­tiv­i­ty by means of green cor­ri­dors in order to sup­port urban ecosys­tems. Trans­port and engi­neer­ing infra­struc­ture ele­ments can affect the flows of ener­gy and mat­ter in a pos­i­tive way. Among these ele­ments, water­sides of St. Peters­burg play a key role in the city struc­ture and pro­vide sub­stan­tial resource for green-blue infra­struc­ture devel­op­ment. The research was designed to analyse ten water­fronts of St. Peters­burg using urban bio­di­ver­si­ty index (URBIO-index) tool as a method­ol­o­gy for the inte­grat­ed assess­ment of urban green spaces with­in the frame­work of sus­tain­able devel­op­ment. Each of the sites was assessed by twen­ty-five indi­ca­tors reflect­ing dif­fer­ent aspects of sus­tain­abil­i­ty. The study showed that URBIO-index val­ues are equal­ly low for all of the sites, regard­less the spa­tial con­fig­u­ra­tion of water­fronts. The val­ues for each group of indi­ca­tors deter­mined the direc­tions for urban water­fronts improve­ment in pur­suit of the sus­tain­able green net­work estab­lish­ment. The paper gives rec­om­men­da­tions on opti­miz­ing the spa­tial struc­ture and func­tion­al load, as well as enhanc­ing the social, eco­nom­ic and envi­ron­men­tal effec­tive­ness of the water­fronts in St. Petersburg.

    Key­words: urban bio­di­ver­si­ty index, water­fronts, urban land­scape, green-blue infra­struc­ture, sus­tain­able development.

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    9

    Puryaev А.S., Zaripov I.N. Pro­duc­tive capac­i­ty of siber­ian larch grow­ing stands in the Repub­lic of Tatarstan.

    Anno­ta­tion: The arti­cle eval­u­ates pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of larch stands in the Repub­lic of Tatarstan. It was estab­lished, that the stock of larch stands makes about 100 m³/ha. The main share of the stock is locat­ed in the stands grow­ing in the con­di­tions of sura­mens in pred­kam­je and zakam­je in the repub­lic. The largest share of trunk tim­ber comes from the stands of this species grow­ing in the con­di­tions of fresh sura­men and ramens (С2) and (D2), 69 and 26% respec­tive­ly. Age pro­file of larch stands is uneven, aver­age age of the stands of that species varies from 35,9 in Pred­kam­je to 39,1 in Pred­volzh­je. The largest larch tim­ber stock is in the stands locat­ed in fresh ramens, where­by up to 40 years of age, the dif­fer­ence in tim­ber stock between the stands of dif­fer­ent grow­ing con­di­tions is sta­ble, and lat­er the stock of larch in GC D2 sig­nif­i­cant­ly big­ger. Under con­di­tions D2 (fresh ramen) larch stands fea­ture the biggest aver­age stock, being the largest after 80 years of age. Under the same con­di­tions, larch stands form high-bonitet forests (Iа bonitet class) that also fea­ture the high­est rel­a­tive den­si­ty. Dis­tri­b­u­tion of the area of Siber­ian larch stands by rel­a­tive den­si­ty demon­strates that the key share of high-bonitet forests belongs to stands with den­si­ty 0.7–0.8. When eval­u­at­ing the types of con­di­tions of the site, it is not­ed that the for­est con­di­tion clas­si­fi­ca­tion used is not objec­tive. In the con­di­tions of fresh ramens, larch stands have Iа bonitet class in all dis­tricts of the repub­lic. In GC С2 this fig­ure varies from Iа,9 in Zakam­je and up to Iа,5 in Pred­kam­je. Aver­age annu­al incre­ment of the stock also varies depend­ing on GC and geo­mor­phic dis­tricts of the repub­lic almost in all age groups. Con­clu­sion is made that it is fea­si­ble and advan­ta­geous to grow Siber­ian larch in the con­di­tions of the Repub­lic of Tatarstan, and it is nec­es­sary to increase the area of larch stands in the region.

    Key­words: Siber­ian larch, grow­ing stand struc­ture, type of forests, stock, bonitet, rel­a­tive density.

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    10

    Danche­va A.V., Zalesov S.V. Fea­tures of refor­esta­tion of burned areas in dry pine forests of the Kaza­kh Upland in exam­ple State Nation­al Nature Park «Bayanaul»

    Anno­ta­tion: The results of fea­tures for­ma­tions of post-fire pine under­growth on burnt area in very dry (group of for­est site C1) and dry (group of for­est site C2) pine forests of the Kaza­kh Upland (by the exam­ple of State Nation­al Nature Park (SNPP) «Bayanaul») depend­ing on the dis­tance from the for­est bor­der and stand den­si­ty are pre­sent­ed in the cur­rent paper. Accord­ing to stud­ies it is observed of reaf­foresta­tion con­ti­nu­ity of burned areas. Accord­ing to cur­rent spec­i­fi­ca­tion, the pine nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion is assessed as «rea­son­able». There is a gen­er­al ten­den­cy of a slight decrease in the basic inven­to­ry indices of pine under­growth with an increase in the dis­tance from the for­est bor­der to 150 m, but the inher­ent dif­fer­ence in their absolute val­ues no found­ed. The birch under­growth con­tent in post-fire young stands have pos­i­tive effect on the growth chief species of for­est-form­ing species. Basic inven­to­ry indices of pine under­growth do not depend on the rela­tion birch and pine in the post-fire young stands. Diam­e­ter, tree height and height incre­ment of pine under­growth in 1.2–1.6 time high­er, than that of birch young under­growth. The observed dif­fer­ences is sta­tis­ti­cal­ly-valid. The close rela­tion­ship was found between the main inven­to­ry indices of the pine under­growth and the den­si­ty of their growth in post-fire young stands. The largest val­ues of diam­e­ter, tree height and height incre­ment under for­est den­si­ty from 3.1 to 5.4 thou­sand trees per 1 ha are not­ed. At this stage of the for­ma­tion of post-fire young pine stands of dry for­est sites of pine forests SNPP «Bayanaul», the best option of for­est den­si­ty is its val­ue to 3.1 thou­sand trees per 1 ha.

    Key­words: burnt area, nat­ur­al reaf­foresta­tion, pinus sylvestris, dry for­est sites, den­si­ty of growth.

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    11

    Debkov N.M., Bisiro­va E.M., Bocharov A.Yu. Dynam­ics of radi­al growth of siber­ian pine Pinus sibir­i­ca Du Tuor in focus of inva­sion of four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf..

    Anno­ta­tion: In the 21st cen­tu­ry cas­es of inva­sions of den­drophilous insects in bore­al forests increased sharply. A exam­ple of these process­es is inva­sion of four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf. in forests with siber­ian fir Abies sibir­i­ca Ledeb. in ter­ri­to­ry of Siberia. The aim of the research was to study dynam­ics of radi­al growth of siber­ian pine trees in dam­aged stands. The Lar­in­sky land­scape reserve was cho­sen as mod­el ter­ri­to­ry. A series of per­ma­nent tri­al plots (PTP) for mon­i­tor­ing the trans­for­ma­tion of for­est ecosys­tems was laid on its ter­ri­to­ry. As a result of invad­er impact, stands dom­i­nat­ed by fir were most affect­ed. They sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduced com­plete­ness and dom­i­nance passed to siber­ian pine. In stands with a pre­dom­i­nance of siber­ian pine and spruce, changes also occurred in struc­ture. How­ev­er, species changes did not occur. For entire life peri­od of siber­ian pine trees, radi­al growth was at PTP 1 – 2,3±0,1 mm, for PTP 2 – 2,1±0,1 mm, for PTP 3 – 2,5±0,1 mm, for PTP 4 – 1,6±0,1 mm. There were no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences (p = 0,9357 > 0,05). Imme­di­ate­ly before the inva­sion, a slight de crease in tree growth in thick­ness was not­ed, in par­tic­u­lar, for PTP 1, it was 2,2±0,1 mm, for PTP 2 – 1,1±0,1 mm, for PTP 3 – 2,1±0,1 mm, for PTP 4 – 0,9±0,1 mm. Thus, radi­al growth increased, but a sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence was estab­lished only for PTP 1 (p = 0,0292 < 0,05), which is char­ac­ter­ized by a com­plete­ly degrad­ed state.

    Key­words: siber­ian pine Pinus sibir­i­ca Du Tuor, four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf., siber­ian fir Abies sibir­i­ca Ledeb., radi­al growth, inva­sion of xylophagous, Tom­sk region, trans­for­ma­tion of ecosystems

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    12

    Vysot­skii A.A., Kor­cha­gin O.M. Anno­sum root rot in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for­est plan­ta­tions. Prob­lems and ways to deal with them

    Anno­ta­tion: We present the sci­en­tif­ic find­ings obtained by the Research Insti­tute of For­est Genet­ics, Breed­ing and Biotech­nol­o­gy through the research­es on the pine breed­ing and the results of the long-term obser­va­tions over the trees of dif­fer­ent selec­tive cat­e­gories in the nidi of anno­sum root rot (Het­er­oba­sid­ion anno­sum). The research­es were con­duct­ed in nat­ur­al and plant­ed forests under dif­fer­ent envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions. We used soft resin yield from one sur­face wound per 1 cm of the trunk diam­e­ter (giv­en equal aver­age for this for­est stand tap­ping inten­si­ty) as a resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty cri­te­ri­on. The mutu­al influ­ence of path­o­gen­ic strains and tri­cho­der­ma (Tri­cho­der­mae viri­di Sp.) was stud­ied in lab­o­ra­to­ry con­di­tions on a wort-agar growth medi­um. We have stat­ed high lev­el of resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty inher­i­tance through both veg­e­ta­tive and seed prop­a­ga­tion and a strong cor­re­la­tion between pine-tree’s resis­tance to anno­sum root rot and its resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. This fact should be used as a bio­log­i­cal basis for cre­ation of pur­pose-ori­ent­ed for­est stands with high lev­el of resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty which will be high­ly resis­tant to anno­sum root rot. We have also shown that the cat­a­stroph­ic expan­sion of the pathogen in the Euro­pean part of Rus­sia is due to inten­sive har­vest­ing in indige­nous forests, cul­ti­va­tion of conifers mono­cul­tures on non-for­est areas and the lack of effec­tive meth­ods for con­trol of the pathogen. San­i­ta­tion clear felling does not solve the prob­lem, because its use trans­forms high-qual­i­ty raw wood into dead­wood and leads to pre­ma­ture for­est degra­da­tion. We have sci­en­tif­i­cal­ly proven the pos­si­bil­i­ty of pine breed­ing for the set of valu­able char­ac­ter­is­tics. We have also devised a breed­ing process scheme for cre­ation of spe­cial pur­pose-ori­ent­ed high­ly resis­tant to anno­sum root rot plan­ta­tions of Scots pine with high lev­el of resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. In order to pre­vent fur­ther spread of the pathogen our forestry needs a set of pre­ven­tive mea­sures and we should focus on cre­ation of sus­tain­able for­est stands instead of fight­ing the pathogen in already affect­ed and decay­ing forests.

    Key­words: Scots Pine, anno­sum root rot, resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, inher­i­tance, resistance.

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    13

    Thanh Nguen Van, Zhi­gunov А.V., Bon­darenko А.S. Growth and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of Brazil­ian Hevea on rub­ber plan­ta­tions in Vietnam

    Anno­ta­tion: The growth and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of Brazil­ian Hevea (Hevea brasilien­sis) on com­mer­cial plan­ta­tions in the Thong Nhat dis­trict, Dong Nai province, Viet­nam, are stud­ied and ana­lyzed. The plan­ta­tions were estab­lished with the graft­ed seedlings of five clones: GT1, PB260, PB235, RRIC121, and VM515, in the areas with a ground sur­face slope of less than 30°. The Brazil­ian Hevea seedlings grown in poly­eth­yl­ene tubes were used as root­stock. The seedlings were plant­ed into pits pre­pared man­u­al­ly. Before plant­i­ng, a com­plex of organ­ic and min­er­al fer­til­iz­ers was intro­duced into the pits. The poly­film was removed from the root­balls, and then the plants were placed into pits and embed­ded with soil mixed with organ­ic and min­er­al fer­til­iz­ers. The ini­tial plant­i­ng den­si­ty was 560 plants per ha for all vari­ants in this research. Tend­ing con­sist­ed in repeat­ed weed­ing of herba­ceous plants in the vicin­i­ty of the seedlings. The diam­e­ter of the cul­ti­vat­ed area was increased to the size of the crown pro­jec­tion. After the trees reached 3 meters in height, low­er branch­es were suc­ces­sive­ly pruned so that the trees could not have any branch­es up to 2.5–3.3 m in height. To deter­mine the growth rate, per­ma­nent tri­al plots were estab­lished on the Brazil­ian Hevea plan­ta­tions at the age of 1, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30, each 25 x 25 m, on which the bio­met­ric para­me­ters of all trees were mea­sured. Latex pro­duc­tiv­i­ty was deter­mined for 3 trees on the same per­ma­nent tri­al plots dur­ing 30 days for each clone at the age of 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30. Latex was col­lect­ed every day. The latex mass was deter­mined by weigh­ing each sam­ple from a sep­a­rate tree in grams every day. On the plan­ta­tions, all clones show high sur­vival and safe­ty, sta­ble high growth in height and diam­e­ter, and a high pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of latex. Clone RRIC121 has been show­ing a high­er growth rate since the age of five and this advan­tage shows itself until the end of the plan­ta­tion exploita­tion at the age of 30 both in bio­met­ric para­me­ters and latex pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. Bio­met­ric para­me­ters and dynam­ics of wood stock in clones GT1, PB235 and VM515 have no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences from each oth­er, but they are some­what low­er than those of clone RRIC121. Already at the age of 10, the wood stock of clone PB260 was small­er as com­pared with that of the oth­er clones and it has not changed over the entire obser­va­tion peri­od. Although on the Brazil­ian Hevea plan­ta­tions in Viet­nam, latex is col­lect­ed in pro­duc­tion quan­ti­ties from the trees aged from 7 to 30, the high­est pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of all the clones under study is shown by the trees with­in the age peri­od from 10 to 25, and the max­i­mum pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, at the age from 15 to 20. Clone RRIC121 has the lead­ing posi­tions in latex pro­duc­tiv­i­ty in the max­i­mum pro­duc­tiv­i­ty peri­od; some­what low­er pro­duc­tiv­i­ty is shown by clones PB235 and VM515. Clones GT1 and PB235 have the low­est pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. The high­est rela­tion­ship between the lateх pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and the bio­met­ric indi­ca­tors of Brazil­ian Hevea is record­ed for the root neck diam­e­ter, the crown length, and the trunk vol­ume of indi­vid­ual trees. Spe­cial agrotech­ni­cal mea­sures should be devel­oped and applied dur­ing the estab­lish­ment and man­age­ment of Brazil­ian Hevea plan­ta­tions in order to improve these parameters.

    Key­words: Brazil­ian Hevea, plan­ta­tions, growth rate, lateх pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, bio­met­ric parameters–lateх pro­duc­tiv­i­ty ratio

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    1. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    14

    Cao Huy Giap, Kochnev A.M. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the steer­ing wheel skidder

    Anno­ta­tion: The steer­ing para­me­ters of the trac­tor have a sig­nif­i­cant impact on its per­for­mance, and pri­mar­i­ly on the maneu­ver­abil­i­ty, sta­bil­i­ty of a giv­en direc­tion of move­ment, as well as fatigue of the oper­a­tor. The choice of steer­ing para­me­ters should be based on dynam­ic analy­sis. The aim of the research is to devel­op a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of dynam­ics of hydraulic steer­ing wheel skid­ders. For spec­i­fi­ca­tion of a num­ber of para­me­ters of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of steer­ing con­trol the cycle of exper­i­men­tal research­es of wheel skid­ders is exe­cut­ed. The devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of steer­ing wheel skid­ders, imple­ment­ed in the form of a pack­age of appli­ca­tion soft­ware for com­put­ers, ade­quate to the real dynam­ic process­es tak­ing place in it and is rec­om­mend­ed for use in ASNI and CAD «Wheel skid­ding trac­tor» in the study and opti­miza­tion of steer­ing para­me­ters of exist­ing and pro­ject­ed trac­tors for logging.

    Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, wheel skid­der, steer­ing, dynamics

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    15

    Nguyen Long Lam, Cao Huy Giap, Guseynov E.M. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for deter­mi­na­tion of kine­mat­ic para­me­ters of tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment of an active forestry semitrailer.

    Anno­ta­tion: Kine­mat­ic analy­sis showed that, with the exist­ing geo­met­ric rela­tion­ships of the shield and its mech­a­nism, a dou­ble blow can occur at the time of con­tact of the bun­dle of trees, lead­ing to a sharp increase in loads and destruc­tion of the shield. The pres­ence of a neg­a­tive angle of the rear levers makes it dif­fi­cult to load a bun­dle of trees. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for deter­min­ing the kine­mat­ic para­me­ters of the tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment of an active forestry semi­trail­er was devel­oped. To ana­lyze the influ­ence of var­i­ous fac­tors on the kine­mat­ic para­me­ters of motion, a block dia­gram of the algo­rithm and a FORTRAN cal­cu­la­tion pro­gram have been devel­oped. The cal­cu­la­tions were per­formed with ref­er­ence to the T‑40L wheeled tractor

    Key­words: wheeled forestry trac­tor, active forestry semi­trail­er, kine­mat­ic para­me­ters and math­e­mat­i­cal model

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    16

    Nguyen Long Lam, Guseynov E.M. Deter­mi­na­tion of dynam­ic and sta­tis­ti­cal efforts in the con­struc­tion ele­ments of skid plate of the for­est tractor

    Anno­ta­tion: The arti­cle presents a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for study­ing the dynam­ics of a wheeled forestry trac­tor with an active semi­trail­er in the process of load­ing a bun­dle of trees. As a result of the stud­ies, the min­i­mum val­ues of the nor­mal com­po­nent of veloc­i­ty and shock pulse. Cal­cu­la­tions car­ried out on the basis of a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el showed that when load­ing a bun­dle of trees using a four-link shield, the min­i­mum val­ues of the nor­mal veloc­i­ty com­po­nent and the shock pulse cor­re­spond to the val­ue of the angle  deter­min­ing the posi­tion of the shield at the moment of con­tact with the pack­et equal to 55°. The mag­ni­tude of the shock pulse at a val­ue of φ = 55° is prac­ti­cal­ly inde­pen­dent of the coef­fi­cient of fric­tion f. Appro­ba­tion of the mod­el was car­ried out with ref­er­ence to the trac­tor T‑40L.

    Key­words: wheeled forestry trac­tor, active forestry semi­trail­er (AFS), kine­mat­ic para­me­ters, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el and shock impulses

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    17

    Sidorenkov N.V., Mar­tynov B.G., Tara­ban M.V. The ratio­nale for a proac­tive strat­e­gy of pre­ven­tion of hydromanipulators.

    Anno­ta­tion: From the analy­sis of the research on the devel­op­ment of sys­tems of tech­ni­cal main­te­nance and repair of the most advanced sys­tem proac­tive­ly pro­vides pre­ven­ta­tive main­te­nance, based on the sta­tis­ti­cal results of the fail­ures of the least reli­able nodes and inter­faces. To jus­ti­fy a proac­tive strat­e­gy of pre­ven­tion (SRP) is nec­es­sary to deter­mine the reli­a­bil­i­ty of the GM, to col­lect sta­tis­ti­cal data on fail­ures of these ele­ments, to devel­op the rules by which IT is held and R. To jus­ti­fy the cri­te­ri­on of the SRP is the most suit­able tech­nique in which to form a strat­e­gy first, applied analy­sis of the cur­rent tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the object and, sec­ond­ly, intro­duced the con­cept of rel­a­tive prob­a­bil­i­ties, rep­re­sent­ing the dif­fer­ence between the prob­a­bil­i­ty of fail­ure and prob­a­bil­i­ty of fail­ure. Based on this the notion of the quan­tile of prob­a­bil­i­ty and on the basis of iden­ti­fied areas of favourable oper­a­tion of the mech­a­nism, where 0 ≤ r(t) ≤ 1, the time of the first diag­no­sis, tD 1 , where r(t) = 0.75 and the time of the sec­ond diag­no­sis tD 2 (cor­rec­tion curve changes a scan para­me­ter), in which the prob­a­bil­i­ty P(t) and Q(t) inter­sect (in the ide­al case this val­ue is equal to 0.5) and the time when the machine can be put in repair [r(t) = –0,5]. But since curves of prob­a­bil­i­ties are adjust­ed accord­ing to the results of the cur­rent tech­ni­cal state of machin­ery, the inten­si­ty of uptime and fail­ures have dif­fer­ent coef­fi­cients. And the pre­ven­tion area is deter­mined by the range of vari­a­tion of the rel­a­tive like­li­hood func­tion r(t) from +0.75 to 0.5 in. The point at which r(t) = 0 deter­mines the opti­mal main­te­nance time of the machine. This tech­nique allows the Man­ag­er to make deci­sions on the man­age­ment of the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the car. But in the case that such mech­a­nisms as the GM, who work main­ly sea­son­al and gen­der-Neu load need tight­en­ing or even the per­mis­si­ble lim­it val­ues of diag­nos­tic para­me­ters and in the orga­ni­za­tion of proac­tive main­te­nance and repair is not nec­es­sary to deter­mine the quan­ta of diag­no­sis. In this case, is mon­i­tored and it is there­fore nec­es­sary to deter­mine the crit­i­cal point, after which it fol­lows, nec­es­sar­i­ly, stop the GM, to car­ry out main­te­nance and advanced repairs. The pur­pose of the study. The ratio­nale for a proac­tive strat­e­gy of pre­ven­tion of the GM, pro­vid­ing pre­ven­ta­tive main­te­nance, on the basis of sta­tis­ti­cal results of the fail­ures of the least reli­able nodes and inter­faces. The arti­cle defines the con­di­tions for chang­ing para­me­ters of the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion to deter­mine the time of pre­ven­tion, con­trol para­me­ters and equa­tion to deter­mine the time prevention.

    Key­words: hydraulic manip­u­la­tor, proac­tive strat­e­gy, prevention

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    1. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY
    18

    Spit­syn A.A., Belousov I.I., Tur­sunov T.B., Hen V.A. Ther­mo­chem­i­cal con­ver­sion of grind­ed pressed plant biomass.

    Anno­ta­tion: The paper deals with the seal­ing machine with par­tial chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing of raw mate­ri­als and the inno­v­a­tive tech­nol­o­gy for obtain­ing gran­u­lar acti­vat­ed car­bon­con­tain­ing prod­uct and liq­uid bio­fu­el by the method of com­paction (pel­letiz­ing) of pre-crushed raw mate­ri­als, accel­er­at­ed hydrol­y­sis, pyrol­y­sis and sub­se­quent acti­va­tion. The results of appro­ba­tion of the tech­nol­o­gy on bench instal­la­tions and devices are pre­sent­ed. It is shown that the obtained pel­lets cor­re­spond to the main indi­ca­tors of domes­tic and for­eign stan­dards for pel­lets from veg­etable raw mate­ri­als. In the pro­duc­tion process, a chem­i­cal mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the feed­stock takes place, as indi­cat­ed by the increased val­ue of lignin con­tent in the sam­ples. When pyrol­y­sis of the pel­lets is pro­duced, a gran­u­lar car­bona­ceous residue, liq­uid bio­fu­el, and a com­bustible gas-vapor mix­ture are pro­duced. From the gran­u­lar car­bona­ceous residue, acti­vat­ed car­bons with an adsorp­tion activ­i­ty of iodine com­pa­ra­ble to char­coal of the DAK brand were obtained. One of the direc­tions of fur­ther research is the selec­tion of var­i­ous addi­tives into the raw mate­r­i­al before com­paction and gran­u­la­tion to improve the prop­er­ties of pel­lets, in par­tic­u­lar, to increase the calorif­ic val­ue and to reduce ash con­tent. How­ev­er, the most inter­est­ing direc­tion of using com­pact­ed bio­mass residue in the form of pel­lets is to use as a raw mate­r­i­al for ther­mo­chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing in order to obtain ener­get­i­cal­ly dense prod­ucts, in par­tic­u­lar pyrol­y­sis. The work showed the expe­di­en­cy of devel­op­ing a sin­gle autonomous tech­nol­o­gy for plant bio­mass residues pro­cess­ing with the pro­duc­tion of com­pet­i­tive com­mod­i­ty prod­ucts: gran­u­lar acti­vat­ed car­bons, liq­uid bio­fu­el, as well as steam-gas sweep with suf­fi­cient calorif­ic val­ue to ensure the oper­a­tion of spe­cial com­bus­tion devices.

    Key­words: pel­letiz­ing, com­paction, bio­fu­el, auto­hy­drol­y­sis, lignin, car­bona­ceous residue, plant raw mate­ri­als, pyrol­y­sis, acti­va­tion, gran­u­lar acti­vat­ed carbon.

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    19

    Yev­doki­mo­va E.V., Yuriev Yu.L. The effect of rel­a­tive feed of steam and the tem­per­a­ture of the acti­va­tion process on the yield and qual­i­ty of acti­vat­ed aspen charcoal.

    Anno­ta­tion: Aspen on wood sup­plies of decid­u­ous species ranks the sec­ond place in Rus­sia. Resources are not being used well, that is of inter­est to researchers at the present time. Pur­pose: to obtain active car­bon (AC) on the basis of aspen wood with suf­fi­cient­ly high sorp­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics. To do this, the nec­es­sary stud­ies were car­ried out, in which the influ­ence of the main fac­tors of the acti­va­tion process on the yield and qual­i­ty of the AC pro­duced was stud­ied. For acti­va­tion, a sam­ple of indus­tri­al con­trol, which cor­re­spond­ed to Russ­ian stan­dart 7657, was used. The con­trol sys­tem was obtained from aspen wood on a mod­u­lar pyrol­y­sis-retort unit at a final pyrol­y­sis tem­per­a­ture of 600°C. Con­ven­tion­al meth­ods of analy­sis were used to deter­mine the qual­i­ty para­me­ters of the AС. Math­e­mat­i­cal meth­ods of exper­i­ment plan­ning were used to deter­mine the reg­u­lar­i­ties of acti­va­tion process­es. Of the many fac­tors that affect the acti­va­tion process, we have cho­sen three main ones: tem­per­a­ture (X1), spe­cif­ic water vapor con­sump­tion (X2) and the dura­tion of the acti­va­tion process (X3).The tem­per­a­ture of the acti­va­tion process var­ied in the range of 760…820 C, the spe­cif­ic flow rate of water vapor was 1.3–1.8 kg/kg char­coal, the dura­tion of acti­va­tion var­ied from 90 to 120 min­utes. As the response func­tions were tak­en: Y1 – yield of AC (%); Y2 – total pore vol­ume (cm3/g); Y3 – adsorp­tion activ­i­ty of iodine (%). The exper­i­ment allowed us to obtain regres­sion equa­tions ade­quate­ly describ­ing the influ­ence of the main act­ing fac­tors on the out­put and prop­er­ties of the AC. The results obtained for the acti­va­tion of aspen AC were com­pared with sim­i­lar stud­ies that were car­ried out on the acti­va­tion of birch char­coal. As a result of the research it was deter­mined that the out­put of AC from both aspen and birch is more influ­enced by the spe­cif­ic con­sump­tion of steam. The total pore vol­ume of AC depends on the tem­per­a­ture and spe­cif­ic steam flow rate. While acti­vat­ing, the aspen con­trol unit has a greater impact spe­cif­ic steam con­sump­tion. The aspen AC has an iodine activ­i­ty rate of about 15–20% high­er than the birch AC obtained under the same conditions.

    Key­words: aspen, aspen char­coal, active carbon

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    1. PERSONALITIES
    20

    Kuznetsov E.N., Smirnov A.P., Cher­tov O.G. In mem­o­ry of Sve­tozar Niko­lae­vich Sennov

    Anno­ta­tion: On May 17, 2018 Sve­tozar Sen­nov, Pro­fes­sor of the Depart­ment of Forestry at St. Peters­burg State For­est Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty, Doc­tor of Agri­cul­tur­al Sci­ences, Hon­ored Sci­en­tist of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion, passed away.

    Key­words: per­son­al­i­ties

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  • Issue 223
  • Name of article Page Arti­cle
    1. FORESTRY
    1 Nguyen Van Dinh, Gryazkin A.V., Belye­va N.V., Phan Thanh Lam, Shakhov A.G. Nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of conifers on the area of for­est plantations

    Anno­ta­tion: Cre­ation of for­est plan­ta­tions is an impor­tant part of refor­esta­tion activ­i­ties in forestry pro­duc­tion. Not always and every­where an arti­fi­cial for­est plan­ta­tions is effec­tive. The main rea­sons for this are not high qual­i­ty soil prepa­ra­tion and fail­ure to com­ply with the scheme of plant­i­ng (dis­tance between fur­rows and between plants in the fur­row), the non-obser­vance of tim­ing of plant­i­ng and the lack of pre­scribed treat­ments, i.e., in Gen­er­al, vio­lat­ed the tech­nol­o­gy of cre­ation of for­est plan­ta­tions. The result is low sur­vival rate and low safe­ty of for­est plan­ta­tions. On the oth­er hand soil prepa­ra­tion for plan­ta­tions is an effec­tive mea­sure to pro­mote nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, not only for hard­wood, but also soft­wood. Self-seed­ing is not expe­ri­enc­ing trans­fer shock and there­fore his growth and devel­op­ment nat­u­ral­ly occurs more rapid­ly. On rich soils the most suc­cess­ful being nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion ate. Pine under these con­di­tions is dis­placed by a pow­er­ful grass and dense hard­wood under­growth. The main rea­son for this is helio­phi­tos pine. The grow­ing num­ber of self-seed­ing conifers in all con­di­tions ahead of for­est plan­ta­tions. Espe­cial­ly clear­ly man­i­fest­ed in the first years after the estab­lish­ment of for­est plan­ta­tions, plant­ed when the seedlings or saplings are expe­ri­enc­ing trans­fer shock and to adapt to new con­di­tions of growth and self-seed­ing on the con­trary, with­out com­pe­ti­tion from the grass in the first years after soil prepa­ra­tion is suc­cess­ful­ly grow­ing. If soil prepa­ra­tion was car­ried out in the year an abun­dant har­vest of seeds of conifers, the num­ber of self-seed­ing in num­bers many times greater than for­est cul­ture of any den­si­ty. In addi­tion to the self-seed­ing on any clear­ing there is a cer­tain amount of under­growth is pre­served after the cut­ting. In some cas­es, the pro­por­tion of the under­growth pre­lim­i­nary renew­al in the com­po­si­tion of the young pop­u­la­tion reach­es 25–30%. The appear­ance of self-sown young growth and under­growth in the area of for­est cul­tures is due to the many con­found­ing fac­tors. First and fore­most is the num­ber of incom­ing seeds on the pre­pared soil. The sec­ond fac­tor in impor­tance is the qual­i­ty of the prepa­ra­tion of the soil, name­ly, the degree of min­er­al­iza­tion. The third, equal­ly impor­tant fac­tor is the grow­ing con­di­tions, type of site and stand con­di­tions. Fourth – com­pe­ti­tion from grass and young hardwoods.

    Key­words: for­est ecosys­tems, for­est plan­ta­tions, nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, self­sow­ing, young growth, liv­ing ground cover.

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    2 Mishuko­va I.A., Lebe­dev P.A., Kryukovskiy A.S., Bogo­molo­va E.V. Phy­ton­ci­dal activ­i­ty of plants in con­di­tions of closed soil on the exam­ple Fit­to­nia Gigan­tea (Acan­thaceae), Cos­tus Cus­p­i­da­tus (Costaceae) and Trades­cant­ia Spathaceae (Com­meli­naceae)

    Anno­ta­tion: Urban envi­ron­ment con­tains a large num­ber of path­o­gen­ic microor­gan­isms (bac­te­ria, fun­gi of virus­es). From year to year, they are becom­ing more dan­ger­ous to humans. The air pol­lu­tion inside build­ings is much high­er than in the open air due to favor­able con­di­tions for the growth of the num­ber of dif­fer­ent microor­gan­isms, includ­ing mold fun­gi. The use of plants with active phy­ton­cide (bac­te­ri­ci­dal, antivi­ral and anti­fun­gal) prop­er­ties is the safest and most suit­able way of clean­ing air, despite the large num­ber of mod­ern tech­no­log­i­cal means. At present, a large num­ber of stud­ies have been car­ried out to study the phy­ton­ci­dal action of plants in closed soil, but an impor­tant prob­lem remains the search for new promis­ing species that have an active san­i­tiz­ing effect. The pur­pose of the explo­ration was to study species of plants that have phy­ton­ci­dal activ­i­ty against spores of mold fun­gi con­tained in the air of the premis­es. One of the most com­mon mold fun­gi indoors is Peni­cil­li­um auran­tiogri­se­um Dier­ckx, whose spores per­sist in the air for many years, are resis­tant to phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions and can cause a vari­ety of dis­eases in a per­son – aller­gies, infec­tious process­es, chron­ic tox­in poi­son­ing, etc. The study revealed the phy­ton­ci­dal effect of the volatile emis­sions of mag­no­liofit Fit­to­nia gigan­tea Lin­den com­pared with oth­er exper­i­men­tal flow­er­ing plants (Cos­tus cus­p­i­da­tus (Nees & Mart.) Maas, Trades­cant­ia spathacea Sw.) on spores of fun­gus P. auran­tiogri­se­um Dier­ckx. This plant can be rec­om­mend­ed for use in the green­ing of premis­es and san­i­ta­tion of the air envi­ron­ment from such path­o­gen­ic for human microor­gan­isms as mold fungi.

    Key­words: phy­ton­cide activ­i­ty, air envi­ron­ment, volatile active ingre­di­ents, Fit­to­nia gigan­tea, Peni­cil­li­um auran­tiogri­se­um.

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    3 Smirnov A.P., Smirnov A.A., Mongush B.Aj‑D. Pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of conifer forests and espe­cial­ly nat­ur­al for­est regen­er­a­tion on the felling with regard to for­est soil fertility

    Anno­ta­tion: The pur­pose of the study is to deter­mine the impact of effec­tive for­est soil fer­til­i­ty on pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of spruce and pine stands of pure the com­po­si­tion, as well as the suc­cess of the sub­se­quent nat­ur­al for­est regen­er­a­tion on the felling. Effec­tive for­est soil fer­til­i­ty by O.Chertov is the ratio of thick­ness the humus hori­zon and for­est lit­ter (humus-lit­ter coef­fi­cient, HLC). Spruce pro­duc­tiv­i­ty Leningrad region has high direct cor­re­la­tion with HLC (R2 = 0.884). The high­est pro­duc­tiv­i­ty trees (qual­i­ty class IA and Ia, 5) is char­ac­ter­ized by fer­til­i­ty coef­fi­cients, equal respec­tive­ly 2.3 and 2. Depen­dence of pro­duc­tiv­i­ty pine stands from HLC was sig­nif­i­cant­ly less close than spruce stands (R2 = 0.464). In stands with the high­est pro­duc­tiv­i­ty (qual­i­ty class Ia, 5‑Ib, 5) HLC is 1.7–3.5. On the felling where pre­scrip­tion 5–15 years the amount of HLC nat­u­ral­ly increas­es the orig­i­nal for­est types from the poor to the rel­a­tive­ly rich habi­tats. This change the den­si­ty and com­po­si­tion of for­est regen­er­a­tion, both gen­er­al and regen­er­a­tion of conifers. The high­est over­all den­si­ty of for­est regen­er­a­tion (20–22 thou­sand copies./ha), with a fair­ly large por­tion of pine regen­er­a­tion is 5–6 thou­sand copies./ha char­ac­ter­is­tic soil medi­um fer­til­i­ty (HLC = 1.2), but with some exces­sive mois­ture – poly­tri­chosum and nass myr­tillo­sum. The largest num­ber of young conifers (pine­dom­i­nat­ed com­po­si­tion) – 8–13 thou­sand copies./ha is inher­ent in the poor and arid habi­tats (vac­cin­io­sum and сladi­nosum for­est types). With the increase of effec­tive soil fer­til­i­ty changes of young pines on young spruce, with under­growth den­si­ty conifers declines in gen­er­al. This den­si­ty has a close rela­tion­ship with neg­a­tive non­lin­ear HLC (R2 = 0.916). Den­si­ty under­growth of birch from the soil fer­til­i­ty is not affect­ed (R2 = 0.025), where­as the den­si­ty of aspen regrowth has with him a high pos­i­tive rela­tion­ship (R2 = 0.706). Growth of under­brush with HLC loose­ly con­nect­ed, but in most cas­es the under­brush reduces den­si­ty under­growth of conif­er­ous species and, in par­tic­u­lar, young pine. Growth of grass­es, espe­cial­ly cere­als, char­ac­ter­is­ti­cal­ly for the rich soil, and also has a sig­nif­i­cant neg­a­tive effect on den­si­ty pine regrowth. Thus, soil, pos­sess­ing the high­est effec­tive fer­til­i­ty, after cut­ting down mater­nal stand soon devel­oped by com­peti­tors of pine and spruce: herbs, under­brush and decid­u­ous breeds, pri­mar­i­ly aspen. Con­se­quent­ly, the orig­i­nal for­est stand com­po­si­tion and type, deter­min­ing effec­tive soil fer­til­i­ty, in the absence of man­age­ment mea­sures on assis­tance to nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of conif­er­ous breeds, we can con­fi­dent­ly pre­dict the suc­cess of a nat­ur­al fol­low-up refor­esta­tion of all felling.

    Key­words: conif­er­ous forests, for­est types, for­est soil fer­til­i­ty, cut­ting, for­est regen­er­a­tion, under­brush, grass cover.

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    4 Danilov D.A., Zhi­gunov A.V., Ryabinin B.N., Vaiman A.А. Assess­ment of the con­di­tion of for­est and posta­gro­genic soils of the Leningrad region and prospects of inten­sive for­est growth in these areas

    Anno­ta­tion: Using poten­tial fer­til­i­ty mosagro­gen soil you can grow of tar­get woody plants and to bal­ance and mar­ketable tim­ber in a short­er time than in the lands of the for­est Fund. The prob­lem of this issue is lit­tle inves­ti­gat­ed and now it is nec­es­sary to assess the prospects of grow­ing high pro­duc­tiv­i­ty plan­ta­tions on posta­gro­genic. The aim of the study was to com­pare for­est and posta­gro­genic soils in such para­me­ters as the car­bon con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter and total nitro­gen, to pre­dict the prospects for the orga­ni­za­tion of the econ­o­my with the accel­er­at­ed cul­ti­va­tion of pro­duc­tive tree plan­ta­tions on fal­low lands. In posta­gro­genic and wood­ed land were select­ed in the area with sim­i­lar con­di­tions of soil for­ma­tion under ripe for­est stands belong­ing to the for­est types: myr­tillus, oxalis and quer­cus-her­bosa and posta­gro­genic soil com­plex­es of fal­low lands. Con­duct­ed assess­ment of some physi­co-chem­i­cal para­me­ters of soil com­mon in soil sci­ence meth­ods: deter­mined par­ti­cle size dis­tri­b­u­tion, the den­si­ty of the com­po­si­tion and pow­er of the genet­ic soil hori­zons. The den­si­ty of addi­tion of all hori­zons was esti­mat­ed by Kaczyn­s­ki; deter­mi­na­tion of car­bon was car­ried out by dry ash­ing, total Kjel­dahl nitro­gen, pH salt extrac­tion by the poten­tio­met­ric method. Analy­sis of car­bon stocks of organ­ic mat­ter (С) and nitro­gen (N) in the genet­ic hori­zons of soils of blue­ber­ry, acidic and oak-grass for­est types shows an increase in the con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter and total nitro­gen from blue­ber­ry to oak-grass for­est type. There is a decrease in the con­tent of organ­ic car­bon from the humus hori­zon to the ashed one: in quer­cus-her­bosa for­est types – 2.8, acidic – 7.6, myr­tillus – 8.5 times. The posta­gro­genic restora­tion to the land is cur­tains char­ac­ter or occurs at the microde­pres­sions of the for­mer fur­rows. The organ­ic mat­ter con­tent in the arable hori­zon of posta­gro­genic par­cel of land be at the lev­el of par­ents type of the wood. The con­tent of total nitro­gen in these soils is high from 5 to 7.4 t/ha – at the lev­el of oak-grass for­est type. The ratio C: N, which char­ac­ter­izes the enrich­ment of humus nitro­gen, for most humus hori­zons of soils is 8–10, which cor­re­sponds to a high and medi­um degree of secu­ri­ty with this ele­ment. Accord­ing to the con­tent of weeds and Com­mu­ni­ties in the upper hori­zon of the soil form the fol­low­ing decreas­ing series: quer­cus-her­bosa type for­est > lands >for­est oxalis type > myr­tillus type for­est > arable land. Com­par­a­tive analy­sis of phys­i­cal and agro­chem­i­cal con­di­tion of posta­gro­genic and for­est soils showed that, in spite of pre­vi­ous anthro­pogenic impact, agron­o­my hori­zon main­tains a high organ­ic mat­ter con­tent and total nitro­gen. Dete­ri­o­ra­tion of the prop­er­ties of posta­gro­genic soils in the study areas does not occur and trans­for­ma­tion in the direc­tion of nat­ur­al for­est soils of the region is not observed, despite the long peri­od of occur­rence (over 30 years). The ratio of car­bon and nitro­gen in posta­gro­genic soils by soil pro­file shows a high­er fer­til­i­ty than in for­est soils, where the indi­ca­tor C:N is opti­mal only part of the hori­zon A1. Assess­ing the suit­abil­i­ty of the sur­veyed areas of fal­low lands for the accel­er­at­ed cul­ti­va­tion of dif­fer­ent species of wood to pro­duce bio­mass, it can be stat­ed that the lev­el of organ­ic mat­ter and total nitro­gen exceeds or cor­re­sponds to the con­di­tions of growth in Ia –I class of bonitet for the region of the study.

    Key­words: for­est and posta­gro­genic soils, organ­ic mat­ter, total nitro­gen, soil den­si­ty, car­bon-nitro­gen ratio in soil

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    5 Kho­dachek O.A. Impact of soil fac­tor on the state of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.) stands in Leningrad region and in Ida-Viru­maa coun­ty (Esto­nia).

    Anno­ta­tion: This arti­cle dis­cuss­es the impact of soil fac­tors on the state of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.) stands. The aim of research is to iden­ti­fy the pos­si­ble rela­tion­ship between the con­di­tion of green spaces and phys­i­cal-chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil in which they grow. The study was found­ed on 11 sam­ple plots in ongo­ing mon­i­tor­ing, locat­ed in urban forests in dif­fer­ent dis­tricts of St. Peters­burg (Vyborg, Resort, Pushkin), in the Vyborg dis­trict of the Leningrad region and the Repub­lic of Esto­nia (the Coun­ty of IDA-Viru­maa). It was car­ried out tax­o­nom­ic descrip­tion and eval­u­a­tion of phy­tosan­i­tary con­di­tion of from 70 to 100 trees in each sam­ple area with the def­i­n­i­tion of the aver­age score of the state of the for­est as a whole. It was lists fac­tors of weak­en­ing, detect­ed dur­ing recon­nais­sance sur­vey con­duct­ed at the end of the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od in each sam­ple area (as of Sep­tem­ber 2017). The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the results of agro­chem­i­cal soil analy­sis of the sur­veyed plots: gran­u­lo­met­ric com­po­si­tion; the amount of organ­ic mat­ter and the acid­i­ty of the soil; the con­tent of soil exchange­able potas­si­um and phos­pho­rus. The arti­cle also presents data on the cation-anion­ic com­po­si­tion of the aque­ous extract of the soil, and cal­cu­lates the sum of tox­ic salts on the sur­veyed ter­ri­to­ries. The results of the soil analy­sis showed suf­fi­cient sup­ply of plant phos­pho­rus and organ­ic mat­ter, low con­tent of exchange potas­si­um and high lev­els of soil acid­i­ty on most of the This arti­cle dis­cuss­es the impact of soil fac­tors on the state of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.) stands. The aim of this research is to iden­ti­fy the pos­si­ble rela­tion­ship between the con­di­tion of green spaces and phys­i­cal-chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil in which they grow. The study was found­ed on 11 sam­ple plots in ongo­ing mon­i­tor­ing, locat­ed in urban forests in dif­fer­ent dis­tricts of St. Peters­burg (Vyborg, Resort and Pushkin), in the Vyborg dis­trict of the Leningrad region and the Repub­lic of Esto­nia (the Coun­ty of IDA-Viru­maa). It was car­ried out tax­o­nom­ic descrip­tion and eval­u­a­tion of phy­tosan­i­tary con­di­tion of from 70 to 100 trees in each sam­ple area with the def­i­n­i­tion of the aver­age score of the state of the for­est as a whole. It was lists fac­tors of weak­en­ing, detect­ed dur­ing recon­nais­sance sur­vey con­duct­ed at the end of the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od in each sam­ple area (as of Sep­tem­ber 2017). The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the results of agro­chem­i­cal soil analy­sis of the sur­veyed plots: gran­u­lo­met­ric com­po­si­tion; the amount of organ­ic mat­ter and the acid­i­ty of the soil; the con­tent of soil exchange­able potas­si­um and phos­pho­rus. The arti­cle also presents data on the cation-anion­ic com­po­si­tion of the aque­ous extract of the soil, and cal­cu­lates the sum of tox­ic salts on the sur­veyed ter­ri­to­ries. The results of the soil analy­sis showed suf­fi­cient sup­ply of plant phos­pho­rus and organ­ic mat­ter, low con­tent of exchange potas­si­um and high lev­els of soil acid­i­ty on most of the sur­veyed plots. The sum of tox­ic salts in the soil does not exceed the thresh­old lev­el. Research has iden­ti­fied the soil fac­tors that have the great­est impact on the phy­tosan­i­tary con­di­tion of pine and spruce stands: the lev­el of acid­i­ty, con­tent of tox­ic salts in the soil.plots. The sum of tox­ic salts in the soil does not exceed the thresh­old lev­el. Research has iden­ti­fied the soil fac­tors that have the great­est impact on the phy­tosan­i­tary con­di­tion of pine and spruce stands: the lev­el of acid­i­ty, con­tent of tox­ic salts in the soil.

    Key­words: urban forests, agro-chem­i­cal soil analy­sis, fac­tors of weak­en­ing of the for­est stands of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.).

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    6 Ershov P.V., Bess­chet­no­va N.N., Bess­chet­nov V.P. Mul­ti­di­men­sion­al assess­ment of plus trees of Nor­way spruce (Picea abies) in the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of needles

    Anno­ta­tion: Researched mul­ti-para­me­ter affin­i­ty plus trees of Nor­way spruce using a range of indi­ca­tors of the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of nee­dles. Stud­ied veg­e­ta­tive prog­e­ny of 21 plus trees of Nor­way spruce at the age of 34 years. They are placed accord­ing to a uni­form scheme in the clone archive in the ter­ri­to­ry of the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. Clus­ter and fac­tor analy­sis of 24 char­ac­ter­is­tics of the pig­ment com­po­si­tion 1‑year and 2‑year-old pine estab­lished the genet­ic close­ness of objects. Extrac­tion of pig­ments in 96% ethanol were ana­lyzed with a spec­tropho­tome­ter «Grat­ing 722». The choice of wave­lengths cor­re­spond to absorp­tion max­i­ma: chlorophyll‑a (663 Nm), chlorophyll‑b (645 Nm), carotenoids (440 Nm). Defined their sep­a­rate and total con­tents, and the ratio between them. Dis­cov­ered dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion in assort­ment com­po­si­tion plus trees of Nor­way spruce. The extent of their phe­no­typ­ic het­ero­gene­ity due to numer­ous fea­tures intro­duced in the scheme expe­ri­ence varies. Con­firmed the sta­bil­i­ty of the ratios between the inves­ti­gat­ed plus trees. Their com­po­si­tion was orga­nized into clus­ters, in vary­ing degrees, dis­tant from each oth­er. As fixed dif­fer­ences and the nature of the group­ings of plus trees was formed in aligned envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions, there is every rea­son to rec­og­nize their hered­i­tary char­ac­ter. Plus trees rep­re­sent­ing dif­fer­ent clus­ters are less like­ly to be close rel­a­tives, while the objects includ­ed in the same clus­ter, poten­tial­ly sim­i­lar in genet­ic terms. Received infor­ma­tion about their com­pre­hen­sive reach allows to form the opti­mal com­po­si­tion of seed orchards, elim­i­nat­ing the risk of the neg­a­tive effect of inbreed­ing depres­sion in seed progeny.

    Key­words: Nor­way spruce, plus-trees, nee­dles, chlorophyll‑a, chlorophyll‑b, carotenoids, fac­tor analy­sis, clus­ter analysis.

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    7 Chernikhovsky D.M. Using the auto­mat­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of relief by Iva­hashi and Pike to assess the quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests on the basis of ele­va­tion mod­els of ter­rain and surface

    Anno­ta­tion: The aim of the arti­cle is to eval­u­ate and inter­pret the rela­tion­ships between the mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of the relief and for­est char­ac­ter­is­tics using geoin­for­ma­tion tech­nolo­gies and mor­pho­me­t­ric analy­sis. The rel­e­vance of this direc­tion is relat­ed to the search for quan­ti­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of land­scapes capa­ble of deter­min­ing the vari­abil­i­ty of quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests. As the mod­el ter­ri­to­ry, the cen­tral part of the for­mer Lisin­sky Edu­ca­tion­al and Exper­i­men­tal Leskhoz of the Leningrad Region was cho­sen. The mod­el ter­ri­to­ry has a rec­tan­gu­lar shape. It is divid­ed into cells of a reg­u­lar net­work with a step of 1000 m. On the mod­el ter­ri­to­ry was formed a geo-infor­ma­tion project with help for­est inven­to­ry data­bas­es and dig­i­tal ele­va­tion mod­els. The for­ma­tion and com­par­a­tive eval­u­a­tion of both ele­va­tion mod­els (dig­i­tal ter­rain mod­el on base of topo­graph­ic maps and dig­i­tal sur­face mod­el on base of SRTM data) was car­ried out. With help of pro­files and lin­ear regres­sion, the dif­fer­ences between the mod­els are esti­mat­ed. The homo­ge­neous char­ac­ter of changes in the heights of the two mod­els are not­ed. But sig­nif­i­cant vari­abil­i­ty in the alti­tudes of the SRTM mod­el and an aver­age dif­fer­ence between mod­el heights of about 15 m was not­ed too. For ele­va­tion and sur­face mod­els, Iva­hashi and Pike auto­mat­ed clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the relief topog­ra­phy was per­formed (by sequen­tial deter­mi­na­tion and analy­sis of a set of mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics – steep­ness of slopes, tex­ture and con­vex­i­ty). The results of the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of both mod­els of heights are sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent, which can be explained by the influ­ence of the for­est canopy on the results of the SRTM sur­vey. The results of regres­sion analy­sis of rela­tion­ships between for­est char­ac­ter­is­tics (depen­dent vari­ables) with class­es of relief forms (inde­pen­dent vari­ables) are obtained. The rela­tion­ship between the char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests and the results of clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the relief can be explained by the influ­ence of the relief on the for­ma­tion of for­est habi­tats. Prospects for research in this area are relat­ed to the improve­ment of the the­o­ry and prac­tice of for­est inven­to­ry works on the basis of quan­ti­ta­tive analy­sis of spa­tial data on for­est land­scapes using geoin­for­ma­tion tech­nolo­gies and remote methods.

    Key­words: auto­mat­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the relief, for­est tax­a­tion, geo­mor­phom­e­try, quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests, dig­i­tal ter­rain mod­el, dig­i­tal sur­face model

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    8 Kovyazin V.F., Pham Thi Hien Luong. Hor­i­zon­tal struc­ture of phy­to­cenoses of the Kurort for­est park of Saint-Peters­burg in con­di­tions of inten­sive recre­ation­al load

    Anno­ta­tion: The Kurort for­est park is locat­ed on the ter­ri­to­ry of the North­ern coast of the Neva Bay, with­in the bound­aries of the Kurort­nyj and Pri­morsky admin­is­tra­tive of St. Peters­burg area. These urban forests are a favorite vaca­tion spot of Peters­burg­ers. Accord­ing to the for­est depart­ment of Kurort for­est park in the sum­mer, the num­ber of recre­ants is about a mil­lion peo­ple who focus on land locat­ed near the Gulf of Fin­land. Molodeg­ny, Komarovsky, Ses­troret­sky and Pesochin­sky forestry. A large num­ber of tourists are con­cen­trat­ed in a small area, which caus­es degra­da­tion of phy­to­cenoses, which affects the struc­ture of the plant­i­ngs. In par­tic­u­lar, the hor­i­zon­tal struc­ture of veg­e­ta­tion. The urban forests of St. Peters­burg from conif­er­ous tree species dom­i­nat­ed by Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies; from Lar­ix – Betu­la and Alnus gluti­nosa. The impor­tance of the prob­lem of hor­i­zon­tal for­est struc­ture is proved by all the expe­ri­ence of its devel­op­ment in low­land con­di­tions. The hor­i­zon­tal struc­ture of plant com­mu­ni­ties are rel­a­tive­ly homo­ge­neous. Parcels dif­fer only in terms of grow­ing plants. The par­cel struc­ture of for­est park phy­to­cenoses was stud­ied in dif­fer­ent for­est types with dif­fer­ent recre­ation­al load. Parcels dif­fer in com­po­si­tion, struc­ture, prop­er­ties of com­po­nents, their dis­tri­b­u­tion over the area. The more small parcels that have arisen as a result of inten­sive recre­ation, the high­er the degree of oppres­sion of all com­po­nents and phy­to­ceno­sis as a whole. The num­ber and size of the parcels depend on the for­est types and the devel­op­ment of liv­ing ground cov­er. Between them, there is a con­nec­tion owned by wood edi­fi­ca­to­ry, i.e. the types that have the strongest envi­ron­men­tal prop­er­ties. The num­ber and size of parcels depends on the for­est types and recre­ation­al impact on phytocenosis.

    Key­words: par­cel, struc­ture, park’s phy­to­coeno­sis, liv­ing ground cov­er, recre­ation­al impact

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    9 Duro­va А.S., Zhi­gunov А.V. Biochar effects of on soil fer­til­i­ty and growth of spruce seedlings in sow­ing sec­tions of for­est nurs­eries.

    Anno­ta­tion: Improve­ment of agro­chem­i­cal, phys­i­cal, chem­i­cal and bio­log­i­cal prop­er­ties of soil as a result of biochar appli­ca­tion as an ame­lio­rant has been proved in numer­ous stud­ies. Appli­ca­tion of ame­lio­rant in biochar dos­es rang­ing from 1 to 30 tons per ha has proved to be most effec­tive in grow­ing crops. How­ev­er, biochar effects on the growth of conif­er­ous seedlings in the sow­ing sec­tion of for­est nurs­eries have not been con­sid­ered in the lit­er­a­ture. The aim of the research was to study the effects of dif­fer­ent biochar dos­es on agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of soils in for­est nurs­eries with dif­fer­ent gran­u­lo­met­ric soil com­po­si­tion and on the growth of spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L.)). Biochar fine-ground frac­tions (5 mm in diam­e­ter) were intro­duced into one-meter length lines of five-row sow­ing tapes in dos­es of 5 and 25 t/ha. In the con­trol vari­ants of the exper­i­ment, biochar was not intro­duced. For seed­ing, dry conifer seeds were used, which were pre­pared for sow­ing by stan­dard meth­ods. Agrotech­ni­cal meth­ods for grow­ing seedlings were car­ried out accord­ing to stan­dard tech­no­log­i­cal maps. The exper­i­ment had five repli­cates. The growth and devel­op­ment of Euro­pean spruce seedlings as well as soil fer­til­i­ty para­me­ters were stud­ied dur­ing three grow­ing sea­sons in the sow­ing sec­tions of for­est nurs­eries. At the exper­i­men­tal plots, the height of the seedlings and the diam­e­ter of their root col­lars were deter­mined at the end of each grow­ing sea­son. 30 mod­el seedlings were select­ed to deter­mine the mass of a seedling, which was done after the seedlings were dried to a con­stant weight at a tem­per­a­ture of 80 C. The soil fer­til­i­ty para­me­ters were eval­u­at­ed based on the car­bon con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter and acid­i­ty; in addi­tion, the con­tents of avail­able forms of nitro­gen, phos­pho­rus and potas­si­um were deter­mined. The agro­chem­i­cal analy­ses were per­formed using stan­dard meth­ods and pro­ce­dures. Soil sam­pling was car­ried out using the enve­lope method in accor­dance with GOST 174.3.01–83. The valid­i­ty of the applied biochar dos­es on the growth of seedlings was assessed with the sin­gle-fac­tor analy­sis of vari­ance. The intro­duc­tion of biochar to the soil of the nurs­ery sow­ing sec­tion in dos­es of 5 and 25 t/ha influ­enced the agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of both sandy and sandy loamy soil. In more fer­tile sandy loam soils, biochar pos­i­tive­ly influ­enced agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of the soil, which result­ed in high­er growth rates of spruce in the first grow­ing sea­son. How­ev­er, the biochar effects on the agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of sandy loamy soil grad­u­al­ly decreased with time. When biochar was applied in a dose of 5 t/ha, car­bon and nitro­gen con­tents decreased sig­nif­i­cant­ly, which led to lev­el­ing of height growth of seedlings after the sec­ond grow­ing sea­son. How­ev­er, increase in the seedling root col­lar diam­e­ter and weight was sig­nif­i­cant with respect to the con­trol for both dos­es of biochar, 5 and 25 t/ha, after three years of cul­ti­va­tion. On sandy soil, the biochar effects on soil were more extend­ed in time. By the end of 3 years, pos­i­tive changes in the agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of the soil were still going on for both dos­es, 5 and 25 t/ha. How­ev­er, due to low­er agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of sandy soil, the growth of seedlings in these con­di­tions remained low and the seedlings did not reach the stan­dard para­me­ters after three years of cul­ti­va­tion, even with the intro­duc­tion of ameliorant.

    Key­words: biochar, for­est nurs­ery, growth rate, seedlings, Euro­pean spruce (Picea abies (L.)).

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    10 Gievaya L.P., Guse­va E.A., Kalmyko­va A.l., Ovcharenko E.A., Pchelyakov S.N. Sub­stan­ti­a­tion of plants’ selec­tion for the for­ma­tion of sen­so­ry mod­ules on school grounds in Saratov

    Anno­ta­tion: When design­ing or recon­struct­ing school grounds, it is nec­es­sary to take into account the mod­ern require­ments to the orga­ni­za­tion of the edu­ca­tion­al process and leisure of school­child­ren. 95% of the school ter­ri­to­ries in Sara­tov do not meet these require­ments. One of the con­tem­po­rary trends in the orga­ni­za­tion of the school ter­ri­to­ry is the cre­ation of sen­so­ry mod­ules with veg­e­ta­tion using to improve the recre­ation­al, health, cog­ni­tive and sen­so­ry per­cep­tion of school­child­ren. Sen­so­ry mod­ules should include a set of ele­ments, plants, designs and their com­bi­na­tions, to con­form to the stan­dards and safe­ty rules, to be bright and inter­est­ing for games and class­es of school­child­ren of dif­fer­ent ages. Most of the chil­dren study­ing in the edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions of Sara­tov are kines­thet­ics and visu­als. This unique fea­ture is relat­ed to the specifics of the city infos­phere and the lack of nat­ur­al com­po­nents in it. To devel­op their olfac­to­ry, audi­to­ry and tac­tile sub­sys­tems, it is nec­es­sary to include plants and ele­ments that have the appro­pri­ate char­ac­ter­is­tics: aro­mas, tex­tured sur­faces and var­i­ous sounds in the sen­so­ry mod­ules. The soci­o­log­i­cal sur­vey made it pos­si­ble to deter­mine the qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of sen­so­ry mod­ules attrac­tive for school­child­ren. Groups of aro­mas pleas­ant for chil­dren, col­ors and their com­bi­na­tions, sounds of nature, tex­tures of sur­faces, tac­tile sen­sa­tions and prefer­able kinds of rest are revealed. On the basis of these char­ac­ter­is­tics, plants were select­ed for their place­ment in sen­so­ry mod­ules on the ter­ri­to­ry of school grounds in Sara­tov. Rec­om­men­da­tions are giv­en on the for­ma­tion of basic sen­so­ry mod­ules from selec­tion of trees, bush­es, lianas and peren­ni­al plants suit­able for grow­ing in school grounds in the cities of the steppe zone. Plants for school sen­so­ry units should have peak dec­o­ra­tive­ness in spring and autumn, i.e. dur­ing the aca­d­e­m­ic year. Basic sen­so­ry mod­ules can have an area of only a few square meters. There­fore, the oppor­tu­ni­ties for their place­ment are avail­able on school grounds of any area. Depend­ing on the con­fig­u­ra­tion of school grounds, their com­bi­na­tions may be different.

    Key­words: Sara­tov, sen­so­ry mod­ule, per­cep­tion type, school­boy, school ground, mixboard­er, selec­tion, tree, bush, liana, flower garden

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    1. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    11 Alek­san­rov V.A., Gomon D.Yu. Vibra­tion effect to the oper­a­tor of feller-skid­der in the process of point­ing the grap­ple head on a tree.

    Anno­ta­tion: In arti­cle the dynam­ic mod­el of sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor-skid­ding trac­tor – tree bunch». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagranzha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tion is volved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion seats. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly felling and skid­ding machine LP-17A.

    Key­words: dynam­ic mod­el, math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion, fall­er bencher

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    12 Dru­chinin D.Yu., Dra­pa­lyuk M.V. Large plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al employ­ment in the cre­ation and recon­struc­tion of pro­tec­tive for­est plantations.

    Anno­ta­tion: The most impor­tant role of pro­tec­tive for­est plan­ta­tions in the issue of pro­tect­ing agri­cul­tur­al lands from neg­a­tive process­es of wind and water ero­sion, ravine growth and frost pen­e­tra­tion is indi­cat­ed. Con­sid­ered are the exist­ing struc­tures of for­est strips that are part of pro­tec­tive for­est plan­ta­tions. The dis­sat­is­fac­to­ry con­di­tion of the many of the exist­ing pro­tec­tive for­est strips is not­ed, as a result of which it is nec­es­sary to repair or recon­struct these plan­ta­tions. The prospects of using large plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al, trans­plant­ed with a soil clod, are shown when per­form­ing pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion work. The devel­oped plant lifter design is pre­sent­ed. The tool is aggre­gat­ed with a trac­tor and is used for work in for­est nurs­eries, where in-line escape­ment of lift­ing plants is observed. To improve the effi­cien­cy of the plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al har­vest­ing process with the abil­i­ty to work under the for­est canopy, tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment has been devel­oped for lift­ing and trans­plant­i­ng large plantlets, locat­ed on the basis of grap­ple plants. Pre­sent­ed machines can also be used to pre­pare plant­i­ng places for plant­i­ng them with exca­vat­ed plantlets. In this case, the formed plant­i­ng place will com­plete­ly repeat the con­tours of the plant being plant­ed soil clod. The pro­vi­sions of the Strat­e­gy for the devel­op­ment of pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion in the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion until 2020 are con­sid­ered. The need to cre­ate 4 mil­lion hectares of pro­tec­tive for­est plan­ta­tions for elim­i­nat­ing the neg­a­tive process­es of ero­sion and deser­ti­fi­ca­tion of agri­cul­tur­al lands and pre­vent­ing fur­ther degra­da­tion of agroter­ri­to­ries was iden­ti­fied. The pro­posed tech­nol­o­gy for the use of large plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al in pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion and the means for mech­a­niza­tion of the process of lift­ing and trans­plant­i­ng plantlets with a soil clod make it pos­si­ble to improve the effi­cien­cy and qual­i­ty of the cre­ation, repair or recon­struc­tion of pro­tec­tive for­est strips.

    Key­words: pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion, pro­tec­tive for­est plan­ta­tions, for­est strip, large plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al, plantlets lift­ing, plant lifter

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    13 Zubo­va O.V., Silet­skii V.V., Kozlov A.P., Kuznetsov K.V. Research of road mix­tures on the basis of the soils of the for­est zone and nepheline sludge with addi­tives of min­er­al binders

    Anno­ta­tion: In the stud­ies, a vari­ant of solv­ing the prob­lem of build­ing for­est roads is con­sid­ered. One of the solu­tions to this prob­lem is the cre­ation of a new eco­nom­i­cal­ly acces­si­ble mate­r­i­al – mix­tures of soil and nepheline sludge, rein­forced with min­er­al binders. Pre­vi­ous stud­ies of roads built using slimes con­firmed the effi­cien­cy and eco­nom­ic ben­e­fits of using this indus­try waste. Nepheline sludge was main­ly stud­ied as an inde­pen­dent mate­r­i­al, mix­tures of nepheline sludge with for­est soils were lit­tle stud­ied. Stud­ies of nepheline sludge as a com­po­nent that strength­ens the soils of the for­est zone of the North­west have been car­ried out.The arti­cle presents the results of stud­ies of such mix­tures as: a mix­ture of sand treat­ed with slur­ry cement; mix­ture of loam treat­ed with slime cement. The results of the stud­ies con­firm the poten­tial effec­tive­ness of the use of nepheline sludge for the con­struc­tion of for­est roads in the zone of the Northwest.

    Key­words: nepheline sludge, for­est roads, for­est soils, road con­struc­tion, sand, loam.

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    14 Gaag S.V. Mod­el­ing the dis­place­ment of the soil throw­er in extin­guish­ing for­est fires.

    Anno­ta­tion: The use of soil to coun­ter­act for­est fires by throw­ing the milling units promis­ing, as in the forests on dry soils, on the plains near the edge of the fire it is avail­able in large vol­ume. The pur­pose of this arti­cle is to study the pat­terns of move­ment of grun­do­mat at sup­pres­sion of for­est fires due to the fact that the mod­ern­iza­tion of its tech­nol­o­gy is the assess­ment of dynam­ic fac­tors. Research method­ol­o­gy is based on the eval­u­a­tion of the influ­ence of macro envi­ron­ment on the work of grun­do­mat when fight­ing for­est fires, the mod­el­ing of this process on the basis of bal­ance equa­tions of forces and moments, and a numer­i­cal mod­el cal­cu­la­tion. A key advan­tage of grun­do­mat is a par­al­lel imple­men­ta­tion of the whole range of func­tions with the active fire sup­pres­sion: inhi­bi­tion (inhi­bi­tion and back­fill­ing of fire ground), local­iza­tion (through the fur­row to a depth of 15–30 cm, exca­va­tion) and dry­ing fire (by means of a band around the perime­ter of the fire). Note that the ran­dom nature of the het­ero­gene­ity of the soil will lead to tran­sient load­ing con­di­tions of the dri­ve, there will be speed vari­a­tions, and sto­chas­tic angu­lar accel­er­a­tion. Cut­ting dur­ing fire fight­ing, in con­trast to earth-mov­ing machin­ery requires high cut­ting speeds (vp > 20 m/s) and dynam­ic pri­or­i­ty fac­tors. In addi­tion, the design pro­vides grantomet small val­ues of the coef­fi­cient of fric­tion of the milling knife blades on the ground, as the trans­verse milling of the soil. These fac­tors deter­mine the need for the devel­op­ment of milling tech­nol­o­gy, with a sig­nif­i­cant speeds and a reg­u­lat­ing vec­tor of throw­ing soil on the edge of the fire. The results of numer­i­cal analy­sis of the mod­el move grantomet to cre­ate lanes for fire extin­guish­ing on the basis of forces of sup­ply and moment act­ing on the mill depend­ing on modes of ground resis­tance to cut­ting, kine­mat­ic para­me­ters indi­cate a range of modes of grantomet and chip for­ma­tion of soil, which allows to opti­mize the oper­a­tion and design of grundomat.

    Key­words: for­est fire, mill, fire, soil, min­er­al­ized band, grantomet, modeling

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    1. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY
    15 One­gin V.I., Sergee­vichev A.V. Phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal bases of process­es of for­ma­tion of poly­mer­ic cov­er­ings on a sol­id surface

    Anno­ta­tion: Paint coat­ings are used var­i­ous branch­es of the nation­al econ­o­my. Suc­cess­ful­ly com­bin­ing a com­plex of the pos­i­tive prop­er­ties inher­ent in poly­mer­ic mate­ri­als, with dec­o­ra­tive and physic-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of wood and wood mate­ri­als, cov­er­ings allow to real­ize suc­cess­ful­ly numer­ous tasks of for­ma­tion of a pro­tec­tive dec­o­ra­tive coat­ing at the present stage of sci­en­tif­ic and tech­ni­cal progress. Due to the wide use of paint coat­ings in tech­nique new coat­ing com­po­si­tions, meth­ods of draw­ing and meth­ods of for­ma­tion of cov­er­ings are inten­sive­ly devel­oped, the equip­ment and research tech­niques is improved, the range of appli­ca­tion extends. In this arti­cle which prin­ci­ples results of numer­ous works in the field of the phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal process­es which are tak­ing place liq­uid on a demar­ca­tion – a sub­strate are at for­ma­tion of paint coat­ings the attempt to gen­er­al­ize the saved-up mate­ri­als for years of research­es is made, at the same time aspired to objec­tive assess­ment, the avail­able data that allows to indi­cate the need of fur­ther devel­op­ment of the sci­en­tif­ic rep­re­sen­ta­tions which are the cor­ner­stone of process­es of for­ma­tion of cov­er­ings. Authors sought to open a phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal sub­stance of process­es of for­ma­tion of cov­er­ings and to show a process ambi­gu­i­ty of for­ma­tion of a paint coat­ing. At the same time the atten­tion to con­crete­ness of this or that mode was to a less­er extent paid, and kinet­ic reg­u­lar­i­ties and ten­den­cies of process are con­sid­ered. For­ma­tion of paint coat­ings includes the com­pos­ite com­plex of stages and tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tions, each of which demands express mate­ri­als and an inven­to­ry. The known poly­mer­ic mate­ri­als can be mod­i­fied tak­ing into account require­ments of tech­nol­o­gy and prop­er­ties of a sol­id sur­face which plays a defin­ing role in inter­ac­tion with the coat­ing com­po­si­tions lead­ing to for­ma­tion of strong adhe­sion con­tact and pro­vid­ing demand­ed physic-mechan­i­cal and pro­tec­tive and dec­o­ra­tive with prop­er­ties of a cov­er­ing. Com­plex­i­ty of the phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal phe­nom­e­na on bor­der poly­mer – the sol­id sur­face demands use of the rec­om­men­da­tions which are avail­able in inter­fac­ing areas and the­o­ret­i­cal rep­re­sen­ta­tions. The con­duct­ed research­es allow to claim that for every­one con­crete a com­bi­na­tion of a coat­ing com­po­si­tion to a sub­strate the para­me­ters inher­ent only in this con­crete sys­tem of inter­ac­tion are set though the com­mon extreme char­ac­ter remains. The con­duct­ed research­es show that heat­ing of a sur­face of a sub­strate pro­motes wet­ting improve­ment by its coat­ing com­po­si­tions that, final­ly, increas­es qual­i­ty of cov­er­ings. Thus, if the task of the ratio­nal choice of tech­no­log­i­cal process of fin­ish­ing is set, it is nec­es­sary to con­sid­er influ­ence of numer­ous fac­tors of inter­fer­ence of the phase inter­ac­tions of a gaseous flu­id, liq­uid and a sol­id body.

    Key­words: sub­strate (sol­id body), wet­ting, spread­ing, adhe­sion, cohe­sion, liq­uid, gas, wet­ting angle, mix sol­vent, mod­i­fi­ca­tion, ener­gy, curing

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    1. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY
    16 Vurasko A.V., Simono­va E.I., Minako­va A.R., Mano­jlović D.D. The study of pat­terns of influ­ence of alka­li treat­ment on prop­er­ties of organo­sol­vent cel­lu­lose from straw of rice.

    Anno­ta­tion: Receive avail­able sor­bents based on nat­ur­al mate­ri­als for visu­al col­or deter­mi­na­tion of the con­tent of met­al ions in con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed nat­ur­al and waste waters is a top­i­cal area of research. Sor­bents on the basis of tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose sat­is­fy these require­ments. In the process of obtain­ing tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose is pro­posed to use bio­mass straw rice. Removal of straw rice min­er­al com­po­nent when car­ry­ing out the oxi­da­tion-organo­sol­vent use the cook­ing stage alka­li treat­ment, which leads to degra­da­tion of poly­sac­cha­rides, reduc­ing the out­put of tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose. In this regard, the aim of this work is to study the reg­u­lar­i­ties of the alka­line treat­ment of rice straw for max­i­mum preser­va­tion of the high out­put tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose, extract­ing the min­er­al and the pos­si­bil­i­ty of using the cel­lu­lose as the colour of the sor­bent. Tak­ing into account the pre­lim­i­nary stud­ies, opti­mal con­di­tions of tech­no­log­i­cal fac­tors were found ensur­ing a high yield of fibrous mate­r­i­al from rice straw with a min­i­mum con­tent of min­er­al com­po­nents in it. Sub­se­quent organo­sol­vent pulp­ing yields tech­ni­cal pulp with a yield of 48.8% bone dry raw mate­r­i­al (BDRM), an min­er­al ash con­tent of 0.05% of BDRM, a lignin con­tent of 2.5% of BDRM, sat­is­fac­to­ry strength prop­er­ties, high sorp­tion prop­er­ties, the nec­es­sary white­ness and pH of aque­ous extract. It is revealed that the tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from straw of rice con­tains met­als accu­mu­lat­ed bio­mass dur­ing the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od. Alka­line treat­ment and oxida­tive-organo­sol­vent the delig­ni­fi­ca­tion in most cas­es leads to a decrease of met­al con­cen­tra­tions in pulp tech­ni­cal. With the excep­tion of alu­minum, iron and lead, the con­tent of which is tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose increas­es. Thus, cel­lu­lose obtained in opti­mum con­di­tions of alka­line treat­ment and sub­se­quent oxi­da­tion-organo­sol­vent pulp­ing of straw of rice, tak­ing into account the con­tained met­als suit­able for use as a sor­bent for visu­al col­or deter­mi­na­tion of the con­tent of met­al ions in pol­lut­ed nat­ur­al and sewage waters.

    Key­words: tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose, absorbents, straw of rice, organo­sol­vent the delig­ni­fi­ca­tion, min­er­al ash, metals

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    17 Bay­dakov D.L. Elec­trode prop­er­ties of halo­genid­chalko­genide glass­es and amor­phy films obtained by the method of chem­i­cal applic

    Anno­ta­tion: Mul­ti­com­po­nent halidechalco­genide films CuI-PbI2-As2Se3, CuI-AgI-As2Se3, PbI2-AgI-As2Se3 were syn­the­sized from the solu­tions of halo­gen­halco­genide glass­es in n‑butylamine and the elec­trode prop­er­ties of glass­es and films were stud­ied. It has been estab­lished that the elec­trode prop­er­ties of halo­genidechalco­genide glass­es and films of sim­i­lar com­po­si­tion are prac­ti­cal­ly the same. The sim­i­lar­i­ty of the elec­trode char­ac­ter­is­tics of halo­genidechalco­genide glass­es and films is explained by the preser­va­tion of the poly­mer­ic struc­ture of glass­es when they are dis­solved in nbuty­lamine and the films are applied from the solution

    Key­words: halo­genidechalco­genide glass­es and films, chem­i­cal depo­si­tion from n‑butylamine, elec­trode prop­er­ties of glass­es and films of sim­i­lar composition.

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    18 Mak­si­mo­va E.A., Vasi­lyev A.V. Ben­zy­la­tion and oxi­da­tion of arabinogalactan.

    Anno­ta­tion: Ben­zy­la­tion of ara­bino­galac­tan was car­ried by reac­tion with ben­zyl chlo­ride in the pres­ence of sodi­um hydrox­ide. The ben­zy­lat­ed deriv­a­tive was obtained in a yield of 90%. Ben­zy­lat­ed ara­bino­galac­tan is hydropho­bic, glue-like, non-dry­ing mate­r­i­al. 13C NMR spec­trum of ben­zy­lat­ed ara­bino­galac­tan con­tains sig­nals in the range of 130.0–143.2 ppm. cor­re­spond­ing to the aro­mat­ic car­bon atoms of the ben­zyl group. The oxi­da­tion of ara­bino­galac­tan by reac­tion with hydro­gen per­ox­ide in the presence

    of fer­ric chlo­ride (III) in aque­ous solu­tion was done. The oxi­dized ara­bino­galac­tan is an oil­ish mate­r­i­al. 13C NMR spec­trum of oxi­dized ara­bino­galac­tan con­tains sig­nals at 158–173 ppm cor­re­spond­ing to car­boxyl groups.

    Key­words: larch wood, ara­bino­galac­tan, oxi­da­tion of ara­bino­galac­tan, ben­zy­la­tion of ara­bino­galac­tan, 13С NMR spectroscopy

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    19 Sofrono­va E.D., Lipin V.A. Mod­ern tech­nolo­gies in the pulp industry

    Anno­ta­tion: Cel­lu­lose – as a nat­ur­al poly­mer, has a huge poten­tial for use in the poly­mer indus­try. The main type of raw mate­r­i­al for the pro­duc­tion of cel­lu­lose esters is cot­ton due to its high con­tent of «pure» cel­lu­lose. Also, mod­ern tech­nolo­gies of chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing of wood pulp can be achieved to its high qual­i­ty. The devel­op­ment of the pulp indus­try fol­lows the path of cre­at­ing bio­com­plex­es for wood pro­cess­ing, where the max­i­mum use of wood raw mate­ri­als takes place in order to obtain var­i­ous types of prod­ucts with low envi­ron­men­tal load on the envi­ron­ment. Extrac­tion of var­i­ous com­po­nents in the form of glu­cose, hemi­cel­lu­los­es, extrac­tives and lignin from the formed black liquor allows to use in the med­i­cine, in the form of bio­fu­el, the tex­tile indus­try for impart­ing cer­tain qual­i­ties in oth­er areas. The tech­nol­o­gy of gasi­fi­ca­tion of black liquor allows to obtain bio­fu­el in the form of methane or dimethyl ether. Twostage oxy­gen-alka­line bleach­ing allows to achieve more «soft» con­di­tions for extrac­tion of non-cel­lu­lose com­po­nents, lignin and extrac­tives. Envi­ron­men­tal friend­li­ness of pro­duc­tion is anoth­er area of active devel­op­ment of wood pro­cess­ing tech­nol­o­gy. The col­lec­tion and com­bus­tion of non-con­dens­able gas­es, the cre­ation of a sin­gle point for the dis­charge of puri­fied gas­es, the use of non-tox­ic bleach­ing agents, can reduce the bur­den on the envi­ron­ment. Gasi­fi­ca­tion tech­nol­o­gy that pro­vides envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly pro­duc­tion of bio­gas for the needs of the plant, allows to stop the use of fos­sil fuels, and also allows to receive also liq­uid fuels, for exam­ple, gaso­line. The cur­rent real­i­ties of the devel­op­ment of the poly­mer indus­try cre­ate an excel­lent com­pet­i­tive envi­ron­ment for reveal­ing the poten­tial of wood pulp. Vari­ants of rad­i­cal mod­ern­iza­tion of cel­lu­lose pro­duc­tion on the basis of ener­gy-sav­ing and envi­ron­men­tal­ly safe tech­nol­o­gy are also possible.

    Key­words: pulp and paper indus­try, by-prod­ucts of pulp pro­duc­tion, bio­com­plex, dis­solv­ing pulp, kraft pulp, bio­gas pro­duc­tion, gasi­fi­ca­tion, envi­ron­men­tal safe­ty, bleach­ing, con­tin­u­ous sul­phate cook­ing, mod­ern tech­nolo­gies, trends, future, pulp production

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    1. INFORMATION SYSTEMS. MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
    20 Zay­ats A.M., Khabarov S.P. Orga­ni­za­tion of access to wire­less ad hoc net­works of infor­ma­tion sys­tems for mon­i­tor­ing for­est ter­ri­to­ries from the envi­ron­ment of OS Win­dows 10

    Anno­ta­tion: The tech­ni­cal imple­men­ta­tion of mod­ern infor­ma­tion sys­tems for mon­i­tor­ing for­est ter­ri­to­ries is based on wire­less self-orga­niz­ing Ad Hoc net­works. How­ev­er, unlike Win­dows 7, access to indi­vid­ual nodes of this net­work from lap­tops and tablets work­ing on the basis of the new­er Win­dows 10 is ham­pered by the lack of the abil­i­ty to work with Ad Hoc net­works in the graph­i­cal shell of this sys­tem. This arti­cle pro­pos­es an approach for orga­niz­ing this type of wire­less con­nec­tion, which uses inter­nal resources of Win­dows 10, avail­able from its com­mand line envi­ron­ment, and imple­ment­ed in the netsh wlan com­mand fam­i­ly. On the sim­plest exam­ple of direct Wi-Fi con­nec­tion of two vir­tu­al machines with wire­less USB adapters, the oper­abil­i­ty of the pro­posed approach is demon­strat­ed and the nec­es­sary sequence of actions is described in suf­fi­cient detail.

    Key­words: wire­less sen­sor net­works, mon­i­tor­ing, forestry, ad hoc net­works, OS Win­dows 10.

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  • Issue 222
  • Name of article Page Arti­cle
    1. FORESTRY
    1 Cher­dant­se­va O.А., Zhuko­va E.А. On the impor­tance of cre­at­ing the com­mon method­ol­o­gy for green spaces inven­to­ry of his­tor­i­cal gar­dens in St. Petersburg

    Anno­ta­tion: The pur­pose of the pre­sent­ed work is to draw atten­tion to one of the prob­lems in pre­serv­ing old-aged plant­i­ngs of his­tor­i­cal gar­dens and parks in St. Peters­burg – their inven­to­ry. The tasks were the analy­sis of the his­to­ry of the devel­op­ment and the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of prob­lems of mod­ern inven­to­ry, the devel­op­ment of rec­om­men­da­tions for their elim­i­na­tion and the devel­op­ment of inven­to­ry meth­ods in mod­ern con­di­tions. Inven­to­ry for green plan­ta­tions in St. Peters­burg began at the end of the XIX cen­tu­ry. By the end of the 1950s, a uni­fied method for the inven­to­ry of urban green plan­ta­tions in major cities of the USSR had been adopt­ed, which had been used up to the present. In St. Peters­burg, the inven­to­ry of gar­dens and parks is, as before, a respon­si­bil­i­ty of the North-West For­est Inven­to­ry Enter­prise. But in the ear­ly 2000s, many new orga­ni­za­tions appeared, offer­ing ser­vices in this sphere. As a result, new meth­ods of inven­to­ry­ing green plan­ta­tions have emerged. Accord­ing to the results of the analy­sis of mod­ern inven­to­ry doc­u­ments, it is not­ed that there are cas­es of appli­ca­tion of dif­fer­ent meth­ods on one inven­to­ry object, which indi­cates the incon­sis­ten­cy of the actions of the orga­ni­za­tion itself, which under­took the oblig­a­tion to car­ry out works. In addi­tion, a lot of arith­meti­cal errors and the loss of exist­ing ele­ments on the object, as well as unjus­ti­fied deter­mi­na­tion of the age and species of trees, and much more are revealed. A com­mon stan­dard for car­ry­ing out inven­to­ries is impor­tant for the fur­ther use of these data in mod­ern geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tems, which become an inte­gral ele­ment of eco­nom­ic activ­i­ty in gar­dens and parks in gen­er­al and in his­toric gar­dens in par­tic­u­lar. The arti­cle sug­gests a method for inven­to­ry­ing gar­dens, based on the old method­ol­o­gy and incor­po­rat­ing some of the pro­pos­als over the last years.

    Key­words: his­tor­i­cal gar­dens, Sum­mer Gar­den, inven­to­ry of green spaces.

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    2 Ivano­va E.I., Ivanov-Omskiy V.I., Davy­do­va I.A., Gri­nenko E.V., Leon­tiev L.L., Selikhovkin A.V. The change in the struc­ture of hydro­gen bonds in elm wood due to dam­age by Euro­pean elm bark bee­tle Scoly­tus mul­ti­s­tria­tus (Mar­sham) (Coleoptera: Cur­culion­idae, Scolytinae).

    Anno­ta­tion: Hydro­gen bond (H‑bond) pro­vides the nec­es­sary flex­i­bil­i­ty and sta­bil­i­ty of bio­log­i­cal sys­tems, includ­ing wood. It is pos­si­ble to use Infrared spec­troscopy to study the ener­gy and con­cen­tra­tion of H‑bonds in wood. In this case, it is pos­si­ble to assess the nature of the hydrox­yl groups based on the lengths and ener­gies of H‑bonds, known for hydro­gen bonds in cel­lu­lose, lignin and oth­er wood com­po­nents, which had been stud­ied ear­li­er [Ivanov-Omskiy et al., 2017; Ivano­va et al., 2016]. Of spe­cial inter­est is the solu­tion of the prob­lem of chang­ing the strength and oth­er prop­er­ties of wood when the tree dies in case of dam­age by bio­log­i­cal agents. In this paper, the task was to study the effect of dam­age by bark bee­tles on the struc­ture of hydro­gen bonds of wood. The object of research was elm Ulmus glabra Huds infest­ed by the Euro­pean elm bark bee­tle Scoly­tus mul­ti­s­tria­tus. This bark bee­tle is the vec­tor of Dutch elm dis­ease in St. Peters­burg. Sec­tions for spec­tral analy­sis are tak­en from the sur­face of the elm sap­wood inhab­it­ed by bark bee­tle. The obtained results showed that on the sites dam­aged by the sap­wood, the strongest inter­mol­e­c­u­lar bond (which binds the cel­lu­lose mol­e­cules togeth­er and ensures the strength of the trunk) breaks down. The con­cen­tra­tion of intramol­e­c­u­lar bonds also increas­es. This means a fun­da­men­tal change in the water metab­o­lism of wood cells, asso­ci­at­ed with the destruc­tion of aqua­por­ins. This phe­nom­e­non may be relat­ed to the response of the elm to the vio­la­tion of the move­ment of solu­tions through ves­sels dur­ing mechan­i­cal destruc­tion of wood dur­ing the feed­ing of bark bee­tles and/or the inges­tion of enzymes from their sali­vary glands, amy­lase or oth­er car­bo­hy­dras­es. It is also pos­si­ble that oth­er enzymes (such as those pro­duced by the bee­tles’ sym­bionts) come into con­tact with wood.

    Key­words: hydro­gen bond, absorp­tion ener­gy, wood, dam­ages, streamed sap­wood, aquaporins.

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    3 Ermako­va M.V. Growth and devel­op­ment of for­est cul­tures of pine under the canopy and cut­ting birch for­est of grass-mixed herbs in the Trans-Urals region.

    Anno­ta­tion: The results of research­es on growth and for­ma­tion of for­est pine cul­tures plant­ed on slash­es and under canopy of grass birch for­est at the ter­ri­to­ry of the Trans-Urals region hilly-foothill and plains province are con­sid­ered in the arti­cle. The cul­tures were cre­at­ed almost simul­ta­ne­ous­ly with the same type of place­ment and plant­i­ng the same num­ber of seedlings. At the age of trans­fer­ring of for­est plan­ta­tions to the for­est land under the under canopy cul­tures showed sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er sur­vival rate com­pared to the cul­tures in slash­es. How­ev­er, the under canopy cul­tures dif­fered by dis­pro­por­tion­ate growth in height com­pared with the growth in trunk diam­e­ter and by sub­stan­tial­ly small­er pro­jec­tion of the crown area than the cul­tures in slash­es. Under the canopy the aver­age rel­a­tive height of the trees was 58% high­er, and the aver­age area of the crown pro­jec­tion was 48% less than the same para­me­ters area on the felled area. For­est cul­tures of pine under the canopy of the stand and on the felled areas demon­strate sim­i­lar vari­abil­i­ty and dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees by all basic den­dro­met­ric indi­ca­tors. It was revealed that a sig­nif­i­cant lag in height of the under canopy cul­tures began only at the 8th year of their plant­i­ng. The age and height ratio of the cul­tures, how­ev­er, allow to sug­gests that the max­i­mum peri­od of pine growth in the plant­i­ng area should not exceed 4 years. The upper canopy in this case should be removed main­ly in win­ter in order to pro­vide a suf­fi­cient safe­ty of the cul­tures. In oth­er peri­ods the removal of the upper canopy must be made not lat­er than the end of the 3rd year of pine growth in plant­i­ng area. The growth of for­est cul­tures in plant­i­ng area more than 4 years leads to devel­op­ing of trees with dis­pro­por­tion­ate height and diam­e­ter and with reduced crown.

    Key­words: pine, under canopy cul­tures, growth, formation.

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    4 Sedikhin N.V., Masaitis V.V. Vis­it­ing of min­er­al licks by moose (Alces Alces L.) in spring-sum­mer peri­od on the ter­ri­to­ry of Leningrad region

    Anno­ta­tion: Remote meth­ods of study­ing pop­u­la­tions, name­ly the instal­la­tion of trail cam­eras in places of ani­mal con­cen­tra­tion, help to obtain more reli­able infor­ma­tion about the process­es of vital activ­i­ty of cer­tain species, in com­par­i­son with oth­er meth­ods. In Rus­sia, moose (Alces alces L.) is one of the most impor­tant species of hunt­ing resources. Using pho­to traps can sup­ple­ment and mul­ti­ply exist­ing infor­ma­tion about that species. Today, infor­ma­tion about the atten­dance of min­er­al licks by moos­es is rather mea­ger. In this arti­cle, the results of study­ing the lithofa­gial activ­i­ty of moose in the ter­ri­to­ry of the Leningrad Region are pre­sent­ed using the exam­ple of three regions. Obser­va­tions were con­duct­ed in the spring-sum­mer peri­od (May-July). The main char­ac­ter­is­tics of licks atten­dance are giv­en: aver­age, max­i­mum, min­i­mum dura­tion of vis­its by sex, age. Depen­den­cies of atten­dance for ten-month peri­ods and time of the day are pre­sent­ed. The pecu­liar­i­ties of vis­it­ing var­i­ous min­er­al licks by ani­mals have been estab­lished. The main rea­sons for dif­fer­ent atten­dance are ana­lyzed. The cat­e­gories of objects are dis­tin­guished by the nature of atten­dance. Con­clu­sions are made about the prospects of using hunt­ing cam­eras for studing the abun­dance and fea­tures of the moose biol­o­gy, and also ana­lyzed the var­i­ous exper­i­men­tal modes of cam­era work. Argu­ments are pre­sent­ed for the intro­duc­tion and mass-scale use of cam­eras in the hunt­ing area. In the future, authors plan to cre­ate a spe­cial­ized «moose» nomen­cla­ture that describes the mor­pho­log­i­cal and exte­ri­ors fea­tures, to ana­lyze the data obtained and to devel­op meth­ods for pre-har­vest­ing of moose on min­er­al licks.

    Key­words: moose (Alces alces), min­er­al lick, lithofa­gial activ­i­ty, atten­dance of min­er­al licks, trail camera.

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    5 Smirnov A.P., Smirnov A.A., Mongush B.Aj‑D. For­est regen­er­a­tion on the felling of the Leningrad region.
    1. Anno­ta­tion: Goal of the study is to deter­mine the impact on the suc­cess of the for­est regen­er­a­tion of the cat­ting areas where fac­tors such as the orig­i­nal (before felling) for­est type, com­po­si­tion and den­si­ty of under­brush, com­po­si­tion and extent of the pro­jec­tive cov­er grass. A lot pine under­growth, on sites where for­mer for­est type Pine­tum vac­cin­io­sum and Pine­tum сladi­nosum (8–10 thou­sand instance/ha), less under­growth in for­mer for­est type Pine­tum poly­tri­chosum and Pine­tum nass myr­tillo­sum (3.5–6 thou­sand instance/ha). In Pine­tum fresh myr­tillo­sum pine regrowth in just about 1 thou­sand instance/ha. Very lit­tle pine under­growth in cut­ting areas of the spruce for­est, and in the for­mer Birch and Aspen com­plete­ly miss­ing. The sub­se­quent spruce regen­er­a­tion bet­ter going in Picee­tum poly­tri­chosum and P. nass myr­tillo­sum (about 4.5 thou­sand instance/ha). In the Picee­tum fresh myr­tillo­sum, P. vac­cin­io­sum and oxali­do­sum den­si­ty of spruce under­growth 1–2.5 th. instance/ha. Den­si­ty of under­growth for indi­vid­ual species in one and the same source type of for­est is strong­ly ter­mi­nat­ed val­ue – coef­fi­cients of vari­a­tion reach 200% or more. The small­est vari­a­tion of the den­si­ty of conifers regrowth (37–62%) there has been in humid con­di­tions of growth – in Pine­tum and Picee­tum poly­tri­chosum, in Picee­tum nass myr­tillo­sum. In most cas­es, cre­at­ing con­di­tions close to for­est types have no reli­able dif­fer­ences in den­si­ty under­growth of the same species. Growth of under­brush in almost all cas­es, reduces the den­si­ty of under­growth; espe­cial­ly notice­able is the pine under­growth. Increase of the pro­jec­tive cov­er more than 15% grass on cat­ting 5–7 years ago dra­mat­i­cal­ly reduces the num­ber of young pine trees. Young spruce responds to growth of the pro­jec­tive cov­er herbs more moderately

    Key­words: felling, for­est types, for­est regen­er­a­tion, under­brush, grass cover.

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    6 Antonov O.I., Dzhikovich J.V. Tech­no­log­i­cal and eco­nom­ic fea­tures of cul­ti­va­tion of high-qual­i­ty wood of spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    Anno­ta­tion: The low effi­cien­cy of domes­tic forestry makes it a back­ward sec­tor of the coun­try’s econ­o­my. To rem­e­dy this sit­u­a­tion, it is nec­es­sary to improve for­est leg­is­la­tion, devel­op new evi­dence-based legal doc­u­men­ta­tion, change the psy­chol­o­gy of tem­po­rary work­ers in eco­nom­ic struc­tures, incl. ten­ants of the for­est fund and the intro­duc­tion of mod­ern tech­nolo­gies that increase the qual­i­ty of the cul­ti­vat­ed plan­ta­tions. Among these tech­nolo­gies is com­plex care for the for­est, which includes inten­sive thin­ning, repeat­ed appli­ca­tion of min­er­al fer­til­iz­ers, as well as mul­ti-tree prun­ing of tar­get trees. The use of this tech­nol­o­gy will make it pos­si­ble to obtain by the age of felling large-sized sawlog and ply­wood raw mate­ri­als, as well as var­i­ous spe­cial­ty grades, for exam­ple, res­o­nant, with homo­ge­neous branch­less wood, which has high phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal and acoustic prop­er­ties. Pos­sess­ing high cost, such wood will bring con­sid­er­able prof­it at for­est grow­ing. The deter­mi­na­tion of labor costs for prun­ing to a height of 2 m, 4 m, 6 m is per­formed by the time­keep­ing method with deter­mi­na­tion of chrono­log­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty. The psy­cho-phys­i­cal state of the per­form­ers was not tak­en into account. The devel­oped tech­nol­o­gy for grow­ing high-qual­i­ty spruce wood is as fol­lows: selec­tion of spruce stands of arti­fi­cial or nat­ur­al ori­gin of Ia–II bonitet class­es, first or sec­ond class of age; they select tar­get trees that meet cer­tain require­ments, in the amount of 600–800 pieces/ha, which will be includ­ed in the com­po­si­tion of ripe stand. On select­ed trees, using a suck­er-rod high-cut, the branch­es are pruned at inter­vals of 5 years to heights of 2 m, 4 m and 6 m. Thus, by the age of 25–30, it is nec­es­sary to form a 6‑m branch­less zone of the butt end of the trunk. Anoth­er vari­ant of this method is sin­gle-prun­ing up to a height of 6 m at the age of 25–30 years, but the total vol­ume of high-qual­i­ty wood will be low­er. The con­duct­ed stud­ies estab­lished the total addi­tion­al labor costs for prun­ing up to 6 m in 600–800 tar­get trees per 1 ha; a com­par­i­son is made between the cost of stan­dard edg­ing and knot­less, as well as res­o­nant sawn tim­ber, which ranges from 146% to 923%. It has been estab­lished that an increase in work­ing time per 1 person/hour leads to an increase in the aver­age cost of 1 m³ of wood by 1,6%–13,2%. Thus, the con­clu­sion is con­firmed that the time­ly prun­ing sig­nif­i­cant­ly increas­es the cap­i­tal­iza­tion of the cul­ti­vat­ed tar­get plantations.

    Key­words: high-qual­i­ty spruce wood, prun­ing tech­nol­o­gy, eco­nom­ic features.

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    7 Gryazkin A.V., Sam­sono­va I.D., Noviko­va M.A., Phan Thanh Lam, Van­ju­rak G.V., Vu Van Hung. The vari­abil­i­ty of bio­met­ric indi­ca­tors of birch bark, depend­ing on the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the forest.

    Anno­ta­tion: Birch bark is a unique nat­ur­al mate­r­i­al that is used in many indus­tries, phar­ma­col­o­gy, med­i­cine, cos­met­ics. For the man­u­fac­ture of house­hold uten­sils this mate­r­i­al is wide­ly used by the pop­u­la­tion of the for­est regions of Rus­sia for many cen­turies. The object of study – the phy­to­ceno­sis with a pre­dom­i­nance of birch in the struc­ture of for­est stands, which grow in dif­fer­ent for­est types. Birch on the exper­i­men­tal objects is a high­ly pro­duc­tive for­est stands of the I–III class­es of bonitet. The research objects are select­ed in the for­est Fund of the Leningrad region on the ter­ri­to­ry of sev­er­al for­est dis­tricts. Tax­o­nom­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the for­est stand at the exper­i­men­tal objects was giv­en using the stan­dard meth­ods of for­est inven­to­ry and for­est man­age­ment. Bark sam­ples were tak­en from trunks of mod­el trees at a height of 1.3 m, with­out dam­ag­ing the phloem. The sam­ples were aspired to take on the South side of the tree, dimen­sions approx­i­mate­ly 10×10 cm sam­ples of birch bark car­ried out with a mod­el tree of the pre­vail­ing lev­els of thick­ness (stage with the great­est num­ber of trunks of birch). From each dom­i­nant stage sam­ples were tak­en from not less than 3 mod­el trees. On each sam­ple site was select­ed from 10 to 28 mod­el trees. Each tree we mea­sured height, trunk diam­e­ter and record­ed its sta­tus. The bark sam­ples were weighed in fresh con­di­tion, and deter­min­ing the thick­ness, length, width and sur­face area. The dimen­sions of the sam­ples were mea­sured in the nor­mal range, and the thick­ness – a caliper with an accu­ra­cy of 0.1 mm. Each sam­ple is marked with the date, object, mod­el num­ber, diam­e­ter of the trunk. In the lab­o­ra­to­ry the sam­ples were dried to air-dry state and weighed again to deter­mine mois­ture con­tent of bark. The results of the study indi­cate that the char­ac­ter­is­tics of birch bark depends on the degree of devel­op­ment of the tree. One of the key tax­a­tion fac­tors affect­ing bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of birch bark is the trunk diam­e­ter, which in turn depends on the degree of devel­op­ment of the tree, age, con­di­tions of growth. It is estab­lished that the thick­ness of the bark in most cas­es depend on the inte­gral index of the trunk diam­e­ter, the larg­er the diam­e­ter, the greater the thick­ness of the bark. Excep­tions are made, the largest trunk diam­e­ter does not always cor­re­spond to the max­i­mum thick­ness of the bark and Vice ver­sa – with a min­i­mum trunk diam­e­ter bark thick­ness can be more than a tree with a large trunk diam­e­ter. In terms of absolute bark thick­ness at a height of 1.3 m from the select­ed mod­el trees var­ied from 0.3 to 4.2 mm. the Vari­a­tion of bark thick­ness expressed in trees with the same trunk diam­e­ter, which is asso­ci­at­ed with the age of the tree – the greater the age, the greater the thick­ness of the crust. At the same time revealed that the bark has a dif­fer­ent den­si­ty. On trunks of large diam­e­ter bark is less dense than on the trunks with a small diam­e­ter. This indi­ca­tor is also affect­ed by tree age, with the same diam­e­ter of the trunk bark has a high­er den­si­ty of trees whose age is more. Gen­er­al­ly man­i­fests itself fol­low­ing trend: the larg­er the diam­e­ter of the bar­rel, the less the den­si­ty of birch bark, i.e., larg­er trees the bark is loos­er, com­pared to small trees. The den­si­ty of bark varies wide­ly, from 220 to 794 kg/m3. The vol­ume per square meter of bark is asso­ci­at­ed with its thick­ness and also depends on diam­e­ter of trunk and age of tree. The obtained results can be used when adjust­ing the tables to deter­mine the stocks of indi­vid­ual ele­ments of the tree (bark) for North-West Rus­sia and with the assess­ment of birch forests of the taiga zone. In addi­tion, the research mate­ri­als can be used in devel­op­ing for­est plans, forestry poli­cies, devel­op­ment projects and for­est land. The main result of this research is a direct cor­re­la­tion of bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of birch bark from the diam­e­ter of birch trunk and age of tree. While the iden­ti­fied excep­tions to the estab­lished reg­u­lar­i­ties that are asso­ci­at­ed with the influ­ence of oth­er factors.

    Key­words: for­est Fund, the birch, the for­est, the expe­ri­enced objects, birch bark.

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    1. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    8 Alek­san­rov V.А., Alek­san­rov А.V., Gomon D.Yu. On the issue of sus­pen­sion of the front car­riages of the run­ning sys­tem of a feller buncher

    Anno­ta­tion: In arti­cle the dynam­ic mod­el of sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor-skid­ding trac­tor – tree bunch». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagranzha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tion is volved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion seats. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly felling and skid­ding machine LP-19A.

    Key­words: dynam­ic mod­el, math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion, fall­er bencher

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    9 Alek­san­drov V.А., Luzano­va L.N., Alek­san­drov А.V. Vibra­tion effect to the oper­a­tor of feller bunch­er in the mode of start­ing from the place

    Anno­ta­tion: In arti­cle the mod­el of bio­dy­nam­ic sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor – feller – the pack­ag­ing car (feller – bunch­er machine) – an object of the labor – a tree». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagranzha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion sus­pen­sion seats of the oper­a­tor by a method of Runge–Kutta, by engi­neer­ing math soft­ware Math­CAD. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly let out feller-pack­ag­ing cars LP-19A in the dis­per­sal mode at start-off from the place. As a result of research­es it is estab­lished: vibroload­ing oper­a­tors of feller-pack­ag­ing cars exceeds the san­i­tary code in 1.8–3.6 times. For decrease vibroload­ing oper­a­tors it is expe­di­ent to lim­it accel­er­a­tions at start-off from the place to 0.4 m/s2.

    Key­words: feller-the pack­ag­ing car (feller-bunch­er machine), math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, vibra­tion, seat.

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    10 Manichev D.N., Mya­sishchev D.G. Mod­el­ing of T‑16M self-pro­pelled chas­sis’ diesel engine start­ing motor ener­gy capacity.

    Anno­ta­tion: The arti­cle is devot­ed to devel­op­ment of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of fuel con­sump­tion of the engine start­ed by a starter as well as com­par­i­son with the results of the research­es. Hourly fuel con­sump­tion of the MP‑5 «Ural-2T ELECTRON» – engine D‑21A1 sys­tem rep­re­sents the tar­get func­tion of the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el. The aim of the arti­cle is to describe a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for the giv­en log­i­cal sys­tem. As a result of math­e­mat­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions the hourly fuel con­sump­tion is B = 1.24 kg/h. Research tests of start­ing the T‑16M trac­tor engine by the starter in win­ter con­di­tions showed that the hourly fuel con­sump­tion B = 1.28 kg/h. Thus, dis­crep­an­cy between the­o­ret­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions and research tests is 6%. Com­par­i­son of the­o­ret­i­cal and prac­ti­cal results leads to fol­low­ing con­clu­sions: the­o­ry based on the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el gives results clos­est to exper­i­men­tal ones with a dis­crep­an­cy of 6%; the devel­oped the­o­ret­i­cal mod­el can be includ­ed into the task of start­ing dri­ve com­po­nents’ optimization.

    Key­words: starter, hourly fuel con­sump­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal model.

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    1. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY
    11 Semen­ov A.V., Sergee­vichev A.V. The analy­sis of ways of increase in firm­ness of abra­sive belts in the con­di­tions of pro­cess­ing of wood and wood materials.

    Anno­ta­tion: Urgent ques­tions remain in improv­ing the qual­i­ty of the treat­ed by grind­ing sur­faces of wood prod­ucts and mate­ri­als based on it, as well as issues relat­ed to the increas­ing resis­tance of the grind­ing tool. Meth­ods of increase in resis­tance of abra­sive sand­ing belts when pro­cess­ing wood and wood mate­ri­als are con­sid­ered and proved. The work­ing capac­i­ty and resis­tance of the grind­ing tool in many respects depend from physics-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of mate­r­i­al of the cut­ting tool and mate­r­i­al of the processed prepa­ra­tion, the mode of cut­ting and its assign­ment, geom­e­try of abra­sive grain, ways of its draw­ing on a sand­ing belt and pro­cess­ing con­di­tions. Pos­si­ble options of increase in resis­tance of sand­ing belts are use of dif­fer­ent con­fig­u­ra­tions of cor­ru­gat­ed and firmer con­tact shaft and use of the cut­ting tool on the basis of the self-sharp­en­ing abra­sive mate­r­i­al capa­ble in pro­cess­ing to bare the new sharp cut­ting edges. The first way allows to increase resis­tance of sand­ing belts, but at the same time in a zone of cut­ting opti­mum con­di­tions for emer­gence of the increased tem­per­a­tures lead­ing to the increased heat gen­er­a­tion in a zone of cut­ting and to edu­ca­tion on worked sur­faces of burns are cre­at­ed and also this way is labor-con­sum­ing in respect of read­just­ment of the grind­ing equip­ment. The sec­ond way is more rel­e­vant and pro­gres­sive, allows at increase in spe­cif­ic pres­sure of a clip of a con­tact shaft to the processed sur­face of prepa­ra­tions, to bare the new cut­ting abra­sive edges and also to improve qual­i­ty of the sur­face processed by grind­ing, but at the same time there is open a ques­tion of eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of use of these abra­sive mate­ri­als on a num­ber of domes­tic productions.

    Key­words: grind­ing of wood and wood mate­ri­als, ways of increase in wear resis­tance of sand­ing belts, self-sharp­en­ing abra­sive grains.

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    12 Rusakov D.S., Chu­bin­sky A.N., Rusako­va L.N., Varank­i­na G.S. Inves­ti­ga­tion of the prop­er­ties of mod­i­fied phe­nol-formalde­hyde adhesives.

    Anno­ta­tion: The main trend in the devel­op­ment of glue pro­duc­tion in the world today is the cre­ation and pro­duc­tion of mod­ern, effi­cient and non-tox­ic adhe­sives. In this regard, one of the urgent prob­lems is the search for new mod­i­fiers for glu­ing resins, which will allow to obtain prod­ucts from wood hav­ing the required per­for­mance prop­er­ties. For the pur­pose­ful change and improve­ment of the prop­er­ties of phe­nol-formalde­hyde resins used in wood­work­ing, var­i­ous fillers and mod­i­fiers are used. The study used phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin to which var­i­ous pec­tol mod­i­fiers, black shales with par­ti­cle sizes of 0.005–0.2 mm, tech­ni­cal lig­no­sul­fonates with par­ti­cle sizes of 0.01–0.2 mm, a cold sludge with par­ti­cle sizes of 0.01–0.2 mm. In the process of inves­ti­ga­tion, the con­di­tion­al vis­cos­i­ty of the adhe­sive was deter­mined 1 h after the intro­duc­tion of the mod­i­fiers, the via­bil­i­ty of the adhe­sive, the cur­ing time and the emis­sion of formalde­hyde. Spec­tropho­tom­e­try and derivatog­ra­phy were used to study the chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion and the cur­ing process of the mod­i­fied phe­nol-formalde­hyde glue. The qual­i­ty of the ply­wood was eval­u­at­ed by the con­tent of free formalde­hyde in the fin­ished prod­uct – by the per­fo­rat­ing method in accor­dance with GOST 27678, the phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the ply­wood were eval­u­at­ed by the strength of the adhe­sive bond at shear­ing along the adhe­sive lay­er, the tests were car­ried out in accor­dance with GOST 9624. To sub­stan­ti­ate the bond­ing regimes and increase the strength of fin­ished prod­ucts, mul­ti­fac­tor exper­i­ments on glu­ing of ply­wood were car­ried out. Glu­ing was car­ried out in the con­di­tions of ply­wood pro­duc­tion in accor­dance with the tech­no­log­i­cal reg­u­la­tions adopt­ed at the enter­prise. The glued ply­wood was test­ed for strength in shear­ing along the adhe­sive lay­er. To sub­stan­ti­ate the decrease in the con­tent of free formalde­hyde in the fin­ished prod­uct, a mul­ti­fac­to­r­i­al exper­i­ment on glu­ing ply­wood in the con­di­tions of com­pa­ny Lesprom SPb was car­ried out. The glued ply­wood was test­ed for the con­tent of free formalde­hyde in the fin­ished prod­uct. At the final stage of the stud­ies, the eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of intro­duc­ing the pro­posed mod­i­fiers into the pro­duc­tion of ply­wood is jus­ti­fied. The results of the research allow us to draw the fol­low­ing con­clu­sions. Intro­duc­tion in adhe­sive for­mu­la­tions based on phe­nol-formalde­hyde resins rel­a­tive­ly cheap by-prod­ucts of pulp and paper pro­duc­tion, allows not only to improve the prop­er­ties of adhe­sives and to reduce the cost of fin­ished prod­ucts, but also to uti­lize the waste of the pulp and paper indus­try. Mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin with pec­tol and lig­no­sul­fonates accel­er­ates the cur­ing process of the adhe­sive, as evi­denced by an analy­sis of infrared absorp­tion spec­tra and DTA ther­mo­grams show­ing changes in the struc­ture cor­re­spond­ing to the min­i­mum gel time. The intro­duc­tion of the pro­posed mod­i­fiers into the phe­nol-formalde­hyde resins increas­es the strength of the ply­wood while reduc­ing the free formalde­hyde con­tent of the fin­ished product.

    Key­words: veneer, ply­wood, mod­i­fi­ca­tion, phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin, pec­tol, black shale, lig­no­sul­fonates, cold pressed sludge, glue, ply­wood strength, ply­wood quality.

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    13 Sokolo­va Е.G. The ratio­nale for the modes of bond­ing veneer in the man­u­fac­ture of ply­wood, man­u­fac­tured with the use of melaminecar­bamide­formalde­hyde resins

    Anno­ta­tion: Improv­ing the effi­cien­cy of pro­duc­tion of ply­wood, its a com­pet­i­tive indus­try in a num­ber of pan­el mate­ri­als is an impor­tant issue. The main objec­tives are improv­ing per­for­mance, reduc­ing tox­i­c­i­ty of the prod­uct, its mate­r­i­al, ener­gy and labor cost. The tasks are solved by the use of new resins, adhe­sives for­mu­la­tions, tech­no­log­i­cal approach­es, in par­tic­u­lar through the use of melaminecar­bamide­formalde­hyde resins, mod­i­fied aèrosilom tech­ni­cal. Stud­ies have allowed to jus­ti­fy the modes of glu­ing of the veneer packs of dif­fer­ent thick­ness with the appli­ca­tion of the mod­i­fied adhe­sive based on melaminecar­bamide­formalde­hyde resin. By reduc­ing press­ing time were decreased expo­sure at max­i­mum pres­sure and the pres­sure reduc­tion in the sec­ond stage of com­pres­sion to reduce thin­ning of ply­wood. Set the required time of expo­sure at max­i­mum pres­sure and the pres­sure in the sec­ond stage of press­ing, which pro­vide the nec­es­sary strength and min­i­mum thin­ning of ply­wood. Describes the modes of glu­ing of the pack­ages of veneers of dif­fer­ent thick­ness, the val­ues of thin­ning of plywood.

    Key­words: ply­wood, melamine-car­bamide-formalde­hyde resin, bond­ing modes, the bond­ing strength.

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    14 Glukhikh V.N., Okhlop­ko­va A.Y., Sivt­sev P.V. Research warp­ing and numer­i­cal sim­u­la­tion of defor­ma­tion sawn tim­ber of Dahuri­an Larch under grown stress­es of tree trunk

    Anno­ta­tion: The arti­cle presents a sub­stan­ti­a­tion of the assump­tion about the influ­ence of ini­tial stress­es, formed in the process of tree growth under the influ­ence of the trunk­’s own weight and wind load on defor­ma­tion of lum­ber with the sub­se­quent cut­ting of wood. Due to the dif­fer­ence in the char­ac­ter­is­tics of heart­wood and sap­wood, sub­stan­ti­a­tion of depen­den­cy of mag­ni­tude and pat­tern of stress dis­tri­b­u­tion in tran­sec­tion of a tree stem on cor­re­la­tion of the radii of the heart­wood to the radius of the tree stem is pre­sent­ed. Thus, for Dahuri­an larch tim­ber we can apply dis­tri­b­u­tion func­tion of ini­tial stress­es in the form of the 14th degree parab­o­loid. There­fore depend­ing on the loca­tion of lum­ber in the sec­tion of the round log, it is pos­si­ble to pre­dict the mag­ni­tude of twist­ing from the effect of the ini­tial stress­es of the lum­ber after saw­ing out. In order to con­firm this assump­tion, the authors made obser­va­tions of mag­ni­tude of twist­ing of lum­ber sawn out of Dahuri­an larch grow­ing in Yaku­tia. Based on the sug­gest­ed hypoth­e­sis and the obser­va­tions results, a numer­i­cal mod­el­ing of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of twist­ing of lum­ber was car­ried out. The com­pu­ta­tion­al algo­rithm was based on dis­place­ment by the finite ele­ment method spa­tial­ly. The numer­i­cal solu­tion found lin­ear elas­tic­i­ty prob­lem for lum­ber with anisotrop­ic elas­tic nature is char­ac­ter­ized by an ade­quate dis­tri­b­u­tion of deflec­tion along the sawn face with the max­i­mum mag­ni­tude with­in the lim­its fixed by obser­va­tion of real lum­ber. The obtained math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els can be used to opti­mize saw­ing process in order to obtain the max­i­mum amount of lum­ber of high qual­i­ty and reduce pro­duc­tion costs.

    Key­words: grown stress­es, dahuri­an larch, sawn tim­ber, warp, defor­ma­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing, lin­ear elas­tic­i­ty, finite ele­ment method, anisotropy

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    1. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY
    15 Okulo­va E.O., Guriev A.V. Analy­sis of the wood com­po­si­tion in the fiber line of bleached hard­wood kraft pulp

    Anno­ta­tion: Cur­rent­ly, hard­wood is wide­ly used as a raw mate­r­i­al for the pulp and paper indus­try for the pro­duc­tion of var­i­ous fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts. The main species are aspen and birch. These species dif­fer from each oth­er in phys­i­cal prop­er­ties, chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion and mor­phol­o­gy. It is known that the main diag­nos­tic fea­tures are the absence or pres­ence of a stair­case per­fo­ra­tion plate on the fibers of the ves­sels. Strength char­ac­ter­is­tics of the result­ing fibrous semi­fin­ished prod­ucts depend on the ini­tial ratio of aspen and birch in them. Semi-fin­ished prod­ucts with a high birch con­tent have high­er mechan­i­cal strength. In this paper, the species com­po­si­tion of incom­ing chips for cook­ing is ana­lyzed and the ratio of aspen and birch fibers in fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts at dif­fer­ent points in the tech­no­log­i­cal process for the pro­duc­tion of bleached sul­phate pulp is deter­mined. The native com­po­si­tion of the chips was deter­mined by treat­ment with sodi­um hydrox­ide. The com­po­si­tion of fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts was deter­mined by com­put­er visu­al­iza­tion using the main diag­nos­tic fea­tures. To con­firm the cor­rect­ness of the deter­mi­na­tion of the species com­po­si­tion of the fibrous semi­fin­ished prod­uct, strength char­ac­ter­is­tics were deter­mined in them. Analy­sis of the obtained data showed that fluc­tu­a­tions in the species com­po­si­tion of chips with­in a day can range from 12.3 to 63.7%; The range of aspen fibers for sam­ples from the blow­ing tank is 23.9 to 83.6%, for sam­ples from the 1 st press fil­ter – from 18.0 to 89.5%. The sta­tis­ti­cal sig­nif­i­cance of the depen­dence of the phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of semi-fin­ished prod­ucts on the share of aspen and birch in fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts with a change in the range from 10 to 80% has been confirmed.

    Key­words: sul­phate pulp, com­po­si­tion of wood types of chips, species of tree com­po­si­tion in fibrous semi­fin­ished prod­ucts, birch wood, aspen wood

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    16 Zakharov I.V., Zakharo­va N.L., Kanarsky A.V., Kaza­kov Ya.V., Popov A.V., Dulkin D.A. Increase of sta­bil­i­ty of card­board to aging impreg­na­tion bio­mod­i­fi­ca­tion gluten

    Anno­ta­tion: The aim of this work is the improve­ment of phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties and sta­bil­i­ty of card­board to aging impreg­na­tion bio­mod­i­fi­ca­tion gluten. For this pur­pose we deter­mined the changes in phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties dur­ing stor­age of a card­board impreg­nat­ed with gluten pre-treat­ed enzyme prepa­ra­tions and L‑cysteine. For assess­ment of phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties of fibrous mate­ri­als using stan­dard meth­ods. Wheat gluten was treat­ed with enzyme prepa­ra­tions and L‑cysteine to obtain a biopoly­mer with the desired rhe­o­log­i­cal prop­er­ties and is suit­able for appli­ca­tion to the card­board. In arti­cle giv­en the pos­si­bil­i­ty of the use of pro­teins as a sec­ondary resource in the pro­cess­ing of wheat and enzyme treat­ment of the pro­teins with fur­ther apply­ing them to the card­board. In arti­cle shows the effect of nat­ur­al aging of the card­board, impreg­nat­ed bio­mod­i­fi­ca­tion gluten on phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties. Estab­lished a spe­cif­ic influ­ence of enzyme prepa­ra­tions and amino acids, which were processed gluten on phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties of card­board. It is estab­lished that dur­ing stor­age of the card­board there is an increase in indi­ca­tors such as: ten­sile strength of a card­board impreg­nat­ed with gluten, mod­i­fied with a het­ero­ge­neous com­po­si­tion of a mix­ture pen­topan 500 BG, L‑cysteine and trans­g­lu­t­a­m­i­nase in dry and in wet con­di­tion; elon­ga­tion under ten­sion in a dry con­di­tion of a card­board impreg­nat­ed with gluten, mod­i­fied neu­trase in wet card­board, impreg­nat­ed gluten, mod­i­fied trans­g­lu­t­a­m­i­nase; stiff­ness in com­pres­sion of a card­board impreg­nat­ed with gluten, mod­i­fied pen­topan mono. The prac­ti­cal impor­tance due to the increas­ing life­time of the card­board. The direc­tion for future research is con­nect­ed with the increase of defor­ma­tion and phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of paper­board in sur­face bio­mod­i­fi­ca­tion plant biopolymers.

    Key­words: aging, card­board, enzy­mat­ic treat­ment, impregnation.

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    17 Shkol’nikov E.V. Mech­a­nism of sur­face isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of TlAsS2 and TlAsSе2 glasses.

    Anno­ta­tion: Syn­the­sis and con­trol of homo­gene­ity of glass­es TlAsX2 and crys­tal­liza­tion prod­ucts car­ried out as pre­vi­ous­ly [Shkol‘nikov, 2017]. Aver­age speed of lin­ear growth of crys­tals (0.1– 3 μm/min) was deter­mined with an accu­ra­cy of ± 5−10% accord­ing to GOST 22290–76, mea­sur­ing with a micro­scope the thick­ness of the crys­tal­lized lay­er of pol­ished plates after heat treat­ment in a weigh­ing bot­tle with sil­i­cone oil. The results of the kinet­ic study of the sur­face isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of glass­es TlAsX2 (X − S, Se) are the­o­ret­i­cal­ly ana­lyzed in dif­fer­ent ways, tak­ing into account the struc­tur­al char­ac­ter­is­tics and with the use of the tem­per­a­ture depen­dence of the vis­cos­i­ty of glass­es. The semi­em­pir­i­cal cal­cu­la­tion of the tem­per­a­ture depen­dence of non­re­con­struc­tive crys­tal growth rate is per­formed. It is shown that the lay­ered sta­tion­ary growth of crys­tals in the TlAsS2 glass occurs on screw dis­lo­ca­tions. Unlike TlAsS2 glass, in the TlASe2 glass the tran­si­tion from the dis­lo­ca­tion mech­a­nism to two-dimen­sion­al nucle­ation and lay­er-bylay­er growth of crys­tals is pos­si­ble at super­cool­ing of more than 120°. Fold­ing of small chain seg­ments into pack­ets, rib­bons and thin plates can lead to the for­ma­tion of TlAsХ2 crys­tals in the form of lamel­lae. The rate of the lin­ear crys­tal growth in the TlAsS2 glass at T = 410−473 К and in the TlAsSe2 glass at T = 423−473 К can be sat­is­fac­to­ri­ly cal­cu­lat­ed if the prob­a­bil­i­ty fac­tor fT) growth on the steps of screw dis­lo­ca­tions is intro­duced to the the­o­ret­i­cal for­mu­la of Turnbull–Cohen, and the acti­va­tion ener­gy of the crys­tal growth ΔGa”(T) is tak­en equal to the kinet­ic bar­ri­er dur­ing the vis­cous flow of glass­es ΔGη #(T) from the Eyring‘s equa­tion . The inequal­i­ty of the acti­va­tion entropies ΔSa” < ΔSη # reflects the spe­cif­ic nature of the process­es of crys­tal­liza­tion and vis­cous flow.

    Key­words: cal­cu­la­tion and mea­sure­ment of the lin­ear growth rate of the crys­talline lay­er, kinet­ic para­me­ters and sur­face crys­tal­liza­tion mech­a­nism of glasses

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    18 Tim­o­feev I.V., Ivanov D.V., Leonovich A.A., Kru­tov S.M. Usage of mod­i­fied lignin to reduce the tox­i­c­i­ty of wood boards.

    Anno­ta­tion: Mod­i­fied prepa­ra­tions of hydrol­y­sis lignin as accep­tors of formalde­hyde were researched in medi­um den­si­ty fiber­board tech­nol­o­gy. The hydrol­y­sis lignin of the Kirov Bio­chem­i­cal Plant, fine-dis­persed lignin, obtained by steam-blast­ing treat­ment, and ultra­dis­persed lignin, obtained on the disk mill were researched. Method, which can show how lignin sorbs formalde­hyde was devel­oped. The reac­tion between lignin and formalde­hyde was car­ried out in aquat­ic envi­ron­ment at 100 oC dur­ing 1 hour. The dif­fer­ence in val­ues before and after boil­ing of the reac­tion mix­ture was iden­ti­fied as the amount of sorbed formalde­hyde. The cor­re­la­tion pro­cess­ing of data estab­lished that the sorp­tion capac­i­ty of lignin prepa­ra­tions depends on their spe­cif­ic sur­face by 88%. Ultra-dis­persed lignin has spe­cif­ic sur­face 14 m²/g there­fore it’s more effec­tive accep­tor. IR spec­trums and NMR spec­trums of ultra-dis­persed lignin were researched after deter­min­ing their sorp­tion capac­i­ty. They showed that formalde­hyde came into reac­tion with func­tion­al groups of lignin. It was estab­lished that ultra-dis­persed lignin can sorb formalde­hyde, formed dur­ing hard­en­ing of urea-formalde­hyde resin. The physic-chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the resin com­bined with the ultra-dis­perse lignin were also researched. While mak­ing MDF the full fac­to­r­i­al exper­i­ment was car­ried out. It allowed to find tech­no­log­i­cal modes for mak­ing wood board, which have emis­sion class E1, and cor­re­sponds state stan­dard for fiber­board. It is pos­si­ble to pro­duce wood boards of emis­sion class E0,5, how­ev­er, increased lignin con­sump­tion and use of hard­en­ing addi­tives are necessary.

    Key­words: hydrol­y­sis lignin, formalde­hyde, accep­tors of formalde­hyde, tox­i­c­i­ty of wood boards.

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    19 Fedo­to­va N.N., Yolkin V.A. The feed­stock chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion (wood pine), cel­lolignin and hydrolyzate obtained with alco­hol boiling

    Anno­ta­tion: Recent­ly, the devel­op­ment of hydrol­y­sis indus­tries and the sta­ble oper­a­tion of a num­ber of oper­at­ing enter­pris­es are pri­mar­i­ly lim­it­ed by envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors, the impor­tance of which have long been under­es­ti­mat­ed. In order to have a car­di­nal solu­tion of the envi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion prob­lem, it is nec­es­sary to use eco­log­i­cal­ly opti­mal tech­nol­o­gy in hydrol­y­sis and alco­hol pro­duc­tion, which does not dis­turb the self-reg­u­la­tion process of nat­ur­al com­plex­es. The tech­ni­cal ethanol pro­duc­tion with wood raw mate­ri­als is accom­pa­nied by the large-ton­nage waste for­ma­tion – the socalled post-alco­hol dis­tillery waste, which is much greater than the main prod­uct yield. It may reach 135–150 m³ per 10 m³ of ethanol. From our point of view, the most opti­mal solu­tion of post-alco­hol dis­tillery waste uti­liza­tion is to use plant raw mate­ri­als in the main pro­duc­tion, par­tic­u­lar­ly in cook­ing acid pro­duc­tion process. The paper con­tains data of raw mate­r­i­al chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion (wood pine), cel­lolignin and hydrolyzate obtained with alco­hol pro­duc­tion. It is found out in research­ing the raw mate­r­i­al chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion that the pine wood con­tains: cel­lu­lose – 42.6%, eas­i­ly hydrolysable poly­sac­cha­rides (EHP) – 17.2% and lignin – 20.4%. The reduc­ing sub­stance con­cen­tra­tion in the hydrolyzate is 3.1%, dry mat­ter 3.5%, organ­ic acids in terms of acetic acid 0.54%, oligosac­cha­rides 0.34%, fur­fur­al 0.12%, hydrolyzate pH 1,2. The hydrolyzate ade­quate qual­i­ty is 88%. In study­ing the cel­lulignin chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion, it is found out that in the process of boil­ing all the EHP and some 45% hard­ly hydrolysable poly­sac­cha­rides (HHP) of the wood are trans­ferred to into the solu­tion. Thus, in study­ing the chem­i­cal feed­stock, cel­lolignin and hydrolyzate com­po­si­tion, it is found out that: the 20% HHP pres­ence in cel­lolignin indi­cates an insuf­fi­cient­ly opti­mal mode of plant mate­r­i­al hydrol­y­sis; the hydrolyzate good qual­i­ty meets the require­ments for hydrolysates in alco­hol pro­duc­tion; it is fore­seen to use post-alco­hol dis­tillery waste for cook­ing acid prepa­ra­tion in the pro­posed technology.

    Key­words: pine wood, hydrolyzate, cel­lolignin, cir­cu­lat­ing water sup­ply, alco­hol cook­ing, good­ness, dis­tillery grains

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    20 Ivanov D.V., Leonovich A.A., Mazur A.S. On the mech­a­nisms of action and meth­ods of eval­u­a­tion effi­cien­cy accep­tors of formalde­hyde in wood boards.

    Anno­ta­tion: The effi­cien­cy of formalde­hyde accep­tors were stud­ied on the exam­ple of urea and cyanoguani­dine. The nature of the con­ver­sion of cyanoguani­dine was researched at the tem­per­a­tures of inner and out­er lay­ers of the wood boards. Medi­um den­si­ty fiber­boards, which have thick­ness of 4 mm were mak­ing for mod­el­ing the tem­per­a­ture con­di­tions. The mod­el of inner lay­er were mak­ing at the tem­per­a­ture of hot press plates 130 °С, and mod­el of out­er lay­ers at 220 °С. Sam­ples of medi­um den­si­ty fiber­boards were inves­ti­gat­ed using the meth­ods of NMR-spec­troscopy, improved pho­to col­ori­met­ric method of def­i­n­i­tion of formalde­hyde and stan­dards physic-mechan­i­cal tests. It was estab­lished that at the tem­per­a­ture of out­er lay­ers decom­po­si­tion of cyanoguani­dine with ammo­nia for­ma­tions pre­vails, and at the tem­per­a­ture of inner lay­er the addi­tion reac­tion of formalde­hyde to aminogroups pre­vails. Accep­tor, which was intro­duced into the board sep­a­rate­ly from glue in quan­ti­ty 1.5% of the mass of the board can bind more than 50% of the emit­ted formalde­hyde at 220 °C and only 15% at 130 °C. Pho­tos of the hor­i­zon­tal inci­sions of medi­um den­si­ty fiber­board sam­ples are shown. They demon­strate that sam­ples, which were made at tem­per­a­ture of inner lay­er have in its struc­ture accep­tor, which retains its aggre­gate state and is observed in the form of a coarse pow­der, and the sam­ples, which were made at tem­per­a­ture of out­er lay­er don’t have any inclu­sions in it is struc­ture. Func­tion­al eval­u­a­tion of the accep­tor was giv­en through rela­tion of quan­ti­ty tied formalde­hyde towards max­i­mum quan­ti­ty of formalde­hyde, which in the­o­ry can react with accep­tor. Results were expressed as degree of inter­ac­tion com­plete­ness. For cyanoguani­dine in sam­ples, mod­el­ing the tem­per­a­ture of inner lay­er it is 0.48%, and to sam­ples, which mod­el­ing the tem­per­a­ture of out­er lay­ers it is 0.89%. Com­par­ing the results with oth­er accep­tors it was defined, that degree of inter­ac­tion com­plete­ness is sim­i­lar and very low. It was estab­lished that con­di­tions of man­u­fac­tur­ing wood boards are poor­ly suit­able for chem­i­cal reac­tion because of dif­fu­sion and kinet­ic lim­i­ta­tions. To esti­mate the effec­tive­ness of accep­tors accord­ing to equimo­lar reac­tion is not enough, and the tech­ni­cal eval­u­a­tion through effi­cien­cy coef­fi­cient is required.

    Key­words: cyanoguani­dine, formalde­hyde, accep­tors of formalde­hyde, tox­i­c­i­ty of wood boards.

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    2017:
  • Issue 221
  • Name of article Page Arti­cle
    1. FORESTRY
    1 Kuzminykh Iu.V., Gri­aznov S.E. For­est com­plex of Rus­sia in ensur­ing the nation­al com­mit­ments of the Paris cli­mate agreement

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The cli­mate change due to green­house gas con­cen­tra­tions in the atmos­phere is today one of the major glob­al envi­ron­men­tal prob­lems. For­est ecosys­tems and relat­ed activ­i­ties occu­py an impor­tant place in the for­ma­tion of the car­bon bal­ance in the atmos­phere. A pos­i­tive effect of for­est ecosys­tems on the for­ma­tion of the car­bon bal­ance of the plan­et is rec­og­nized in inter­na­tion­al cli­mate agree­ments. The Paris agree­ment on cli­mate change, which entered into force on 4 Novem­ber 2016, con­firms the pos­si­bil­i­ty of ful­fill­ing the nation­al com­mit­ment of the coun­tries due to the increase of forests car­bon absorb­ing. The Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion declared the fol­low­ing com­mit­ments to pre­vent glob­al cli­mate change ‒ to lim­it green­house gas emis­sions by 70–75 per­cent from 1990 lev­els by 2030, assum­ing the max­i­mum pos­si­ble giv­en the absorp­tive capac­i­ty of forests. In the face of a slow­ing Russ­ian econ­o­my devel­op­ment the com­mit­ment of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion will be imple­ment­ed under con­di­tion of lim­it­ing and reduc­ing green­house gas emis­sions, which are close­ly linked to the poli­cies and mea­sures on mod­ern­iza­tion of the Russ­ian econ­o­my. Spe­cial addi­tion­al mea­sures are not required. In the future Russ­ian man­aged forests will con­tin­ue to pro­vide car­bon accu­mu­la­tion, but absorbed amount of car­bon diox­ide will decrease sig­nif­i­cant­ly. In order to pre­vent reduc­tion of the con­tri­bu­tion of for­est ecosys­tems of the coun­try in the for­ma­tion of the car­bon bal­ance in the atmos­phere it is nec­es­sary to con­duct activ­i­ties for the con­ser­va­tion and expan­sion of forest­ed area, and on improv­ing the man­age­ment of for­est resources. The for­est sec­tor of Rus­sia can act at the inter­na­tion­al lev­el as a provider of envi­ron­men­tal ser­vices of car­bon to reduce green­house gas emis­sions and increase car­bon seques­tra­tion in for­est ecosys­tems. The basis for their imple­men­ta­tion is a mech­a­nism of inter­na­tion­al coop­er­a­tion of the Paris cli­mate agreement.

    Key­words: cli­mate change, green­house gas­es, car­bon seques­tra­tion in for­est ecosys­tems, man­aged forests, the Paris cli­mate agree­ment, envi­ron­men­tal car­bon services.

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    2 Brod­sky A.F. Orga­ni­za­tion of for­est patho­log­i­cal Sur­veys in the new terms. Method­i­cal prac­ti­cal work

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The lat­est edi­tion of the For­est Code of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion pos­tu­lates that the main form of con­trol over pest activ­i­ty is now the pre­ven­tion of the spread of insects and for­est dis­eases. The main orga­ni­za­tion­al and tech­no­log­i­cal tool for achiev­ing this goal is the imple­men­ta­tion of for­est pro­tec­tion mea­sures, the neces­si­ty of which is nec­es­sar­i­ly enshrined in the approved for­est inspec­tion cer­tifi­cate. Obvi­ous­ly, the approval of an act must be pre­ced­ed by a pro­ce­dure for ver­i­fy­ing the authen­tic­i­ty of the infor­ma­tion con­tained in it. How­ev­er, this pro­ce­dure in the exist­ing reg­u­la­to­ry doc­u­ments is not only not detailed, but is not sep­a­rate­ly spec­i­fied any­where. In this arti­cle the author sug­gests method­olog­i­cal rec­om­men­da­tions that will allow the for­est man­age­ment body to for­mu­late the stages of the pro­ce­dure for effec­tive con­trol over the reli­a­bil­i­ty of the infor­ma­tion con­tained in the for­est patho­log­i­cal inspec­tion cer­tifi­cate and the com­pli­ance of the orga­ni­za­tion and imple­men­ta­tion of the LPO with new leg­is­la­tion. Also con­sid­ered the prob­lems of col­lect­ing infor­ma­tion about dam­aged forests, its ver­i­fi­ca­tion and infor­ma­tion exchange with the sys­tem of state for­est patho­log­i­cal mon­i­tor­ing. The main direc­tions of improve­ment of the col­lec­tion of infor­ma­tion about dam­aged forests, name­ly: mod­ern­iza­tion of sig­nalling form reg­is­tra­tion sys­tem , estab­lish­ing back cou­pling with the appli­cant in both paper and elec­tron­ic form, and also the list of types of dam­age that must be iden­ti­fied when check­ing this infor­ma­tion. Offered three options scheme of the orga­ni­za­tion of for­est patho­log­i­cal research, which deter­mine the mech­a­nisms of inter­ac­tion of all par­tic­i­pants of work on the pro­tec­tion of forests. Rec­om­men­da­tions about ensur­ing com­pli­ance new a car­ry­ing out Order of for­est patho­log­i­cal research and Rules of imple­men­ta­tion of actions for warn­ing of dis­tri­b­u­tion of harm­ful organ­isms are pro­vid­ed. The algo­rithm of ver­i­fi­ca­tion of acts of for­est patho­log­i­cal research on com­pli­ance to require­ments of the stan­dards stat­ed above is developed.

    Key­words: orga­ni­za­tion of for­est patho­log­i­cal research (FPR), the act of FPR, algo­rithm, sig­nalling slip ver­i­fy­ing the authen­tic­i­ty of the infor­ma­tion, the for­est man­age­ment authorities.

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    3 Selikhovkin A.V. Effi­cien­cy of san­i­tary mea­sures in conif­er­ous forests in cur­rent con­di­tions on the exam­ple of the Leningrad region

    Anno­ta­tion:

    A set of doc­u­ments accept­ed by the Gov­ern­ment of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion and Min­istry of Nat­ur­al Resources in 2016–2017 changes the pro­ce­dure for con­duct­ing for­est tree patho­log­i­cal sur­veys (FTPS) and appoint­ment of san­i­tary mea­sures ℠. This change will strong­ly affect pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty dynam­ics of for­est pests and spread­ing of den­dropath­o­gen­ic organ­isms. The analy­sis of the sit­u­a­tion and pos­si­ble con­se­quences of the intro­duc­tion of the above-men­tioned reg­u­la­to­ry instru­ments is the main objec­tive of this work. The analy­sis was car­ried out with ref­er­ence to the for­est ecosys­tems of the Leningrad Region and is based on the prac­tice of appli­ca­tion of the above-men­tioned doc­u­ments, knowl­edge of biol­o­gy of pests and pathogens and field sur­veys. Accord­ing to the adopt­ed doc­u­ments, four con­sec­u­tive sur­veys are required to car­ry out mea­sures to elim­i­nate out­breaks of pests and pathogens. The results of the sur­veys are checked (repeat­ed exam­i­na­tion should be car­ried out), approved, made open to the pub­lic and, in a case of com­plaints, checked again. The entire pro­ce­dure takes at least four months. Some pro­vi­sions of the adopt­ed doc­u­ments con­tain inac­cu­rate def­i­n­i­tions and con­tra­dic­to­ry instruc­tions. As a result, FTPS and pest con­trol activ­i­ties will be con­duct­ed with­out tak­ing into account pest sea­son­al devel­op­ment phas­es and, thus, will be inef­fec­tive. When san­i­ta­tion felling is car­ried out, favor­able con­di­tions are cre­at­ed for repro­duc­tion of bark bee­tles and wood bor­ing insects. Both the impos­si­bil­i­ty of car­ry­ing out mea­sures to elim­i­nate out­breaks due to the length of the pro­ce­dure for jus­ti­fy­ing these activ­i­ties and the lack of moti­va­tion of for­est own­ers due to a sharp increase of the cost and inef­fec­tive­ness of FTPS will be stim­u­lat­ing pest out­breaks and pathogen spread­ing. To reduce the sever­i­ty of the prob­lem it is nec­es­sary to sim­pli­fy as much as pos­si­ble the deci­sion-mak­ing pro­ce­dures for the des­ig­na­tion of FTPS and intro­duce into reg­u­la­to­ry instru­ments crit­i­cal val­ues of the most impor­tant pop­u­la­tion indi­ca­tors of for­est pest and pathogens.

    Key­words: for­est tree patho­log­i­cal sur­veys, cat­e­go­ry of con­di­tion, pests, pathogens, san­i­ta­tion felling, pest and dis­ease outbreaks.

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    4 Debkov N.M., Pokly­atsky D.A., Parshi­na V.-V.G. The eval­u­a­tion of con­di­tion poten­tial Siber­ian stone pine’s forests of mid­dle taiga West­ern Siberia

    Anno­ta­tion:

    A dis­tinc­tive fea­ture of the regen­er­a­tive-age dynam­ics of Siber­ian stone pine’s forests is the almost com­plete absence of young stands in the dis­tri­b­u­tion by age groups. This peri­od of devel­op­ment Siber­ian stone pine’s forests pass under the canopy of oth­er tree species of taiga, as a rule, birch and aspen, and in the mid-sub­zone and pine. Until recent­ly, log­ging in decid­u­ous forests has been lim­it­ed, but in recent years, the use of them has been inten­si­fied due to the emer­gence of demand, pri­mar­i­ly for birch wood in Chi­na. It is birch forests that are con­sid­ered to be the main fund of poten­tial Siber­ian stone pine’s forests, the devel­op­ment of which, with­out tak­ing into account the fea­tures of the for­est form­ing process of Siber­ian stone pine, will lead to an inter­rup­tion of its regen­er­a­tive dynam­ics. In the work pre­sent­ed, an attempt is made to eval­u­ate the poten­tial Siber­ian stone pine’s forests in mid­dle taiga of Tom­sk region. As objects of research, 75,000 plots of pine’s, birch’s and aspen’s forests were tak­en and were ana­lyzed on a total area of 4,3 mil­lion hectares. Tak­ing into account the method­olog­i­cal devel­op­ments of oth­er authors and their com­par­a­tive analy­sis, it is cus­tom­ary to con­sid­er decid­u­ous and light conif­er­ous stands with Siber­ian stone pine’s under­growth of more than 1 meter in height in quan­ti­ty of more than 1000 pieces/ha as poten­tial Siber­ian stone pine’s forests. As a result of the study, an insignif­i­cant pres­ence of Siber­ian stone pine in the com­po­si­tion of stands of pine, birch and aspen was revealed. An increase in par­tic­i­pa­tion in the sec­ond tier has been estab­lished, which achieves an edi­fica­tive val­ue in the under­growth. In the con­di­tions of the mid­dle taiga of West­ern Siberia, the major­i­ty of pine’s, birch’s and aspen’s forests are pro­vid­ed with Siber­ian stone pine’s under­growth in suf­fi­cient quan­ti­ty to clas­si­fy them as poten­tial Siber­ian stone pine’s forests. New infor­ma­tion has been dis­cov­ered that allows us to clas­si­fy aspen forests of the mid­dle sub­zone as a per­spec­tive fund of poten­tial Siber­ian stone pine’s forests. More­over, aspen forests, as a rule, occu­py the most pro­duc­tive habi­tat con­di­tions, where the for­ma­tion of the most nut-pro­duc­tive Siber­ian stone pine’s forests is promising.

    Key­words: Siber­ian stone pine (Pinus sibir­i­ca Du Tuor), nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, poten­tial Siber­ian stone pine’s forests, mid­dle taiga, Tom­sk region, West­ern Siberia.

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    5 Zhuko­va E.A., Tania I.V., Shabunin D.A. Mon­i­tor­ing of the state of Buxus in the ter­ri­to­ry of the Repub­lic of Abkhazia

    Anno­ta­tion:

    Buxus colchi­ca Pojark., is a relict species. It is known in the Cau­ca­sus from the mid­dle to the upper Pliocene. The aim of the research work is to study the for­est patho­log­i­cal state of Buxus and mon­i­tor­ing in the con­di­tions of inva­sion of Cydal­i­ma per­spec­tal­is in 2014. Accord­ing to the results of the research car­ried out in 2011–2016, 20 species are found among myco­bio­ta of Buxus. Accord­ing to our obser­va­tions, dif­fer­ent com­plex­es of fun­gal pathogens are formed in nat­ur­al stands and urban plan­ta­tions of Buxus, includ­ing dan­ger­ous ones (Cylin­dro­cla­di­um bux­i­co­la and Volutel­la buxi). Accord­ing to the results of the analy­sis of dam­ages caused by ento­mo­fau­na, C. per­spec­tal­is became a sig­nif­i­cant pest for box­wood, and the oth­er species reg­is­tered by us have no prac­ti­cal impor­tance. Since 2015 a sig­nif­i­cant dam­age of C. per­spec­tal­is is not­ed in the moun­tain­ous areas up to 500 m above sea lev­el, and in 2016 the Buxus pest con­tin­ued its dis­tri­b­u­tion and sub­dued the Buxus in all its habi­tats on the ter­ri­to­ry of the Repub­lic. Since 2015, at the request of the State Com­mit­tee of the Repub­lic of Abk­hazia on Ecol­o­gy and Con­ser­va­tion, a deci­sion has been tak­en to com­bat the pest. Mon­i­tor­ing the state of box­wood in the ter­ri­to­ry of the Repub­lic of Abk­hazia shows that thanks to the imple­men­ta­tion of pro­tec­tive mea­sures, not only the preser­va­tion, but also the restora­tion of the upper branch­es of Buxus trees is tak­ing place. With com­plete defo­li­a­tion, Buxus retains its abil­i­ty to restore the upper branch­es of tree, pro­vid­ed that the cor­tex is intact on the trunks and shoots. Preser­va­tion of the box­wood pop­u­la­tion depends at the moment on the human activities.

    Key­words: Buxus colchi­ca Pojark., myco­bio­ta, Cydal­i­ma per­spec­tal­is, state of green plantations.

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    6 Abaku­mo­va L.I., Trubako­va K.Y. Struc­tur­al pecu­liar­i­ties of the root sys­tems of woody plants in pro­tect­ing plan­ta­tions dry steppe

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The long-term exper­i­men­tal mate­r­i­al reflect­ing the basic aspects of for­ma­tion of root sys­tems of the main tree species in pro­tec­tive for­est plant­i­ngs of dry steppe is pre­sent­ed in the arti­cle. Adap­tive fea­tures of root sys­tems, the nature of dis­tri­b­u­tion in soil hori­zons and its struc­ture depend­ing on envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions, agrotech­nics and oth­er for­est man­age­ment mea­sures have been estab­lished. Because of the low humid­i­ty root lay­er of soil root sys­tems are drawn to the field over sig­nif­i­cant dis­tances and have a neg­a­tive impact on the sur­round­ing area – a depres­sion zone. Stud­ies have shown that in the ter­ri­to­ry of droughty areas, where for­est belts are fed by adja­cent fields, the most impor­tant sil­vi­cul­tur­al method is low­er­ing of the gen­er­al need of a for­est stand for an inven­to­ry of soil mois­ture to the lev­el in case of which ampli­tude of oscil­la­tions of its mois­ture secu­ri­ty by years sig­nif­i­cant­ly decreas­es, steady plant­i­ngs grow sat­is­fac­to­ri­ly and are cre­at­ed. It is revealed that the main pro­cess­ing meth­ods con­sist in reduc­tion of quan­ti­ty of strips, dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion of its struc­ture depend­ing on a relief of fields, use of main­ly drought-resis­tant types, for­ma­tion of mod­er­ate­ly open­work pro­file, pro­tec­tive from wind, and con­tent of plant­i­ngs in the mode of for­est ecosys­tems, that is respect for the basic prin­ci­ples of steppe afforesta­tion – ensur­ing effec­tive mois­ture accu­mu­la­tion in the soil of the strip which is tak­en away under plant­i­ng, sav­ing and an eco­nom­i­cal expen­di­ture of soil mois­ture. There were obtained about the fea­tures of the struc­ture of root sys­tems can great­ly increase the dura­bil­i­ty and sta­bil­i­ty of pro­tec­tion forests and to sig­nif­i­cant­ly fur­ther improve the meth­ods, tech­niques and oth­er ele­ments of sil­vi­cul­tur­al treat­ments for the forest.

    Key­words: for­est stripe, sta­bil­i­ty, dura­bil­i­ty, depres­sion zone, pedi­gree struc­ture of archi­tec­ton­ics, root systems.

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    7 Man­aenkov A.S. The reg­u­lar­i­ties of water regime, growth and longevi­ty of arti­fi­cial for­est stands in dry conditions

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The stud­ies were con­duct­ed in the South of East­ern Euro­pean plain in the zone of the zon­al for­est-steppe semi-desert. The water regime, growth and the for­est con­di­tion of Pinus sylvestris L. and Quer­cus robur L. on math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els lysi­met­rics plan­ta­tions and in nat­ur­al con­di­tions were stud­ied. The main rea­son for the tree­less steppe of the plains and the dis­ap­pear­ance of for­est is exces­sive dynam­ic of atmos­pher­ic mois­ture over the years, the crit­i­cal reduc­tion in stored soil mois­ture and mois­ture of for­est stand in droughty years. The dynam­ics of hydra­tion and fre­quen­cy of dehy­dra­tion of its root lay­er increas­es with the con­ti­nen­tal­i­ty of the cli­mate and the needs of plants (inten­si­ty of absorp­tion). The most intense of con­di­tions of life sup­port are formed in dense young plant­i­ngs. Drought resis­tance of plant­i­ngs increas­es thanks to devel­op­ment of roots, the ear­ly cul­mi­na­tion and decrease of growth with age. Fer­tile soils raise a thresh­old of resis­tance of for­est stands to deficit of soil mois­ture, but pro­voke their exces­sive devel­op­ment and reduce drought resis­tance. But in case of a high mois­ture capac­i­ty of their zone of aer­a­tion of deposits there is an oppor­tu­ni­ty to accu­mu­late a large start­ing sup­ply of soil mois­ture which reduce dan­ger­ous decrease in mois­ture secu­ri­ty accel­er­ates growth, strength­ens dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion and reduces death of young for­est stands. Gen­er­al­ly, the tech­nol­o­gy of cul­ti­va­tion of durable afforesta­tions on mois­ture capa­cious sands and zone com­plex soils of a droughty zone has to include: choice most wood­able of sites and (or), long-term main pro­cess­ing of the soil; cre­ation of for­est stands, pure on struc­ture, from rather shade-endur­ing (dense­ly locat­ed) drought-resis­tant breeds of aver­age den­si­ty; agrotech­ni­cal care until a close arrange­ment of kro­ner; fre­quent low-inten­sive thin­ning of young growth; assis­tance to emer­gence of the shad­ing tier under a rare cur­tain of for­est stands of advanced age.

    Key­words: arid zone, sand and zon­al soils, water regime, the suit­abil­i­ty of the for­est, for­est stands, increase in mois­ture secu­ri­ty and durability.

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    8 Matvee­va A.S., Beli­ae­va N.V., Danilov D.A. The influ­ence of com­po­si­tion and struc­ture par­ent tree stand on state of vital­i­ty spruce under­growth of dif­fer­ent phe­no­log­i­cal forms

    Anno­ta­tion:

    This arti­cle presents the depen­dence of state of vital­i­ty spruce under­growth of dif­fer­ent phe­no­log­i­cal forms from com­po­si­tion and struc­ture par­ent tree stand. The analy­sis was car­ried out in pleu­ro­car­pous moss group of for­est type in Leningrad region. The aim of this study was to iden­ti­fy the fea­tures of the rela­tion­ship between par­ent tree stand, pro­por­tion of phe­no­log­i­cal forms spruce under­growth and his state of vtal­i­ty in the study area. Analy­sis of vari­ance for the influ­ence of the par­ent stand on the num­ber of viable young growth of spruce con­firmed the impor­tance of this fac­tor. With increas­ing par­tic­i­pa­tion spruce in for­est stand com­po­si­tion, with increas­ing rel­a­tive den­si­ty for­est stand, his age and grow­ing stock par­tic­i­pa­tion viable under­growth ear­ly bloom­ing and inter­grade forms are decreas­ing. There­with quan­ti­ty invi­able under­growth these forms and par­tic­i­pa­tion late bloom­ing form both viable and invi­able are increas­ing. This reg­u­lar­i­ty allows to make a con­clu­sion that lumi­nance under tree stand canopy is influ­enc­ing on a state of vital­i­ty spruce under­growth and his pro­por­tion of phe­no­log­i­cal forms. The analy­sis of state of vital­i­ty spruce under­growth depend­ing on for­est type revealed that with decreas­ing of soil fer­til­i­ty and mois­ture the par­tic­i­pa­tion viable under­growth ear­ly bloom­ing and inter­grade forms are decreas­ing and the par­tic­i­pa­tion late bloom­ing form is increas­ing. There­with par­tic­i­pa­tion invi­able spruce under­growth all phe­no­log­i­cal forms are increas­ing. From which it fol­lows that on state of vital­i­ty spruce under­growth of dif­fer­ent phe­no­log­i­cal forms influ­ences not only lumi­nance under stand canopy but also fer­til­i­ty of soil, his phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal prop­er­ties. Analy­sis of the influ­ence of this fac­tor is sta­tis­ti­cal­ly con­firmed. As a result of under­take a study infer­ence should be drawn that in mid­dle taiga such fac­tors as for­est type and par­ent stand com­po­si­tion more influ­ences on a state of vital­i­ty of dif­fer­ent phe­no­log­i­cal forms spruce undergrowth.

    Key­words: phe­no­log­i­cal forms spruce under­growth, state of vital­i­ty spruce under­growth of dif­fer­ent phe­no­log­i­cal forms, the pro­por­tion of dif­fer­ent phono­log­i­cal forms spruce.

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    9 Mat­sne­va М.A., Isakov I Y. Onto­ge­net­ic vari­abil­i­ty of para­me­ters of fibers of lib­ri­form of local and induced species of birches

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The arti­cle presents the results of mea­sure­ments of length, width and wall thick­ness of fibers lib­ri­form downy birch, sil­ver birch and Kare­lian birch. To esti­mate the influ­ence of tree age on these para­me­ters lib­ri­form was con­duct­ed by uni­vari­ate analy­sis of vari­ance. For analy­sis were pro­duced by a set of cores from trees of a par­tic­u­lar genet­ic ori­gin, open-pol­li­na­tion in test cul­tures of inbred birch, an out­bred and hybrid ori­gin. The age of the trees 23 years. The pre­pared drug in the form of wood chips, select­ed on the years, were viewed under the micro­scope. Pre­vi­ous­ly there were the process of mac­er­a­tion in a solu­tion of 10% chromi­um tri­ox­ide and 10% nitric acid (10% HNO3 + 10% K2Cr2O7) for two hours. Was car­ried out sta­tis­ti­cal pro­cess­ing of the obtained data for con­fi­dence lev­el of 0.95. The result of the research was direct depen­dence of the influ­ence of tree age on the length, width and wall thick­ness of fibers lib­ri­form. If to com­pare the received para­me­ter val­ues lib­ri­form the species in ques­tion, we can con­clude that the sil­ver birch (local species) has a bet­ter per­for­mance, which proves its adapt­abil­i­ty to the influ­ence of exter­nal envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors. The low­est indi­ca­tors of Kare­lian birch, how the intro­duced species. Downy birch is char­ac­ter­ized by the aver­age per­for­mance, in gen­er­al, quite well described by this type. The result­ing length of the fiber enables us to char­ac­ter­ize the wood of the select­ed options sil­ver birch and downy birch as dense, durable and resis­tant to root rot, which improves its qual­i­ty and allows to rec­om­mend it in cul­ture as promis­ing for for­est cul­ti­va­tion. The length of the fibers lib­ri­form sil­ver birch and downy birch far exceeds the min­i­mum length require­ment need­ed for use in the pulp and paper indus­try. There­fore, the stud­ied trees of these species can also be rec­om­mend­ed for use in the tim­ber industry.

    Key­words: lib­ri­form, wood, core, pulp, age, fiber.

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    10 Nakvasi­na E.N., Prozhe­ri­na N.A., Dem­i­na N.A. Study of response of spruce prog­e­nies from dif­fer­ent geo­graph­i­cal ori­gins in «geno­type – envi­ron­ment » sys­tem in the Euro­pean North of Russia

    Anno­ta­tion:

    Prove­nance tests allow to study the tree off­spring reac­tion to the growth con­di­tions in the «geno­type-envi­ron­ment» sys­tem. This is the very impor­tant for for­est selec­tion and serves as a basis for reg­u­lat­ing of seeds trans­fer for refor­esta­tion. The adap­ta­tion vari­abil­i­ty of 22 spruce prove­nances rep­re­sent­ed by Nor­way and Siber­ian spruce and the forms of their intro­gres­sive hybrids was eval­u­at­ed. Spruce ori­gins grow on the ter­ri­to­ry of the East Euro­pean Plain from the sub­zone of the north­ern taiga to the zone of mixed forests. All prove­nances are grown in the prove­nance tests in the Euro­pean North of Rus­sia (Arkhangel­sk region, Volog­da region and Komi Repub­lic) were plant­ed accord­ing to a uni­form method­ol­o­gy in 1977. The para­me­ters of sur­vival and growth (diam­e­ter, height) were expressed in units of stan­dard devi­a­tion and divid­ed into 4 groups: group I – (below –0,5); Group II – (–0,5–0); Group III – (0–+0,5); Group IV – (above +0,5). Prove­nances with the best sur­vival, height and diam­e­ter are dis­tin­guished. Groups III and IV are the best in adap­tive vari­abil­i­ty by the com­plex of three stud­ied para­me­ters and include two species of spruce and their hybrid forms. They are rep­re­sent­ed by ori­gins from the mid­dle and south­ern sub­zones of the taiga and the zone of mixed forests. These include the Siber­ian spruce ori­gins from Kortkeros and Sosno­gorsk (No 25, 26) and the Nor­way spruce ori­gin from the Leningrad region (Tosno prove­nance No 5). Two iso­lat­ed areas of the best for pro­duc­tion indi­ca­tors of prove­nances asso­ci­at­ed with spruce species on the basis of a com­pre­hen­sive assess­ment of the adap­tive vari­abil­i­ty of spruce in the East Euro­pean Plain were iden­ti­fied. This should be tak­en into account in the for­est breed­ing operations.

    Key­words: prove­nance, Nor­way spruce, Siber­ian spruce, growth, geno­type – environment.

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    11 Nguyen Van Thanh, Zhi­gunov А.V. Sow­ing qual­i­ties of Hevea brasilien­sis seeds

    Anno­ta­tion:

    Plan­ta­tions of Para rub­ber trees (Hevea brasilien­sis Müll. Arg.) in Viet­nam are usu­al­ly estab­lished with one-year-old con­tainer­ized trans­plants grown from seedlings. The need for plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al of Hevea brasilien­sis is increas­ing, and so is the demand for more pro­duc­tive kinds of this species and clones. This being so, the devel­op­ment of meth­ods for assess­ing the sow­ing qual­i­ty of Hevea brasilien­sis seeds is of sig­nif­i­cant impor­tance in many coun­tries. The pur­pose of our research was to deter­mine the influ­ence of the seed mass on their ger­mi­na­tion and the bio­met­ric para­me­ters of seedlings. Seeds of Hevea brasilien­sis were col­lect­ed in August 2015 in Viet­nam on an 18–20 year-old seed-grow­ing plan­ta­tion in the province of Dong­nai. Since there is no stan­dard for deter­min­ing the sow­ing qual­i­ty of Hevea brasilien­sis seeds in Viet­nam, we deter­mined the ger­mi­na­tion capac­i­ty and ener­gy on peat sub­strate in plas­tic cas­settes, which allowed us not only to rec­om­mend the pro­posed method for deter­min­ing the sow­ing qual­i­ty of seeds, but also to test the tech­nol­o­gy of grow­ing con­tainer­ized seedlings. The obser­va­tions have shown that the first shoots of Hevea brasilien­sis appeared on the ninth day after sow­ing the seeds. Ger­mi­na­tion of seeds was deter­mined on the 20th day after sow­ing. The max­i­mum seed ger­mi­na­tion was 58.0%, where­as the min­i­mum was only 16.4%. The ger­mi­na­tion capac­i­ty of Hevea brasilien­sis seeds depends on the ini­tial mass of the seeds. Seeds with mass below 3.1 g have a low ger­mi­na­tion rate of about 2.5%. Seeds with mass of more than 4.5 g also have a low ger­mi­na­tion rate of about 1.4%. The best ger­mi­na­tion of Hevea brasilien­sis seeds was record­ed in the frac­tion of medi­um-sized seeds from 3.2 to 4.5 g. The seed ger­mi­na­tion of this frac­tion can reach 54%. Thus, the sow­ing qual­i­ties of Hevea brasilien­sis seeds can be deter­mined by seed ger­mi­na­tion in cas­settes filled with a nutri­ent peat sub­strate. The bio­met­ric para­me­ters of the Hevea brasilien­sis seedlings were deter­mined on the 55th day after sow­ing. There was no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence in the height and diam­e­ter of the root col­lar of seedlings grown from seeds of dif­fer­ent groups by the mass of the seeds. The mass of Hevea brasilien­sis seeds main­ly deter­mines their ger­mi­na­tion. The seedlings that were grown in a sum­mer green­house in the botan­i­cal gar­den of the St. Peters­burg Forestry Uni­ver­si­ty in Plantek-81 cas­settes filled with a stan­dard peat sub­strate reached a height of 21–25 cm and the root col­lar diam­e­ter of 1.7–2.3 mm 55 days after sow­ing. The pro­posed method of grow­ing con­tainer­ized seedlings of Hevea brasilien­sis can be rec­om­mend­ed for the con­di­tions of Viet­nam as well.

    Key­words: hevea brasilien­sis, sow­ing qual­i­ties, con­tainer­ized seedlings, bio­met­ric parameters.

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    12 Osipov A.F., Kut­javin I.N. The rela­tion­ship between organ­ic mat­ter stocks in coarse woody debris and the stand phy­tomass in mid­dle taiga pine forests on the Euro­pean North-East Russia

    Anno­ta­tion:

    Struc­ture and stocks of coarse woody debris (CWD) are inves­ti­gat­ed in the eleven pine forests on Euro­pean North-East of Rus­sia. Objects under study are dif­fer­ing on for­est type and stage of devel­op­ments. CWD includ­ed stand­ing dead trees, fall­en dead trees and stumps with a diam­e­ter of more than 6 cm. Wood vol­ume and organ­ic mat­ter in sep­a­rate com­po­nents of CWD are deter­mined. The mass of CWD depends from stand age. The high­est con­cen­tra­tions observed in a over­ma­ture pine for­est of Myr­tillus type but the low­est – in mid­dle-aged stands of Myr­tillus and Sphag­nosa type. Stand­ing dead trees are not­ed in all inves­ti­gat­ed objects. Fall­en dead trees and stumps are present in eight stands. These ele­ments are absent in the mid­dle-aged pine stands of Myr­tillus and Sphag­nosa type. The ini­tial stages of wood destruc­tion dom­i­nate in the fall­en dead trees. Bio­mass of stands and it dis­tri­b­u­tion on frac­tions were present on data that pub­lished ear­li­er. The cor­re­la­tion between organ­ic mat­ter mass in CWD and bio­mass was cal­cu­lat­ed. It var­ied in vide range depend on stand age. Lit­er­a­ture data were used for esti­ma­tion rela­tion­ship between para­me­ters under study. These con­tained infor­ma­tion about for­est type, age, CWD mass and stand bio­mass for sep­a­rate sam­ple plots. We found pos­i­tive, sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant cor­re­la­tion between CWD stocks and stand bio­mass. The obtained data can be used to refine and deduce con­ver­sion coef­fi­cients that will serve to esti­mate the mass of CWD in for­est ecosys­tems of large regions.

    Key­words: phy­tomass, pine for­est, coarse woody debris.

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    1. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    13 Demi­dov S.A., Valyazhonkov V.D. Dura­tion of the cycle of the process of wood skid­ding of the wheeled wood assorte­ment pick-up

    Anno­ta­tion:

    Accord­ing to the for­est experts’ opin­ion the main indi­ca­tor express­ing the state change of the tech­no­log­i­cal process of log­ging oper­a­tions is time. It is nec­es­sary to have a clear and fair idea of the dura­tion and the time char­ac­ter­is­tics of each lev­el of a cycle of a tech­no­log­i­cal process. This cre­ates oppor­tu­ni­ties to improve the use of meth­ods and means of the tech­no­log­i­cal process. A wheeled wood assort­ment pick-up is a mul­ti­func­tion machine that per­forms a tech­no­log­i­cal process with a four-lev­el struc­ture. The pur­pose of this arti­cle is to estab­lish a sys­tem of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, reflect­ing the dura­tion of the tech­no­log­i­cal cycle of the wheeled wood assort­ment pick-up. On the basis of the cre­ation of the hier­ar­chi­cal scheme struc­ture of the dura­tion of the tech­no­log­i­cal cycle of the skid­ding wheeled wood assort­ment pick-up math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els of the cycle time, phas­es and stages, which is deter­mined by the amount of time are devel­oped. The accept­ed hier­ar­chi­cal scheme of the struc­ture of dura­tion of a cycle of this process has four stages. The first stage is occu­pied by a cycle, the phas­es of the cycle are the sec­ond stage, the third stage are the phase and the fourth one are the phas­es of oper­a­tion. The idea of the real­iza­tion of this process needs to be used to min­i­mize the dura­tion of the over­all cycle and all its com­po­nents. The motive of the approach is the great­est depen­dence of pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of the machines car­ry­ing out the process of skid­ding of assort­ments from the cycle dura­tion in com­par­i­son with all influ­enc­ing fac­tors. Get­ting ratio­nal and, in the best case, opti­mal val­ues of pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, tech­ni­cal and eco­nom­ic indi­ca­tors is pos­si­ble owing to achiev­ing the min­i­mum dura­tion of the cycle of tech­no­log­i­cal process of felling works.

    Key­words: wheeled wood assort­ment pick-up, felling works, mul­ti-lev­el sys­tem, math­e­mat­i­cal model.

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    14 Kulikov A.A., Smolyakov A.F., Ivanovа I.V., Dyukovа I.N. Ther­mo­dy­nam­ic analy­sis of dynam­ic process­es in a cen­trifu­gal pump

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The pro­posed ther­mo­dy­nam­ic and math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of process­es of ener­gy exchange in a cen­trifu­gal pump. For the process of increas­ing the pump pres­sure of an incom­press­ible flu­id is obtained the expression:

    u2 — u1 = lвал — ( p2 — p1)υ, (1)

    where u1 and u2 – spe­cif­ic inter­nal ener­gy of the flu­id at the inlet of the pump and at the exit, J/kg; lвал – spe­cif­ic tech­ni­cal work applied to the rota­tion shaft of the impeller of the pump, J/kg; υ – is the spe­cif­ic vol­ume of liq­uid, m3/kg; p1 and p2 – pres­sure of liq­uid at pump inlet and at the out­let of the on pump, Pa. The val­ue [lвал  υ( p2  p1)], can be con­sid­ered as the total spe­cif­ic heat of fric­tion released into the flu­id in iso­chor­ic process. From (1) is deduced the expres­sion for coef­fi­cient of per­for­mance of the pump ηн cor­re­spond­ing to GOST ISO 177769–1‑2014:

    ηн = ηм ηг, (2)

    where ηм – is the mechan­i­cal effi­cien­cy of the pump; ηг –is the hydraulic effi­cien­cy of the pump. Analy­sis of the process­es of ener­gy trans­fer in the impeller allows the pump from the first law of ther­mo­dy­nam­ics to the the­o­ret­i­cal expres­sion for the spe­cif­ic work lтех РК required in the flow part of the impeller of the pump:

    (3)

    where П1 and П2 РК – spe­cif­ic poten­tial ener­gy of the flu­id at the entrance to mezhlopastno­go chan­nel and the out­put from it in the coor­di­nate sys­tem, rigid­ly con­nect­ed with the impeller, J/kg; w1 and w2 – are the aver­age rel­a­tive trans­la­tion­al veloc­i­ty, the motion of the flu­id along mezhlopastno­go chan­nel, m/s. The appli­ca­tion of the pro­posed mod­els to the process throt­tling allows to obtain,

    in par­tic­u­lar, the expression:

    (4)

    where pб and рм – the pres­sure of an incom­press­ible flu­id before and after the induc­tor, Pa; ρ – is the flu­id den­si­ty, kg/m3; Пб and Пм – is the spe­cif­ic poten­tial ener­gy of the flu­id before and after the induc­tor, J/kg; см and сб – is the absolute flu­id veloc­i­ty at the out­let of the flow part throt­tle and at the entrance to her, m/s. From the first law of ther­mo­dy­nam­ics the for­mu­la for the effi­cien­cy of cen­trifu­gal pump. A phys­i­cal and math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el that allows to obtain the Euler equa­tion for blade machines from the first law of ther­mo­dy­nam­ics. It is shown that the ther­mo­dy­nam­ic and math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els applied in kind for blade machines can be used for the analy­sis of process throttling.

    Key­words:

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    15 Sokolo­va V.A., Kre­tinin V.I., Markov V.A., Chernykh L.G. Research of influ­ence of ways of prepa­ra­tion of a sur­face on qual­i­ty of a gas-ther­mal covering

    Anno­ta­tion:

    In work research­es of qual­i­ty of a gas-ther­mal cov­er­ing and meth­ods of prepa­ra­tion of a sur­face which are direct­ly influ­enc­ing him are cov­ered. The depen­dence of meth­ods of prepa­ra­tion of a sur­face on qual­i­ty of a gas-ther­mal cov­er­ing is also by prac­ti­cal con­sid­er­a­tion stud­ied and revealed. Hard­en­ing of a blan­ket of con­struc­tion­al mate­r­i­al by gas-ther­mal meth­ods of dust­ing is a kind of super­fi­cial hard­en­ing of details and allows to solve many major tech­ni­cal prob­lems though devel­op­ment in itself and real­iza­tion of such tech­no­log­i­cal meth­ods of hard­en­ing rep­re­sents exclu­sive­ly com­plex prob­lem of sci­ence and pro­duc­tion. The domes­tic and for­eign instal­la­tions work­ing at a fac­to­ry have the right for real­iza­tion, how­ev­er the expe­di­en­cy of appli­ca­tion of any tech­no­log­i­cal process is defined not by his orig­i­nal­i­ty, and first of all qual­i­ty of the received pro­duc­tion and eco­nom­ic indi­ca­tors. At the choice of pro­cess­ing equip­ment the most impor­tant role is played not only by its pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and cost, but also reli­a­bil­i­ty of the napylitel­ny equip­ment, a pos­si­bil­i­ty of his ser­vice exis­tence and avail­abil­i­ty in the mar­ket of the used cov­er­ing mate­ri­als: gas­es, pow­ders. Among mod­ern ways of sur­face treat­ment of mate­ri­als gas­ther­mal dust­ing holds a spe­cif­ic place. The major prop­er­ty defin­ing a pos­si­bil­i­ty of appli­ca­tion of types of gas-ther­mal dust­ing, espe­cial­ly at repair of worn-out details is cou­pling dura­bil­i­ty. The char­ac­ter of the sawn met­al exerts impact on dura­bil­i­ty of cou­pling. So, cov­er­ings from fusible met­als, are eas­i­ly linked to the sur­face of any met­als and don’t demand espe­cial­ly thor­ough train­ing. This prop­er­ty is wide­ly used, apply­ing on a detail with the first lay­er zinc 0.05–0.1 mm thick, and then lay­ers from any met­als. Cov­er­ings from steel, cop­per and bronze demand espe­cial­ly thor­ough train­ing. Low-car­bon steel at dis­per­sion has the best stick­i­ness what vysokoku­glerodis­ty. Met­al on which lay­ers are applied plays a sushch­estkven­ny role.

    So, for exam­ple, the cov­er­ings put on pig-iron sur­faces, owing to poros­i­ty of cast iron obkla­dat big­ger stick­i­ness, than the cov­er­ings applied on steel details. Object of a research is the qual­i­ty of a gas-ther­mal cov­er­ing and meth­ods of prepa­ra­tion of a sur­face which are direct­ly influ­enc­ing him. The work pur­pose – to reveal and inves­ti­gate depen­dence of meth­ods of prepa­ra­tion of a sur­face on qual­i­ty of a gas­ther­mal cov­er­ing. As a result, the direct depen­dence of para­me­ter of rough­ness of a sur­face on cou­pling dura­bil­i­ty at the con­duct­ed research­es on the exam­ple of a detail like «plug» has been proved, and para­me­ters of rough­ness of a sur­face, nom­i­nal with increase, also dura­bil­i­ty of cou­pling of a cov­er­ing increases.

    Key­words: gas-ther­mal dust­ing, rough­ness, qual­i­ty con­trol, device pro­filome­ter, cou­pling durability.

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    16 Yahyayev D.B., Mya­sishchev D.G. Ratio­nale for improv­ing tech­nol­o­gy for the main­te­nance of urban road­side areas

    Anno­ta­tion:

    One of the urgent and social­ly sig­nif­i­cant prob­lems of our days are the prob­lems of main­tain­ing envi­ron­men­tal sta­bil­i­ty and road safe­ty. A sig­nif­i­cant role in opti­miz­ing the envi­ron­ment and road safe­ty is played by green plan­ta­tions, that is, urban road­side areas. Green plan­ta­tions in the form of a lawn are a bio­log­i­cal fil­ter, per­form envi­ron­ment-form­ing, envi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion, recre­ation­al, and social func­tions. Improv­ing the envi­ron­ment, urban road­side areas need con­stant care and pro­tec­tion, in this case in the grind­ing of the ground cov­er. The soil cov­er is basi­cal­ly an array of leaves con­tain­ing such ele­ments nec­es­sary for soil as potas­si­um, iron, phos­pho­rus, mag­ne­sium, nitro­gen, cal­ci­um and sul­fur. The need to grind the array of leaves in this arti­cle is argued by the fact that the fall­en leaves do not have time to quick­ly rot and soak into the soil. The exper­i­men­tal sam­ples of machines for har­vest­ing and grind­ing the soil cov­er, pro­posed by VN Shir­shov, are con­sid­ered. Kor­shunov. The main draw­back of this kind of sam­ples is revealed – these are large dimen­sions and high ener­gy costs. Due to their large size, such machines can not be used in urban road­side areas, for­est park areas with a close arrange­ment of trees. To solve this prob­lem, the authors work on jus­ti­fy­ing the para­me­ters of the rotary string work­ing organ for grind­ing fine ground veg­e­ta­tion. The basic func­tion in the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of a rotary string shred­der is also presented.

    Key­words: ground cov­er, road safe­ty, water reten­tion, dust retention.

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    1. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY
    17 Ilyushchenko A.V. Chu­bin­sky A.N. Improv­ing the pro­gram ele­ments of the sawn­wood sort­ing system

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The degree of pre­ci­sion in the sort­ing of sawn­wood using the pho­to­graph­ic method depends on a vari­ety of fac­tors: light, humid­i­ty, speed of lum­ber. The most dif­fi­cult is to pick and imple­ment an image-pro­cess­ing algo­rithm that is accept­able in the real man­u­fac­tur­ing envi­ron­ment. The lack of a uni­ver­sal method for seg­ment­ing the image to rec­og­nize the flaws and defects of the wood has made the task of find­ing a com­bi­na­tion of them. The orig­i­nal sam­pling of lum­ber with flaws and defects has been defined. The sam­pling frame shows the results of image pro­cess­ing by Sobel and pre­sets fil­ters, a fil­ter using entropy-based tex­ture analy­sis, first-and sec­ond-derived seg­men­ta­tion. It has been con­clud­ed that the use of fil­ter­ing has elim­i­nat­ed the sup­pres­sion of the light struc­ture and bina­riza­tion, as well as the tex­ture of wood, the use of seg­men­ta­tion based on deriv­a­tive-high­light­ing the tex­ture of wood and the areas of vice, using entropy-based seg­men­ta­tion-define added zones. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of wood defi­cien­cy has been devel­oped, allow­ing for the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of the symp­toms of an unre­strained num­ber of func­tions by com­bin­ing all fea­tures into a sin­gle vec­tor. Pro­vides a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the lum­ber sur­face, which allows you to col­lect infor­ma­tion about all its lay­ers by com­bin­ing image matri­ces. The defi­cien­cies of the algo­rithm tak­en as a basis were iden­ti­fied and adjust­ments made to it. Pro­vides an image pro­cess­ing algo­rithm that includes the appli­ca­tion of seg­men­ta­tion based on the first and sec­ond deriv­a­tives and the appli­ca­tion of the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the lum­ber sur­face and the deci­sion on its appearance.

    Key­words: image seg­men­ta­tion, image fil­ter­ing, sort­ing of sawn tim­ber, wood defects, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the sur­face of wood, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of wood defects.

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    18 Lurie M.S., Lurie O.M., Frol­ov A.S. Analy­sis of the oper­a­tion of the sub­mersible vor­tex flowme­ters with a feed­back chan­nel in the pulp and paper production

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The work is devot­ed to the study of the mea­sure­ment of the flow of fiber sus­pen­sions used in the pulp and paper indus­try. As an exam­ple of mea­sur­ing equip­ment the prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tion of the sub­mersible con­duc­tiv­i­ty of a vor­tex flowme­ter with a feed­back chan­nel. It is shown that for expand­ing the use of mea­sur­ing equip­ment for fibrous slur­ries with dif­fer­ent con­cen­tra­tions it is nec­es­sary to con­duct a study of the feed­back chan­nel sub­mersible vor­tex flowme­ter. It was revealed that the sen­si­tiv­i­ty of oper­a­tion of a vor­tex flowme­ter depends on the veloc­i­ty ampli­tude of the flow of flu­id in the feed­back chan­nel and also shows the prob­lem of the rela­tion between the flow veloc­i­ty in the pipeline and the flu­id veloc­i­ty in the feed­back chan­nel. To solve the set tasks have been pro­posed sev­er­al meth­ods called «finan­cial method» and «method of con­trol vol­ume» with a the­o­ret­i­cal descrip­tion. The results of find the coef­fi­cient of hydro­dy­nam­ic resis­tance of fibrous slur­ries 1 and 2%. The results of the exper­i­ment allowed to spec­i­fy the val­ue of the coef­fi­cient of hydro­dy­nam­ic resis­tance in terms of flow of flu­id in the feed­back chan­nel of a vor­tex flow meter. Accord­ing to the results of numer­i­cal cal­cu­la­tion are pre­sent­ed in tab­u­lar form shows that the ampli­tude of the aver­age veloc­i­ty of the flu­id in the feed­back chan­nel asso­ci­at­ed with the aver­age flu­id veloc­i­ty in the pipeline with a con­stant ratio. It is revealed that with increase in the mag­ni­tude of the total coef­fi­cient of hydro­dy­nam­ic resis­tance of the chan­nel feed­back rel­a­tive ampli­tude of the veloc­i­ty in the chan­nel decreas­es, the resis­tance increas­es flow, reduces the veloc­i­ty of flow. It is con­clud­ed that the change in the rate of flow of fibrous sus­pen­sions of the inves­ti­gat­ed con­cen­tra­tions is not pro­por­tion­al to the hydro­dy­nam­ic resis­tance. Key­words: mea­sure­ment vor­tex flowme­ter, the feed­back chan­nel, fiber sus­pen­sion, flow resistance.

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    19 Onuchin E.M., Anisi­mov P.N. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of Mobile wood chip­per with the autonomous pow­er sup­ply from the Stir­ling engine

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The arti­cle deals with the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of func­tion­ing Mobile wood chip­per with the autonomous pow­er sup­ply from the Stir­ling engine for pro­duc­ing of the dry wood chips. It is spo­ken in detail the design and func­tion­ing of this machine on the cut­ting area. Mobile wood chip­per com­prise the car­ri­er vehi­cle with Stir­ling engine and gasi­fi­er, chip­per with hydraulic manip­u­la­tor and trail­ing unit with con­tain­er- dri­er. The device per­forms func­tions of sup­ply of wood, chip­ping, dry­ing of wood chip, move­ment on a cut­ting area and unload­ings of the pro­duced wood chip. The math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the Mobile wood chip­per is devel­oped with use of the prin­ci­ple of decom­po­si­tion and con­sists of inter­re­lat­ed sub­mod­els. The main sub­mod­els sim­u­late the dynam­ic process­es asso­ci­at­ed with oper­a­tion of the machine and ther­motech­ni­cal process­es asso­ci­at­ed with dry­ing of the wood chip. Slave submodels

    gen­er­al­ized sim­u­late the func­tion­ing of the Stir­ling engine, the gasi­fi­er, chip­per with manip­u­la­tor, and inter­ac­tion of machine with the struc­tur­al ele­ments of a cut­ting area. The math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of dynam­ics is devel­oped on the basis of Lagrange’s equa­tions. Sub­mod­el sim­u­late the func­tion­ing of the Stir­ling engine rep­re­sents the sys­tem of the dif­fer­en­tial equa­tions of the adi­a­bat­ic analy­sis of a ther­mo­dy­nam­ic Stir­ling cycle. For mod­el­ing of chip dry­ing process­es in an accu­mu­la­tive con­tain­er of the Mobile wood chip­per empir­i­cal data in the form of regres­sion mod­els are used. The devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of func­tion­ing of the Mobile wood chip­per make pos­si­ble the com­put­ing exper­i­ment for deter­mi­na­tion of its effectiveness.

    Key­words: wood chip fuel, pro­duc­ing of dry wood chips on the cut­ting area, mobile wood chip­per, dynam­ic mod­el, pro­duc­er gas Stir­ling engine.

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    20 Rusakov D.S., Ivanov A.M., Chu­bin­sky M.A., Varank­i­na G.S. Inves­ti­ga­tion of the crit­i­cal sur­face ten­sion and the abil­i­ty to wet wood of dif­fer­ent species

    Anno­ta­tion:

    Wet­ting plays an impor­tant role in the tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of bond­ing and pro­tec­tive-dec­o­ra­tive pro­cess­ing of wood by liq­uid binders, impreg­nat­ing com­pounds and paint­work mate­ri­als. Var­i­ous forms of the wet­ting phe­nom­e­non have been inves­ti­gat­ed, how­ev­er some basic ques­tions have not yet been solved. The approach to the analy­sis of the influ­ence of the wet­ting phe­nom­e­non on adhe­sive adhe­sion of glue and wood and the qual­i­ty of the for­ma­tion of glued prod­ucts should be dif­fer­ent when using thin lay­ers of wood, for exam­ple veneer, the thick­ness of which is com­pa­ra­ble to the dimen­sions of cav­i­ties of struc­tur­al ele­ments of wood. In this case, it is nec­es­sary to ensure not only a high lev­el of inter­ac­tion, but also to pre­vent the glue from pen­e­trat­ing the front sur­face of the mate­r­i­al to be glued. To sub­stan­ti­ate the tech­nol­o­gy of veneer­ing with the use of pow­dered urea-formalde­hyde adhe­sives, a mul­ti­fac­tor exper­i­ment on veneer­ing veneer with the use of pow­dered adhe­sives based on urea-formalde­hyde resin KF-MT-15 was car­ried out. The result­ing regres­sion equa­tions link­ing the wet­ting pow­er and the sur­face ten­sion of the adhe­sive with the influ­enc­ing fac­tors make it pos­si­ble to deter­mine the ratio­nal para­me­ters of the ply­wood veneer­ing regime with pow­dered glues. The three-fac­tor exper­i­ment on the veneer­ing of veneer with veneer using pow­dered glues based on urea-formalde­hyde resins, pro­vides the pre­req­ui­sites for the fur­ther devel­op­ment of refined con­di­tions and glu­ing con­di­tions for the opti­mum com­po­si­tions. Accord­ing to the results of the work, the fol­low­ing con­clu­sions can be drawn, that the crit­i­cal sur­face ten­sion in denser wood species (oak, larch) is high­er in com­par­i­son with less dense (aspen and alder). Veneer, made from aspen, beech and alder wood, is less wet­ted than oak and larch. The crit­i­cal sur­face ten­sion and abil­i­ty of the wood to wet depend on its den­si­ty, anatom­i­cal struc­ture and chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion, as well as the mois­ture and rough­ness of the veneer sur­face, the vis­cos­i­ty of the glue.

    Key­words: veneer, sur­face prop­er­ties of wood, wet­ting pow­er, veneer mois­ture, veneer rough­ness, glue viscosity.

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    21 Sokolo­va Е.G. Improve­ment of oper­a­tional prop­er­ties and tech­nol­o­gy of ply­wood of increased water resis­tance, man­u­fac­tured with the use of melaminecar­bamide­formalde­hyde resins

    Anno­ta­tion:

    Cur­rent­ly, tight­ened require­ments to pro­duc­tion of par­ti­cle­board and ply­wood prod­ucts are pre­sent­ed which are reg­u­lat­ed by law. One of the prob­lems in ply­wood pro­duc­tion is the reduc­tion of the tox­i­c­i­ty of ply­wood increased water resis­tance to the lev­el deter­mined by the mod­ern world require­ments. The decrease in the con­tent of free formalde­hyde in the ply­wood can be achieved through the use of spe­cial binders mod­i­fied with melamine. The use of melamine is rec­og­nized as a promis­ing direc­tion of devel­op­ment of mod­ern ply­wood pro­duc­tion. The research results of melaminecar­bamide­formalde­hyde resins con­tain­ing melamine from 20 to 25% and also results of research of influ­ence of melamine in the melamine-car­bamide-formalde­hyde resin strength and cur­rent-sic­nos­ti ply­wood, man­u­fac­tured using these resins. Fur­ther research aimed at improv­ing the oper­a­tional prop­er­ties (bond­ing strength and tox­i­c­i­ty of prod­ucts) and tech­nolo­gies of ply­wood increased water resis­tance with the use of MKFS resins con­tain­ing 20% of melamine. One effec­tive way of increas­ing the bond­ing strength and reduce the tox­i­c­i­ty of the ply­wood is the use of Aerosil tech­ni­cal as a mod­i­fi­er for syn­thet­ic resins. Devel­oped ratio­nal adhe­sive com­po­si­tion based on melamine­formalde­hyde resin for bond­ing veneers. The tech­no­log­i­cal para­me­ters of the bond­ing of ply­wood, man­u­fac­tured melamine-car­bamide-formalde­hyde resins, indi­ca­tors of its strength and toxicity.

    Key­words: ply­wood, tox­i­c­i­ty, melamine-car­bamide-formalde­hyde resin, adhe­sive composition.

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    4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY
    22 Laty­she­vich I.A., Klyuev A.Yu., Kozlov N.G., Prokopchuk N.R., Ogorod­niko­va M.M. Prepa­ra­tion, com­po­si­tion analy­sis and prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tion of ter­penoid-male­ic adducts

    Anno­ta­tion:

    This study describes the tech­nique of obtain­ing ter­penoid-male­ic adducts. The data on of the physic-chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the sam­ples such as soft­en­ing point, vis­cos­i­ty and acid num­ber are giv­en. The group com­po­si­tion of ter­penoid-male­ic adducts was stud­ied using NMR-spec­troscopy. The sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences in com­po­si­tion of resin-ter­pen­e­male­ic adducts were revealed when ter­pene com­po­si­tion was mod­i­fied from 30/70 to 70/30 mas. % by male­ic anhy­dride. Thus, con­cen­tra­tion of male­ic acid increased from 24.3 to 51.9 mas. %, while the con­cen­tra­tion of ter­penoid­ma­lene adducts decreased from 70 to 30 mass% and total con­cen­tra­tion of resin acids increased from 5.7 to 18.1 mas. %. Con­tents of dehy­droa­bi­et­ic acid increased from 2.0 to 3.7 mas. %, isopi­mar­ic asid – from 1.2 to 6.2 mas. % and pimar­ic acid – from 1.4 to 7.4 mas. %. Con­cen­tra­tion of resin acids of unknown com­po­si­tion were 0.8–1.1 mas. %. Kinet­ics of vari­a­tion in con­tent of total com­po­si­tion of resin­ter­pen­e­male­ic adducts dur­ing the process of mod­i­fi­ca­tion of tur­pen­tine (com­po­si­tion 60/40) with male­ic anhy­dride with­out dis­til­la­tion of residue of pitch and male­ic anhy­dride were giv­en. In this way, ter­penoid-male­ic adducts were mul­ti­com­po­nent sys­tems, which con­taines ter­peno­male­ic adducts, maleapi­mar­ic acids and resin acids in dif­fer­ent con­cen­tra­tion. These prod­ucts didn’t react with male­ic anhy­dride. Ter­peno­male­ic adducts with dif­fer­ent con­cen­tra­tion of com­po­nents were obtained, by chang­ing the com­po­si­tion of tur­pen­tine with male­ic anhy­dride. It was proved that ter­penoid-male­ic adducts were effec­tive hard­en­er for epoxy resins. Heat-hard­en lac­quers were obtained using these adducts as a hard­en­er, and can be used in elec­tri­cal industry.

    Key­words: tur­pen­tine, rosin, male­ic anhy­dride, ter­penoid-male­ic adducts, ter­peno­male­ic adducts, resin­male­ic adducts, resin-ter­pen­e­male­ic adducts, ther­moset­ting lacquer.

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    23 Rakovskaya E.G., Kudryasho­va, O.A. Appli­ca­tion of the mod­i­fied rust con­vert­er P‑2 for pro­tec­tion of for­est machin­ery against corrosion

    Anno­ta­tion:

    The work is devot­ed to the study of the pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties of the rust con­vert­er applied to the cor­rod­ed sur­face when organ­ic addi­tives are added to it to cre­ate coat­ings with improved pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties. Expe­ri­ence in the oper­a­tion of parts of for­est trans­port vehi­cles in con­tact with cor­ro­sive envi­ron­ments shows that if the most crit­i­cal parts of struc­tures are not pro­tect­ed by spe­cial means or the mate­ri­als of spe­cial chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion are not applied, cor­ro­sion will occur as a result of cor­ro­sion process­es. The most com­mon way to pro­tect met­als from cor­ro­sion is the appli­ca­tion of paint and var­nish coat­ings. How­ev­er, the dura­bil­i­ty and effec­tive­ness of such pro­tec­tion is large­ly deter­mined by the qual­i­ty of prepa­ra­tion of the sur­face before paint­ing. When the P‑2 con­vert­er is applied to a rusty sur­face, orthophos­phor­ic acid, includ­ed in its com­po­si­tion, binds iron ions to hard­ly sol­u­ble phos­phates block­ing the sur­face of the met­al. But when treat­ed with acidic sur­face mod­i­fiers uneven­ly coat­ed with cor­ro­sion prod­ucts, resid­ual acid­i­ty in areas less con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed with cor­ro­sion prod­ucts will be high­er than in areas heav­i­ly rust­ed, i. E. Sur­face re-etch­ing will be observed. There­fore, the addi­tives intro­duced serve as inhibitors of acid cor­ro­sion. Elec­tro­chem­i­cal stud­ies showed that the great­est pos­i­tive poten­tials in the case of coat­ings with addi­tives of p‑aminobenzenesulfonamide, [5‑nitrofurfural, semi­car­bazone], [2- (p‑aminobenzenesulfamido) ‑4,6‑dimethylpyridine]. The test addi­tives inhib­it both anod­ic and cathod­ic process­es. The inhibito­ry effect increas­es with increas­ing polar­iza­tion poten­tial. It has been shown that the addi­tions of n‑aminobenzenesulfamide, [5‑nitrofurfurol, semi­car­bazone], [2- (p‑aminobenzenesulfamido) ‑4,6‑dimethylpyridine] are the most effec­tive cor­ro­sion inhibitors when they are intro­duced into the P‑2 rust con­vert­er, Their use for pro­tec­tion from cor­ro­sion tech­nol­o­gy in forestry.

    Key­words: rust con­vert­ers, organ­ic addi­tives, met­al pro­tec­tion against cor­ro­sion, improve­ment of pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties, cor­ro­sion rate.

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  • Issue 220
  • Name of article Page Arti­cle
    1. ECOLOGY OF FOREST DENDROPHILOUS INSECTS
    1 Lyamt­sev N.I. The analy­sis of short-term fore­cast mod­els for oak for­est dam­age by gyp­sy moth (Lyman­tria dis­par L.).

    Anno­ta­tion

    Preliminary verification of 4 short-term forecast models with their comparative analysis is presented. The models specify two approaches to identify future defoliation by insects that hibernate as eggs: a) feeding rate assessment (foliage mass consumed by an average caterpillar in normal mortality conditions); b) application of a ratio between foliage loss and population density. Forecast efficiency depends on accuracy of tree and whole stand foliage mass assessment and feeding caterpillar population (insect mortality variation). Various units were applied in population density assessment (trees of various age or diameter, current year shoot, 100 g of foliage). The models were recalculated and reduced to a unified scale based on found ratios between these units. Forest age was used as a predictor. The forecast assessments derived in various models are relatively close for young and mid-aged stands. Variation of the assessments grows with stand age increase. Further verification and adjustment of the models is necessary since they are only reliable in forecast for stands younger than 60 years. Probably regional difference in oak foliage mean phytomass should be taken more into consideration.

    Key­words: gyp­sy moth, oak defo­li­a­tion, fore­cast models.

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    2 Petrov A.V. Mor­pho­log­i­cal and behav­iour­al fea­tures of bark bee­tles of the tribe Scoly­ti­ni (Coleoptera, Cur­culion­idae, Scolyti­nae) asso­ci­at­ed with fungi.

    Anno­ta­tion

    1. The sub­fam­i­ly Scolyti­nae includes about 6000 species of bee­tles, vary­ing in size, shape of the body, behav­ior and troph­ic spe­cial­iza­tion. The objec­tive of this research is the study of fea­tures of mor­phol­o­gy and behav­ior of bee­tles from dif­fer­ent gen­era of the tribe Scoly­ti­ni asso­ci­at­ed with of type of feed­ing habits: phleophagy and xylophagy and xylomyce­tophagy (ambrosia bee­tles). Impor­tant dif­fer­ences are seen in behav­ior of phleophagous-xylophagous and xylomyce­tophagous group dur­ing addi­tion­al feed­ing and col­o­niza­tions of host trees. Sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences are observed in the build­ing of egg gal­leries by ambrosia bee­tles and in feed­ing of lar­vae. Gal­leries of ambrosia bee­tles are exca­vat­ed into sap­wood and per­pen­dic­u­lar to the bark of the host tree. Ambrosia bee­tles trans­port innocu­lum of fun­gi, cul­ti­vat­ing «crops» of the myco­bio­ta. Lar­vae expand the egg niche into a lar­val cra­dle, con­sum­ing wood and feed­ing upon fun­gi. Emerged ima­gos of ambrosia bee­tles leave the gal­leries through entrance tun­nel of par­ents. Lar­vae of phloeo-xylophagous group eat phloem, cam­bi­um and sap­wood. Hav­ing fin­ished devel­op­ment, young bee­tles leave the cours­es through self-made flight-holes. The behav­ior and food sub­strate of lar­vae of bee­tles define mor­pho­log­i­cal fea­tures of phloeophagy, xylophagy and xylomyce­tophagy groups. Adult ambrosia bee­tles have mycan­gia – struc­tures for trans­fer of the myco­bio­ta. The proven­tricu­lus of xylomyce­tophagous bee­tles from genus Сamp­to­cerus is more extend­ed in length. The ante­ri­or plate of proven­tricu­lus in Camp­to­cerus is armed with big tuber­cles. The struc­ture of the proven­tricu­lus of phloeo-xylophagous genus Scoly­tus dif­fers in the extend­ed api­cal lam­i­nate teeth on the pos­te­ri­or plate direct­ed to the cen­ter of the proven­tricu­lus. The ante­ri­or plate is armed with numer­ous small point­ed tuber­cles. The mor­phol­o­gy of the proven­tricu­lus of phoeo-xylophagous gen­era Cer­a­tolepis, Cnemonyx, Loga­nius is sim­i­lar to that of Camp­to­cerus. The mor­phol­o­gy of the proven­tricu­lus of Scoly­top­sis is sim­i­lar to that of

    Key­words: mor­phol­o­gy, phloeo-xylophagy, xylomyce­tophagy, Scoly­ti­ni, Coleoptera.

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    3 Polevoi A.V., Nikit­sky N.B., Man­delsh­tam M.Yu., Humala A.E. On the insect fau­na of dead wood at the ear­ly stage of decay.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Dead wood is the main habi­tat for a large num­ber of for­est-dwelling insects that use it as a food source, devel­op­ment sub­strate, or tem­po­rary shel­ter, simul­ta­ne­ous­ly con­tribut­ing to its dis­in­te­gra­tion. Species com­po­si­tion of wood-inhab­it­ing insects is well stud­ied in the bore­al zone, how­ev­er a sig­nif­i­cant part of the typ­i­cal for­est-liv­ing groups is rep­re­sent­ed by species with poor­ly stud­ied biol­o­gy and troph­ic rela­tion­ships. In 2015, we stud­ied insect fau­na on fresh­ly fall­en trees of birch (Betu­la pen­du­la), aspen (Pop­u­lus trem­u­la) and spruce (Picea abies x fen­ni­ca). The stud­ies were con­duct­ed in the Nature Reserve Kivach (Repub­lic of Kare­lia) using spe­cial­ly designed trunk emer­gence traps. Alto­geth­er, 107 species, rep­re­sent­ing 34 fam­i­lies of Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera were iden­ti­fied. Species diver­si­ty var­ied sig­nif­i­cant­ly on dif­fer­ent trunks. It did not depend on the tree species or a type of strap (windfall/windbreak), but tend­ed to increase with increas­ing trunk diam­e­ter. The species com­po­si­tion of insects was quite dis­tinc­tive on dif­fer­ent tree species, but dif­fered sig­nif­i­cant­ly only on spruce. Analy­sis of the species dis­tri­b­u­tion revealed sev­er­al asso­ci­a­tions on birch and spruce, which sug­gests at least co-occur­rence of some insect species (not assum­ing direct troph­ic link) and pos­si­bly exis­tence of a clos­er rela­tion­ships between them. The range remark­able of species has been observed, includ­ing rare rep­re­sen­ta­tives of Fennoscan­di­an fau­na and species not reg­is­tered before in the Repub­lic of Kare­lia. We pro­vide a selec­tive list of species with notes on pre­vi­ous­ly unknown eco­log­i­cal pecu­liar­i­ties, as well as species that rep­re­sent valu­able fau­nis­tic findings.

    Key­words: insects, dead wood, ear­ly stage of decay.

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    4 Pono­marev V.I., Klobukov G.I., Napalko­va V.V. Pos­si­ble influ­ence of sum of effec­tive tem­per­a­tures on gyp­sy moth Lyman­tria dis­par (L.) pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty dynam­ic at the north­ern bor­der of its nat­ur­al range.

    Anno­ta­tion

    In 2016, almost simul­ta­ne­ous­ly the For­est Pro­tec­tion Ser­vices record­ed for­ma­tion of new gyp­sy moth foci with risks of mod­er­ate, strong and total defo­li­a­tion dam­age in 2017 along the north­ern bor­der of dis­tri­b­u­tion range in the Trans-Ural and West Siberia. Sig­nif­i­cant part of new­ly formed foci were locat­ed in areas where pre­vi­ous­ly there were no records of gyp­sy moth foci (Tyu­men Region). All of new­ly formed foci were locat­ed fur­ther north than pre­vi­ous­ly record­ed foci (more than 70,000 ha). About 11,000 ha of them were in the south­ern taiga sub­zone. Anoth­er new foci locat­ed in stands where the last out­break was record­ed more than 50 years ago, in south-east of Sverdlovsk Region (more than 110,000 ha). Such syn­chronic­i­ty in for­ma­tion of new foci over the wide range allows us to sug­gest that it was ini­ti­at­ed by the same mod­i­fy­ing fac­tor. The goal of this study was to deter­mine pos­si­ble main fac­tors that could pro­voke for­ma­tion of the gyp­sy moth foci in areas fur­ther north than sites where reg­u­lar out­breaks are usu­al­ly observed. Con­duct­ed analy­sis result­ed in the fol­low­ing con­clu­sions: 1. In all like­ly­hood, the drought was not a mod­i­fy­ing fac­tor that ini­ti­at­ed for­ma­tion of the gyp­sy moth foci on large areas in Sverdlovsk and Tyu­men Regions in 2016. 2. The main mod­i­fy­ing fac­tor that could pro­voke observed sit­u­a­tion could be the low tem­per­a­tures dur­ing sec­ond half of the sum­mer and the ear­ly fall in pre­vi­ous years. That could led to both, the elim­i­na­tion of prog­e­ny of the indi­vid­u­als with long devel­op­ment dura­tion and reduc­ing in lar­val devel­op­ment dura­tion of indi­vid­u­als that received the sum of sum­mer-autumn tem­per­a­tures on ear­ly embry­on­ic stage that is nec­es­sary for the com­ple­tion of embryo­ge­n­e­sis and over­win­ter­ing. Such reduc­tion in the devel­op­ment dura­tion could led to decrease in mor­tal­i­ty of indi­vid­u­als on active stages of devel­op­ment (lar­val, pupal, adult) caused by such reg­u­lat­ing fac­tors as preda­tors and par­a­sites. 3. Pro­posed hypoth­e­sis requires addi­tion­al research, how­ev­er in case of cor­rob­o­ra­tion it makes pos­si­ble to ade­quate­ly inter­pret some phe­nom­e­na that can­not be explained from clas­si­cal points of view on fac­tors ini­ti­at­ing the gyp­sy moth outbreaks.

    Key­words: gyp­sy moth, out­breaks, mod­i­fy­ing fac­tors, sum of effec­tive tem­per­a­tures, embry­on­ic development.

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    5 Fedo­to­va Z.A. Gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyi­idae), dam­ag­ing fruits and seeds of arbo­re­al and shrub­by plants in the Palearctic.

    Anno­ta­tion

    1. Fruit and seed gall midges in the Palearc­tic dam­age 14 types of fruit of tree and shrub plants from 16 fam­i­lies. They are usu­al­ly spe­cif­ic to the genus of the plant, being monophagous and oligophagous (Kaltenba­chi­o­la, Plemeliel­la, Semu­do­bia). They devel­op very rarely inside seeds of angiosperms (A total of 10 species of gall midges from 5 gen­era are found in fruits and seeds of gym­nosperms plants, 39 species from 15 gen­era are known on angiosperms. The largest com­plex­es of gall midges are known in the cones of conifers and ear­rings of birch. There were no com­mon species among fruit, seed and flower gall midges. Gall midges devel­op­ing in fruits and seeds of plants began to uti­lize them irre­spec­tive of flower gall midges. Gall midges pre­fer dry fruits, most­ly cones, ach­ene, cap­sules; among the juicy fruits they pre­fer stone-fruit and false berries.

    Key­words: cones, Juniper-berry, fruits, seeds, Kaltenba­chi­o­la, Semu­do­bia, gall midges, arbo­re­al shrubs, main for­est-form­ing species.


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    1. PROBLEMS OF FOREST PATHOLOGY
    6 Var­entso­va E.Yu., Leon­tiev L.L., Var­entso­va D.I. Health con­di­tion and top­ple prob­lem in sil­ver birch (Betu­la pen­du­la Roth) in Saint Petersburg.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The results of the study on phy­topatho­log­i­cal con­di­tion of sil­ver birch trees in St. Peters­burg are pre­sent­ed. The con­di­tion is assessed gen­er­al­ly as sat­is­fac­to­ry with a pre­dom­i­nance of weak and strong­ly weak­ened trees. A qual­i­ta­tive and quan­ti­ta­tive assess­ment of trees that rep­re­sent top­ple threat was per­formed. The rea­sons for the fall of birch in St. Peters­burg were ana­lyzed. Direct and indi­rect signs indi­cat­ing the pres­ence of root and stem rots were iden­ti­fied. It was con­clud­ed that the most often in urban areas wood is affect­ed by white wood pulp and fis­sured brown rot caused by wood-destroy­ing fun­gi. Dur­ing rot­ting fun­gal attacks, sharp decrease in wood den­si­ty and dura­bil­i­ty occurs, and with intense rot devel­op­ment dura­bil­i­ty is almost lost. Com­par­ing to healthy wood, com­pres­sive strength of birch wood with white fibrous rot in stage III is 6–7 times low­er along the fibers and 14–16 times low­er in a sta­t­ic bend. Falling of trees and their parts is often asso­ci­at­ed not only with the devel­op­ment of rot, but also with var­i­ous abnor­mal­i­ties in wood struc­ture that lead to a sharp decrease in wood dura­bil­i­ty in these areas and cause tree parts to fall. In birch trees top­ple risk assess­ment spe­cial atten­tion should be paid to exam­i­na­tion of low­er and mid­dle parts of the trunk. In assess­ment of wood decay extent, not only the pres­ence of fun­gi fruit­ing bod­ies should be con­sid­ered, but also cir­cum­stan­tial evi­dence such as hol­lows, stem scars, and frost cracks.

    Key­words: sil­ver birch, preva­lence of dis­eases and patholo­gies, threat-tree, wood rot, dura­bil­i­ty of wood.

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    7 Senasho­va V.A., Aniski­na A.A. Influ­ence of the rust fungus
    Melamp­sorel­la caryophyl­lacearum on the com­po­nent com­po­si­tion of volatile com­pounds secret­ed by nee­dles of Siber­ian fir.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Impor­tant indi­ca­tors of the phys­i­o­log­i­cal state of plants are sec­ondary metabo­lites, in par­tic­u­lar, volatile com­pounds that are secret­ed by the sur­face of the leaf appa­ra­tus and to a large extent deter­mine the struc­ture of the epi­phyt­ic micro­bial com­plex. The influ­ence of the oblig­ate par­a­sitic fun­gus Melamp­sorel­la caryophyl­lacearum (DC.) J. Schröt on the com­po­nent com­po­si­tion of the volatile com­pounds secret­ed by a phyl­los­phere of Siber­ian fir is pre­sent­ed. This pathogen caus­es fir nee­dle rust, for­ma­tion of «witch­es’ brooms», and canker wounds. Using the chro­mate mass spec­trom­e­try method, dur­ing the peri­od from May through Sep­tem­ber we iden­ti­fied 75 com­pounds in the sam­ples of healthy nee­dles and 47 com­pounds in the sam­ples of fir nee­dles infect­ed by rust. We found 27 sub­stances that are com­mon to both, the con­trol and the exper­i­men­tal sam­ples: monoter­penes (tri­cy­cles, α‑pinene, β‑pinene, α‑phellandrene, β‑myrcene, β‑phellandrene, cam­phene, 3‑carene, o‑cymene, limonene, ter­pino­lene, ocimene), sesquiter­penes (junipen, caryophyl­lene, α‑caryophyllene, α‑longipinen, α‑himachal, δ‑celine, β‑bisabolen, 10s,11s-himachala‑3(12),4‑diene), alco­hols (bor­ne­ol, phy­tol, α‑bisabolol, trans-neroli­dol), esters (bornyl acetate, gerani­lat­se­tat), and alka­ne (eicosane). The high­est num­ber of volatile com­pounds in both cas­es was in June. In the case of rust lesions, not only the reduc­tion of the num­ber of volatile com­pounds, but also decreased per­cent­age of most sub­stances was observed in com­par­i­son to the con­trols. The com­pounds char­ac­ter­is­tic to only healthy and only dis­eased nee­dles were iden­ti­fied. Among the spe­cif­ic com­pounds of the healthy nee­dles tridekanal pre­vailed, while in the nee­dles from the «witch­es’ brooms» manool dominated.

    Key­words: volatile com­pounds, ter­penes, Siber­ian fir, broom rust, «witch­es’ brooms».

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    8 Sidel’nikova M.V., Tobias A.V., Vlasov D.Yu. Fun­gi on leaves, branch­es and stems of trees and shrubs of Saint Peters­burg sub­ur­ban parks.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Myco­log­i­cal exam­i­na­tion of tree and shrub veg­e­ta­tion on the ter­ri­to­ry of Saint Peters­burg park zone and its sub­urbs was con­duct­ed. Mate­r­i­al was col­lect­ed in the parks of south­ern sub­urbs of Saint Peters­burg (Pavlovsk Park, Cather­ine Park, Low­er Gar­den and Upper Park in Oranien­baum, Upper Gar­den and Low­er Park in Peter­hof). For com­par­a­tive pur­pos­es Park of Obukhov Hos­pi­tal in Saint Peters­burg city cen­ter was also exam­ined. At the moment, 230 fun­gi species (micro- and macro­fun­gi) were iden­ti­fied on trees and shrubs of the park zone. Among them, 28 species of micro­fun­gi, includ­ing pow­dery mildew, rust and blights pathogens were found on leaves. Also, 150 species of micro­fun­gi, includ­ing both com­mon and rare fun­gi species, were found on branch­es and trunks. Most of them were found in the anamor­phic stage. The great­est diver­si­ty and micro­fun­gi devel­op­ment were not­ed on dry branch­es. Thy­rostro­mose of lin­den and Dutch elm dis­ease are the most harm­ful. Sta­ble com­plex­es of path­o­gen­ic fun­gi, which devel­op­ment leads to clear decline of plants’ con­di­tion, were iden­ti­fied. In addi­tion, 52 species of macro­fun­gi, includ­ing dom­i­nant and rare species, were observed on trunks of liv­ing and dry­ing trees and veg­e­ta­tion residues. Among the sources of xylotroph­ic fun­gi infec­tion of woody plants, dead elms are the most dis­tin­guished. Their dead trunks can be found in both sub­ur­ban parks and the cen­tral part of Saint Peters­burg. The pre­sent­ed data sig­nif­i­cant­ly expand avail­able infor­ma­tion on myco­bio­ta Saint Peters­burg parks.

    Key­words: myco­bio­ta, dis­eases of trees and shrubs, micro­fun­gi, macro­fun­gi, sub­ur­ban parks.

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    9 Cher­pakov V.V. The eti­ol­o­gy of bac­te­r­i­al drop­sy of woody plants.

    Anno­ta­tion

    1. Bac­te­r­i­al drop­sy (BD), also known as wet­wood (WW), is the most harm­ful bac­te­r­i­al blight in the forests of Rus­sia. Both, in Rus­sia and abroad, the cause of BD-WW is usu­al­ly iden­ti­fied as bac­te­ria Erwinia mul­ti­vo­ra, Enter­obac­ter nimi­pres­sur­alis, Enter­o­baсter сloa­cae, Pec­to­bac­teri­um сaro­tovo­rum, or a con­glom­er­ate of species of over 15 gen­era. Five key fac­tors in the patho­gen­e­sis are iden­ti­fied: 1) the cracks in trunks, break­ing of xylem or phloem; liq­uid fer­men­ta­tion with gas release; 2) flood­ing ker­nel, sap­wood, streaks of liq­uid; 3) wet wounds with mucus, mac­er­a­tion of xylem, cam­bi­um, phloem; 4) wet rot with mac­er­a­tion in roots, rot­ting roots in self-seed­ing and seedlings; 5) soft rot type decay with exu­date in seeds, acorns, nuts, and cones. Рrop­er­ties of E. mul­ti­vo­ra (diges­tion of car­bo­hy­drates, pro­duc­tion of acid and gas, pro­duc­tion of pec­tolyt­ic enzymes) con­trol all 5 fac­tors in the patho­gen­e­sis of BD, while those of Ent. nimi­pres­sur­alis and Ent. сloa­cae (pro­duc­tion of acids, gas) con­trol only the first two. Ent. nimi­pres­sur­alis and Ent. сloa­cae do not pro­duce pec­tolyt­ic enzymes and do not affect roots, fruits, seeds, or seedlings. It is pos­si­ble that these species con­tribute to wet­wood and frac­tures, but not to mac­er­at­ing patholo­gies. The causative agent of BD is E. mul­ti­vo­ra, a pec­tolyt­ic enter­obac­teri­um, which does not dif­fer from P. caro­tovo­rum. We believe that E. mul­ti­vo­ra is a pos­si­ble syn­onym of P. caro­tovo­rum. The prop­er­ties of P. сaro­tovo­rum sug­gest that the pathogen can be a cause of BD-WW, how­ev­er there are no stud­ies on wood spe­cial­iza­tion in caro­tovo­rum.

    Key­words: bac­te­r­i­al drop­sy, wet­wood, pec­tolyt­ic enzymes, sys­temic bac­te­rio­sis.

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    1. MONITORING AND CONTROL OF NATIVE

    AND INVASIVE PHYTOPATHOGENS AND FOREST TREESPESTS

    10 Meshko­va V.L., Boriso­va V.L. Health con­di­tion of Euro­pean ash (Frax­i­nus excel­sior L.) in the for­est stands of the for­est-steppe part of Kharkov Region of Ukraine.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The goal of the research was an eval­u­a­tion of ash stands health con­di­tion in fresh grud (fresh fer­tile for­est site con­di­tions D2) (by the Alek­seyev-Pogreb­nyak clas­si­fi­ca­tion), which is the most wide­spread for­est site con­di­tion in the for­est-steppe part of Kharkiv Region of Ukraine. Defo­li­a­tion of Euro­pean ash was assessed at the end of June, and a cat­e­go­ry of health con­di­tion was assessed in late July or August at 22 per­ma­nent sam­ple plots (SP). Health con­di­tion index of the stands was cal­cu­lat­ed by the num­ber of trees, by pro­por­tion of cross-sec­tion­al area and by pro­por­tion of stem vol­ume in each cat­e­go­ry of health con­di­tion. All these indices of for­est health con­di­tion were cal­cu­lat­ed sep­a­rate­ly for all trees (IIVI) and for viable trees of the cat­e­gories I–IV of health con­di­tion (IIIV). Aver­age defo­li­a­tion of Euro­pean ash was 35 ± 3%, in cer­tain per­ma­nent sam­ple plots it var­ied from 13.2 to 61.5%, and for indi­vid­ual trees var­ied from 5 to 75%. Health con­di­tion index sig­nif­i­cant­ly cor­re­lates with defo­li­a­tion. The high­er defo­li­a­tion of trees with greater diam­e­ter and height is proved by analy­sis of vari­ances. Cor­re­la­tion of defo­li­a­tion with the pro­por­tion of ash in the stand com­po­si­tion and with stand age was not proved sta­tis­ti­cal­ly. Inspect­ed ash stands were clas­si­fied as the cat­e­go­ry «weak­ened» or «severe­ly weak­ened», and the stands in the sam­ple plots SP‑3 and SP‑4 were clas­si­fied as the cat­e­go­ry «dry­ing (dying)». Rel­a­tive diam­e­ter of trees of the cat­e­go­ry IV of health con­di­tion in SP‑9, SP-19, and SP-22 con­sid­er­ably exceed­ed 1 (1.56, 1.36 and 1.33, respec­tive­ly). Health con­di­tion index, cal­cu­lat­ed by cross-sec­tion­al area, exceed­ed the index, cal­cu­lat­ed by tree num­ber. It shows that patho­log­i­cal process­es began to devel­op recent­ly in these stands, which is sup­port­ed by low occur­rence of dead trees.

    Key­words: Euro­pean ash, defo­li­a­tion, health con­di­tion, index of health condition.

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    11 Meshko­va V.L., Koshelyae­va Ya.V. Health con­di­tion of sil­ver birch (Betu­la pen­du­la Roth) in dif­fer­ent for­est site con­di­tions of the Left-bank For­est Steppe of Ukraine.

    Anno­ta­tion

      1. The goal of research was to reveal the pecu­liar­i­ties of two-year dynam­ics of health con­di­tion indices for sil­ver birch (Betu­la pen­du­la Roth) in dif­fer­ent types of for­est site con­di­tions of the Left-bank For­est Steppe of Ukraine. Pre­sent­ed data on sil­ver birch health con­di­tion were obtained from 9 per­ma­nent sam­ple plots in 2015–2016. Three plots were locat­ed in a fresh sub­or (fresh rel­a­tive­ly poor for­est site con­di­tions В2), oth­er three plots in a fresh sug­rud (fresh rel­a­tive­ly fer­tile for­est site con­di­tions C2), and three more plots in a fresh grud (fresh fer­tile for­est site con­di­tions D2) (by Alekseyev–Pogrebnyak clas­si­fi­ca­tion). These for­est site con­di­tions are the most rep­re­sent­ed in the region. All stud­ied stands were of arti­fi­cial seed ori­gin and are about the same age (40–45 years old), which reflects the largest rep­re­sen­ta­tion in the forests of the Left-bank For­est Steppe of Ukraine. Cat­e­gories of health con­di­tion were assessed for each birch tree in the sam­ple plots accord­ing to the «San­i­tary rules in the forests of Ukraine». Index of for­est health con­di­tion was eval­u­at­ed by a num­ber of trees and by the part of cross-sec­tion­al area of birch stems in each cat­e­go­ry of health con­di­tion. Index of for­est health con­di­tion was cal­cu­lat­ed sep­a­rate­ly for all trees (II–VI) and for viable trees of the I–IV cat­e­gories of health con­di­tion (II–IV). All eval­u­at­ed indices of health con­di­tion (1.7–2.5) allow to sug­gest these birch stands weak­ened. There is a trend of wors­en­ing birch con­di­tion in 2016 com­par­ing to 2015 as well as in the series «fresh rel­a­tive­ly poor for­est site con­di­tions (В2) – fresh rel­a­tive­ly fer­tile for­est site con­di­tions (С2) – fresh fer­tile for­est site con­di­tions (D)»Wors­en­ing of health con­di­tion was reg­is­tered main­ly in trees with small­er diam­e­ter, thus patho­log­i­cal process­es were not exten­sive in the stands as whole. Dieback, epi­cor­nic shoots, stem insects’ entrance holes and gal­leries, and sap flux on stems were reg­is­tered as the signs of stands weak­en­ing. In 2016 in com­par­i­son to 2015, the per­for­mance of wet­wood has increased.

    Key­words: sil­ver birch (Betu­la pen­du­la Roth), for­est site con­di­tions, health con­di­tion, stem pests, wet wood.

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    12 Karpun N.N., Zhu­ravl­e­va Ye.N., Volkovitsh М.G., Pro­cenko V.Ye., Musolin D.L. To the fau­na and biol­o­gy of new alien insect pest species of woody plants in humid sub­trop­ics of Russia.

    Anno­ta­tion

    1. Phy­tosan­i­tary mon­i­tor­ing of veg­e­ta­tion of humid sub­trop­ics in Rus­sia (Sochi, Krasnodar Region) revealed appear­ance of new alien species of arbo­re­al pests. In addi­tion to twen­ty species that were record­ed in 2010–2014, six more pest insect species were new­ly record­ed in 2015–2016: Cero­plas­tes cer­iferus F. (Homoptera: Pseudo­coc­ci­dae), Glyphodes pyloalis Walk­er (Lep­i­doptera: Cram­bidae), Dasineu­ra gled­itchi­ae Osten Sack­en (Diptera: Cecidomi­idae), Lam­prodi­la (Pal­mar) fes­ti­va L. (Coleoptera: Bupresti­dae), Phyl­lono­ryc­ter robiniel­la Clemens (Lep­i­doptera: Gracil­lari­idae), Haly­omor­pha halys Stål (Het­eroptera: Pen­tato­mi­dae). Among them C. cer­iferus is a new species for Rus­sia and G. pyloalis is new species to the Euro­pean part of Rus­sia. The most dan­ger­ous pests for dec­o­ra­tive plant­ed veg­e­ta­tion are L. (P.) fes­ti­va and C. cer­iferus. There are cur­rent­ly three mass prop­a­ga­tion loci of C. cer­iferus in humid sub­trop­ics in Rus­sia. This pest species has been record­ed on a wide range of host plants. Glyphodes pyloalis has been record­ed all over three dis­tricts of Sochi (Adler, Hos­ta and Cen­tral dis­tricts). The third annu­al gen­er­a­tion of this species seems to cause the most sig­nif­i­cant dam­age. Lam­prodi­la (P.) fes­ti­va has been record­ed on sev­en species of Cupres­saceae and this species caused mass death of cypress­es in sum­mer 2016. Haly­omor­pha halys, which dam­ages both dec­o­ra­tive and fruit plants, is more haz­ardous to fruit crops. Of orna­men­tal plant species, this pest prefers Paulow­n­ia tomen­tosa (Thunb.) Steud., Catal­pa spe­ciosa (Warder) Warder ex Engelm., Rosa spp. cult., Pit­tospo­rum spp., and Brug­man­sia The main cause of the appear­ance of these species in the region is assumed to be due to the anthro­pogenic fac­tor (unin­tend­ed intro­duc­tion of insects with plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al, the ampli­fied traf­fic). Biol­o­gy of the list­ed species in the humid sub­trop­ics in Rus­sia needs to be stud­ied urgently.

    Key­words: insects, insect fau­na, pest, Cero­plas­tes cer­iferus, Glyphodes pyloalis, Dasineu­ra gled­itchi­ae, Lam­prodi­la fes­ti­va fes­ti­va, Phyl­lono­ryc­ter robiniel­la, Haly­omor­pha halys.

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    13 Selikhovkin A.V., Var­entso­va E.Ju., Popovichev B.G. Clear san­i­ta­tion felling as a method of con­trol of the pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of stem pests and spread­ing of den­dropath­o­gen­ic organ­isms under the cur­rent con­di­tions using Leningrad Region as a case study.

    Anno­ta­tion

    1. The study presents the results of for­est pathol­o­gy mon­i­tor­ing and for­est pest sur­veys, the rea­sons for appoint­ments of san­i­ta­tion felling, and for­est pest and den­dropathogen spread dynam­ics. A crit­i­cal analy­sis of rea­son­ing under san­i­ta­tion felling orders and their results is giv­en. It is con­clud­ed that the san­i­ta­tion felling does not have sig­nif­i­cant affects on the den­si­ty of pest pop­u­la­tions and spread­ing of dis­eases on the ter­ri­to­ry of Leningrad Region. Strong winds are the main dam­ag­ing fac­tor in the region since 2010. Accord­ing to the data of the For­est Pro­tec­tion Cen­tre of Leningrad Region, the next by sig­nif­i­cance after hur­ri­cane winds rea­son for appoint­ment of san­i­ta­tion felling was for­est dis­eases. Those dis­eases are main­ly caused by Phelli­nus chrysolo­ma (Fr.) Donk, Het­er­oba­sid­ion anno­sum (Fr.) Bref., Phelli­nus trem­u­lae (Bon­dart­sev) Bon­dart­sev & P.N. Borisov as well as spread of wound can­cer and resin can­cer. How­ev­er, spread­ing of the pathogens increased after these fellings. Out­break of Euro­pean spruce bark bee­tle Ips typogra­phus (L.) occurred in Leningrad Region in 2013–2015. The for­est pathol­o­gy inspec­tion showed that in 2016 there was a sharp decrease of the Spruce bark bee­tle pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty in the Sos­novsky and Zhitkowsky Fore­stries (north part of Kare­lian Isth­mus) up to 500 and 1500 bee­tles of the parental gen­er­a­tion per hectare, respec­tive­ly. Het­er­oba­sid­ion anno­sum was absent in the sur­veyed area. Nev­er­the­less, at the same loca­tion chrysolo­ma was reg­is­tered spo­rad­i­cal­ly and spruce wound can­cer was wide spread­ing. In some areas, more than 50% of the trees had symp­toms of the dis­ease. Thus, the obtained data are in con­tra­dic­tion with the data of the For­est Pro­tec­tion Cen­tre of Leningrad Region.

    Key­words: clear san­i­ta­tion felling, spruce bark bee­tle, pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty, dendropathogens.

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    14 Utk­i­na I.A., Rubtsov V.V. The resis­tance of the phe­no­log­i­cal forms of the com­mon oak (Quer­cus robur L.) to unfa­vor­able exter­nal factors/

    Anno­ta­tion

    1. Ear­ly (Quer­cus robur var. prae­cox Czern.) and late (Q. roburtardi­flo­ra Czern.) phe­no­log­i­cal forms of the com­mon oak, rec­og­nized as inde­pen­dent taxa in the mid-nine­teenth cen­tu­ry, have been sub­jects of mul­ti­ple stud­ies by spe­cial­ists of dif­fer­ent fields. Abun­dant data on the dif­fer­ences in their growth require­ments, habi­tat con­di­tions, and resis­tance to unfa­vor­able exter­nal fac­tors have been col­lect­ed. Some spe­cial­ists in addi­tion to ear­ly and late phe­no­forms dis­tin­guish inter­me­di­ate forms. Most clear­ly the dif­fer­ences between these forms appear in response to late spring frosts and dam­age of leaves by phyl­lophagous insects due to dif­fer­ent tim­ing of the forms’ leaf­ing. As leaf and flower buds in late oaks are revealed much lat­er than in ear­ly oaks, late form avoids dam­age by spring frosts. In addi­tion, due to low­er abil­i­ty to form sum­mer shoots, late oaks are less dam­aged by ear­ly autumn frosts and win­ter freeze, which con­tributes to the for­ma­tion of more straight and full trunks com­par­ing to ear­ly oaks. Ear­ly oaks are dam­aged more severe­ly by phyl­lophagous insects of spring com­plex, in which hatch­ing of cater­pil­lars from eggs is syn­chro­nized with open­ing buds and unfold­ing of leaves. There is evi­dence that species com­po­si­tion of foliage pests on co-occu­rant ear­ly and late forms of oak is near­ly the same, but the num­ber of indi­vid­ual species of phyl­lophagous insects and their ratio are dif­fer­ent. In the ear­ly form the num­ber of phyl­lophagous insects is greater by sev­er­al fold due to con­cur­rence of devel­op­men­tal phas­es in most ear­ly spring phyl­lophagous species and foliage of this oak form. The obtained results show that the late form of com­mon oak is prefer­able for for­est plan­ta­tions as more resis­tant to unfa­vor­able weath­er con­di­tions and insect pests.

    Key­words: com­mon oak, ear­ly phe­no­log­i­cal vari­ety, late phe­no­log­i­cal vari­ety, unfa­vor­able factors.

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    15 Shchurov V.I., Bon­darenko A.S., Skvortsov M.M., Shchuro­va A.V. Alien for­est insect pests revealed in the North­west Cau­ca­sus in 2010–2016 and con­se­quences of their uncon­trolled dispersal.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The North­west Cau­ca­sus is the most promi­nent among all bor­der regions of Rus­sia for the high­est inva­sive pres­sure. It is facil­i­tat­ed by the south­ern­most geo­graph­ic posi­tion, ecosys­tem diver­si­ty, and also by the pres­ence of large sea ports joined by exten­sive trans­port infra­struc­ture that pro­vides high traf­fic. Since year 2000, pop­u­la­tions of more than 30 alien phy­tophilous species of insects inter­re­lat­ed asso­ci­at­ed with arbore­ous and shrub­by veg­e­ta­tion have been record­ed in the region. Not less than 15 species of such invaders were reg­is­tered in 2010–2016. Cur­rent­ly, con­se­quences of the activ­i­ty of three of these species have most sig­nif­i­cant impact on the native for­est com­mu­ni­ties of the Russ­ian Cau­ca­sus. Since 2012, the box tree moth, Cydal­i­ma per­spec­tal­is, caus­es Buxus colchi­ca extinc­tion in the val­leys of the Black Sea coast rivers, and it has also dis­persed into the steppe zone of the region. The oak lace bug, Cory­thucha arcu­a­ta, a North Amer­i­can polyphagous pest, appeared in Krasnodar Province in 2015 and now occu­pies about 2 mil­lion hectares. It has severe­ly dam­aged the oak forests on more than 300 thou­sand hectares. Simul­ta­ne­ous­ly in 2013–2014 a quar­an­tine pest, Ori­en­tal chest­nut gall wasp, Dry­ocos­mus kuriphilus, invad­ed chest­nut forests near Sochi, threat­en­ing effi­cien­cy of seed regen­er­a­tion of Cas­tanea sati­va. Appear­ance of such pests requires an atten­tion to the ques­tion of effi­cien­cy of con­trol of tran­sit of the bio­log­i­cal mate­ri­als through the south­ern bor­ders of Russia.

    Key­words: North­west Cau­ca­sus, Krasnodar Province, Buxus, alien insects, Cydal­i­ma per­spec­tal­is, Cory­thucha arcu­a­ta, Dry­ocos­mus kuriphilus, box extinc­tion.

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    16 Ple­shanov A.S., Moro­zo­va T.I. Out­stand­ing explor­er of Siber­ian ecosys­tems (on the 90-th anniver­sary of Ana­toliy Sergee­vich Rozhkov).

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents an overview of sci­en­tif­ic and man­age­ment activ­i­ty of Ana­toliy Sergeye­vich Rozkov (1925–2005), Doc­tor of Sci­ence (Ento­mol­o­gy), Pro­fes­sor, Hon­orary Sci­en­tist of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion, an out­stand­ing for­est ento­mol­o­gist, plant pathol­o­gist, and for­est ecol­o­gist. A team of the depart­ment cre­at­ed by A.S. Rozkov at the Siber­ian Insti­tute of Plant Phys­i­ol­o­gy and Bio­chem­istry of Siber­ian Branch of the Russ­ian Acad­e­my of Sci­ences (SB RAS) in Irkut­sk, was at the ori­gin of phys­i­o­log­i­cal ecol­o­gy of for­est insects in Rus­sia. Lat­er on, this approach was car­ried on at the V.N. Sukachev Insti­tute of For­est SB RAS in Kras­no­yarsk. Major works writ­ten or edit­ed by Rozkov are focused on Siber­ian larch pests, mor­pho­log­i­cal and bio­chem­i­cal reac­tion of conifers to insect dam­age and indus­tri­al air pol­lu­tion as well as sys­tem­at­ic, anato­my, and ecol­o­gy of the main pests of Siber­ian forests: Siber­ian moth, Fir sawyer bee­tle, and Altay sawyer bee­tle. Full bib­li­og­ra­phy of A.S. Rozkovs’ pub­li­ca­tions is presented.

    Key­words: Andrey S. Rozhkov, anniver­sary biog­ra­phy, bib­li­og­ra­phy, for­est ento­mol­o­gy, Siberia.

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  • Issue 219
  • Name of article Page Arti­cle
    1. FORESTRY
    1 Danilov Y.I., Smirnov A.P., Petrov V.A. Grothw of pine cul­tures at recul­ti­va­tion of sand quar­ries Kare­lian isthmus.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle is devot­ed to the results of a study the growth of pine pro­duc­tion cul­tures cre­at­ed dur­ing recla­ma­tion of sand and grav­el pits in the Roshchin­sky forestry of the Leningrad Region. Cul­tures were cre­at­ed on var­i­ous ele­ments of a relief: peaks, slopes of hills, bot­toms of quar­ries. It was found that the great­est decline is observed in high­ly pro­duc­tive cul­tures at the age of the staves (35 years). Areas of cul­tures with worse growth are char­ac­ter­ized by bet­ter preser­va­tion. The class of bonitet of pine cul­tures is asso­ci­at­ed with the mesore­lief of the area. The worst growth is typ­i­cal for relief depres­sions. Cul­tures of the upper class­es of bonitet (I–II) occu­py the tops of sandy hills with the pres­ence of organ­ic remains. In areas with a reduced growth of pine there is less vari­ety of ground cov­er. It is estab­lished that the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of pine depends on the con­tent of phys­i­cal clay. Reduc­ing the con­tent of phys­i­cal clay in the sand leads to a decrease in the ener­gy of growth of crops. Qual­i­ty index class is quite close­ly relat­ed to the con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter in the sandy soil. With a rel­a­tive­ly wide range of organ­ic mat­ter in the soil (1.5–4%), mild­ly grow­ing cul­tures are con­fined to soils, where the share of organ­ic mat­ter is less than 0.2–0.4%. The revealed depen­dences are also char­ac­ter­is­tic for con­nec­tions the pine growth ener­gy with the con­tent of nitro­gen, the sum of the exchange alka­li. It has also been estab­lished that with the increase in the acid­i­ty of the soil (exchange and hydrolyt­ic), the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of the pine increas­es, which is due to the arrival of the fall of nee­dles on the soil. On the con­trary, the degree of sat­u­ra­tion with alka­li with the improve­ment of pine growth is reduced. In gen­er­al, the growth of pine on young sandy soils is lim­it­ed by extreme­ly low val­ues ​​of soil fer­til­i­ty (the con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter, phys­i­cal clay, nitro­gen, exchange alka­li). With­in the range of sev­er­al enlarged but still small val­ues ​​of these para­me­ters, the pine qual­i­ty index varies from I to IV classes.

    Key­words: pine cul­tures, recla­ma­tion of sand quar­ries, mesore­lief, char­ac­ter­is­tics of young soils.

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    2 Duro­va A.S., Zhi­gunov A.V. Influ­ence of biochar on conif­er­ous species seeds ger­mi­nat­ing abil­i­ty and seedlings growth in pro­tect­ed ground conditions.

    Anno­ta­tion

    1. Improve­ment of agro­chem­i­cal, phys­i­cal-chem­i­cal and bio­log­i­cal per­for­mance of soil due to intro­duc­tion of biochar as ame­lio­rant has been proved by a great num­ber of research­es. Biochar dos­es of 1 to 30 t/ha are con­sid­ered most effec­tive in farm pro­duc­tion. How­ev­er the effect of biochar appli­ca­tion on ger­mi­nat­ing abil­i­ty of conif­er­ous seeds and seedlings grow­ing on man-made sub­strate in green­hous­es has not been con­sid­ered in lit­er­a­ture yet. The objec­tive of this study was to esti­mate the effects of dif­fer­ent dos­es of biochar on the devel­op­ment of fun­gal infec­tions and growth of one-year seedlings in con­tain­ers with peat sub­strate in sum­mer green­hous­es. The study was car­ried out with seeds and seedlings of Nor­way spruce (Picea abies (L.), Karst.), Scotch pine (Pínus sylvéstris L.) and Euro­pean larch (Lar­ix decid­ua Biochar was added into peat sub­strate in dos­es of 5 and 10 t/h. The effect of dif­fer­ent dos­es of biochar on growth and devel­op­ment of seedlings was esti­mat­ed based on the ger­mi­na­tion index, seedlings fall val­ue, extent of fun­gal dis­ease devel­op­ment, and seedling growth dynam­ics. The results have shown that intro­duc­tion of bio­car pro­duces dif­fer­ent effects on growth rate and devel­op­ment of seedlings of dif­fer­ent species. The high­est pos­i­tive effect was observed for growth and devel­op­ment of larch seedlings. Appli­ca­tion of biochar in dos­es of 5 and 10 t/h result­ed in sig­nif­i­cant 2- and 1.5‑fold increase in ger­mi­na­tion, accord­ing­ly, and incre­ment in bio­met­ric para­me­ters (height and diam­e­ter) and mass of the seedlings. Green­hous­es pro­vide the most favor­able con­di­tions for growth of seedlings. How­ev­er, the same con­di­tions are favor­able for the devel­op­ment of fun­gal infec­tion as well. Appli­ca­tion of biochar has decreased the fun­gal attack and, as a result, the fall of seedlings of all species. Appli­ca­tion of biochar in the dose of 10 t/ha has pro­duced the max­i­mum effect on larch seedlings. The num­ber of plants attacked by fun­gal dis­ease has decreased from 60% in the con­trol group with­out biochar to 41% in the exper­i­ment with biochar application.

    Key­words: biochar, green­house, growth rate, con­tainer­ized seedlings of Euro­pean larch, Nor­way spruce, Scotch pine. 

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    3 Koval­e­va K.A., Yarmishko V.T. Dis­tri­b­u­tion of broad-leaved tree species in the forests of North-West Russ­ian Federation.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Preser­va­tion of high bio­log­i­cal diver­si­ty of veg­e­ta­tion cov­er is a pre­req­ui­site for envi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion, which in turn requires infor­ma­tion on the dis­tri­b­u­tion of species and their demand for the con­di­tions of the site of occur­rence. With­in the frame­work of the pre­sent­ed work, the dis­tri­b­u­tion analy­sis was car­ried out and the char­ac­ter­is­tics of plant­i­ngs with broad-leaved species, whose north­ern bor­der are locat­ed in the North­west of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion-the oak tree, the elm leaf, the smooth and rough elms, the com­mon ash and the small-leaved lin­den. Analy­sis of for­est man­age­ment mate­ri­als allowed to con­sid­er the rep­re­sen­ta­tion of plan­ta­tions with broad-leaved species and to asso­ciate it with the physi­co-geo­graph­i­cal fea­tures of fore­stries in the Leningrad, Pskov and Nov­gorod regions. In addi­tion, data on the com­po­si­tion and age diver­si­ty of plan­ta­tions, as well as the dis­tri­b­u­tion of their areas accord­ing to bonitet class­es and for­est types, were obtained and ana­lyzed. It is estab­lished that the broad-leaved species con­sid­ered, as a rule, grow on fer­tile soils near water bod­ies, form­ing mixed plan­ta­tions. High demand­ing of broad-leaved species to the con­di­tions of the site of occur­rence caus­es their small rep­re­sen­ta­tion in the North-West region. So,the areas of plan­ta­tions with a share in their com­po­si­tion of decid­u­ous species of 3 or more units are 0.02 for the Leningrad Region, 0.05 for Nov­gorod, and 0.03% for the Pskov Region for the total for­est area. At the same time, many of these for­est plan­ta­tions refer to the soft-leaved econ­o­my with the appoint­ment of appro­pri­ate for­est man­age­ment mea­sures, which may cause a decrease in the rep­re­sen­ta­tion of broad-leaved species in the North­west. All this neces­si­tates the devel­op­ment of a sys­tem of mea­sures aimed at pre­serv­ing and mul­ti­ply­ing these valu­able forests.

    Key­words: decid­u­ous breeds, oak, elm, maple, lin­den, ash, com­po­si­tion, site class, for­est type, North-West of the Russ­ian Federation.

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    4 Min­nikhanov R.N., Musin H.G. Con­cept of regen­er­a­tion and for­est man­age­ment in sparse­ly for­est-poor regions.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Devel­oped and imple­ment­ed the con­cept of repro­duc­tion and for­est man­age­ment in sparse­ly wood­ed areas. The con­cept is the stages of imple­men­ta­tion of the com­plex of forestry activ­i­ties. As the ini­tial impe­tus to the emer­gence and accu­mu­la­tion of self-seed­ing spruce and fir under a canopy of soft­wood forests in the first stage, last­ing 30–40 years, and allows a minor eco­nom­ic cost to obtain the sub­se­quent great­est envi­ron­men­tal effect in the whole nat­ur­al com­plex. With the max­i­mum preser­va­tion of under­growth appear­ing and its fur­ther accu­mu­la­tion and growth at the sec­ond stage with the intro­duc­tion of accept­able options here clear, grad­ual, selec­tive log­ging and thin­ning in forests formed of decid­u­ous veg­e­ta­tion, with under­growth of spruce and fir. In the third stage inte­grat­ed log­ging a decid­u­ous for­est stands are formed with the sec­ond conif­er­ous lay­er. Fourth stage the final. In estab­lished conif­er­ous-decid­u­ous for­est inte­grat­ed log­ging is sup­port­ed by the uneven stand. The total dura­tion of stages is lim­it­ed to 60–70 years. In the­o­ret­i­cal terms, and in prac­ti­cal aspect of the con­cept has pecu­liar only to her fea­tures, cov­er­ing a com­plex set of inter­re­lat­ed and inter­de­pen­dent inter­nal rela­tion­ships of the for­est and their exter­nal man­i­fes­ta­tions. Man­age­ment is ratio­nal and sus­tain­able man­age­ment of forests.

    Key­words: for­est fund, pro­tec­tive and com­mer­cial for­est, log­ging, for­est regen­er­a­tion, for­est management.

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    5 Moi­seev N.A. On the con­cept of mod­ern for­est man­age­ment in Russia.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle exam­ines the main pro­vi­sions of for­est man­age­ment con­sid­er the his­to­ry of its devel­op­ment in Rus­sia and in cer­tain coun­tries, includ­ing Ger­many, where it orig­i­nal­ly arise. Par­tic­u­lar atten­tion is paid to its func­tion­al pur­pose, con­tent, method­ol­o­gy of strate­gic plan­ning with­in the for­est inven­to­ry and its rela­tion­ship with the Fed­er­al Law No. 172 «On Strate­gic Plan­ning in the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion» adopt­ed in 2014 by the Gov­ern­ment of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion. It is known that by the last «For­est code of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion» (2006) the for­est inven­to­ry was abol­ished, which neg­a­tive­ly affect­ed not only on the for­est man­age­ment, but also on the state of the forestry sec­tor of the econ­o­my. Here­with was dis­tort­ed and the basic con­cepts estab­lished ear­li­er in for­est sci­ence and prac­tice. In con­nec­tion with the fore­go­ing, the arti­cle con­sis­tent­ly exam­ines: first, the key con­cepts under­ly­ing the for­est man­age­ment and its speci­fici­ty pre­de­ter­min­ing the cra­dle of for­est man­age­ment; two-lev­el nature of strate­gic for­est man­age­ment plan­ning; Its method­ol­o­gy; oth­er func­tions of for­est man­age­ment, includ­ing for­est inven­to­ry, assess­ment of the past forestry; orga­ni­za­tion and cal­cu­la­tion of con­tin­u­ous sus­tain­able for­est man­age­ment (NNPL); the eco­nom­ic sub­stan­ti­a­tion of for­est pro­grams formed dur­ing for­est man­age­ment at the lev­els of the sub­ject of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion and con­stituent in it fore­stries; mech­a­nism for their imple­men­ta­tion; rec­om­men­da­tions for the improve­ment of for­est man­age­ment and con­trol over it. The out­lined con­cep­tu­al state­ments could be used in the devel­op­ment of a new for­est man­age­ment instruction.

    Key­words: for­est, for­est resources and for­est use­ful­ness, forestry, for­est man­age­ment, for­est inven­to­ry, con­tin­u­ous sus­tain­able for­est man­age­ment (NNPL), sus­tain­able use and mul­ti-resource for­est management.

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    6 Chernikhovsky D.M. Auto­mat­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of sur­face topog­ra­phy to the quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The aim of the arti­cle is a search the rela­tion­ships between the quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests and mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of the relief. On exam­ple of the Lisi­no part of Ucheb­no-Opy­t­noe for­est dis­trict in Leningrad region were esti­mat­ed regres­sion rela­tion­ships between the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the for­est stands and the results of auto­mat­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tions of relief. The urgency of this direc­tion is asso­ci­at­ed with the search for objec­tive quan­ti­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of land­scapes, that can deter­mine the vari­abil­i­ty of the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the struc­ture and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of forests. The geoin­for­ma­tion project of mod­el ter­ri­to­ry was formed and was divid­ed to 205 cells on base of reg­u­lar grid with step 1000 m. For cells of reg­u­lar grid were deter­mined gen­er­al­ized char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests on base of for­est men­su­ra­tion data. As ana­lyzed char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests were con­sid­ered the pro­por­tion of land area cov­ered by for­est veg­e­ta­tion, the pro­por­tion of the area occu­pied by pre­dom­i­nant tree species and groups of for­est types, aver­age stocks per hectare, the aver­age pro­duc­tiv­i­ty class­es. On base of dig­i­tal ter­rain mod­el SRTM were exe­cut­ed four vari­ants for the auto­mat­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of sur­face topog­ra­phy by Iwa­hashi and Pike method, and a method based on the analy­sis of topo­graph­ic posi­tion index (TPI). The rela­tion­ships between quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests with the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the sur­face topog­ra­phy (class­es of relief) were eval­u­at­ed by means of mul­ti­vari­ate regres­sion analy­sis. For each vari­ant the auto­mat­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the relief was deter­mined a set of 3–4 class­es uncor­re­lat­ed with each oth­er land­forms that could explain the vari­abil­i­ty of the major­i­ty of ana­lyzed quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests. Mul­ti­vari­ate equa­tions for the dif­fer­ent vari­ants of the clas­si­fi­ca­tion demon­strates sim­i­lar sta­tis­tics in strength due to the same char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests (aver­age stocks and class­es of pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, shares of area pre­dom­i­nate tree species and groups of for­est types). The future devel­op­ment of research results can help to improv­ing the the­o­ry and prac­tice of for­est account­ing works based on the quan­ti­ta­tive analy­sis of spa­tial data on for­est land­scapes using GIS and remote sens­ing methods.

    Key­words: auto­mat­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of sur­face topog­ra­phy, for­est men­su­ra­tion, geo­mor­phom­e­try, quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of the for­est, regres­sion analy­sis, geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion systems.

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    7 Yaprynt­se­va G.A., Chay­ka E.S., Ivano­va O.A. Eval­u­a­tion dec­o­ra­tive native species of trees and shrubs in urban areas.

    Anno­ta­tion

    A wide range of species in the green areas is an impor­tant com­po­nent of the urban envi­ron­ment. The use of trees and shrubs enrich­es the visu­al envi­ron­ment and improves the aes­thet­ic prop­er­ties of land­ings. A sig­nif­i­cant por­tion of the species com­po­si­tion, part and ful­ly stands rep­re­sent­ed tree species – the natives of the region, due to their bio­log­i­cal resis­tance to local envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors and eco­nom­ic expe­di­en­cy. The pur­pose of research – to assess the dec­o­ra­tion of native species for the com­bined cri­te­ria that allows ful­ly to deter­mine their effec­tive­ness for use in green build­ing. Most of the plant­i­ng of native species typ­i­cal for rur­al set­tle­ments and small towns, while the green areas of major cities in the region are main­ly formed of species – intro­duced species, char­ac­ter­ized by a large attrac­tive and orig­i­nal tin diver­si­ty, large finan­cial resources. To eval­u­ate the qual­i­ty of urban green space, dec­o­ra­tive use rat­ing scales, which are built on the indi­ca­tors of the dynam­ics of age changes archi­tec­ton­ics crown. Orna­men­tal plants deter­mined by a com­bi­na­tion of exter­nal signs: archi­tec­ton­ic crown, col­or­ing leaves, size of flow­ers and fruits – and depends on the genet­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the species, and on the exter­nal con­di­tions. Green areas are in addi­tion to the urban archi­tec­tur­al space, they must have high dec­o­ra­tive qual­i­ties. Equal­ly impor­tant is the eval­u­a­tion of the dec­o­ra­tive in win­ter, allow­ing you to give the appear­ance of high trees – shrubs. In the con­text of the urban envi­ron­ment types natives are more sta­ble and durable than many types of exot­ic species. The species com­po­si­tion of native species is sig­nif­i­cant, they belong to more families.

    Key­words: native species, eval­u­a­tion, dec­o­ra­tive, green build­ing, urban environment.

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    1. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    8 Alek­san­drov V.А., Vu Hoa Ky. A vibroloading’s oper­a­tor of felling – skid­ding machine in regine of accel­er­a­tion under tech­no­log­i­cal trans­fers with­out load.

    Anno­ta­tion

    In arti­cle the dynam­ic mod­el of sys­tem is devel­oped «the operator–skidding tractor–tree bunch». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagranzha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion seats. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly felling and skid­ding machine PL-17A.

    Key­words: dynam­ic mod­el, vibra­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion, seat.

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    9 Valyazhonkov V.D., Demi­dov S.A., Phan Ngoc Linh. Struc­tur­al con­struc­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of log­ging operations.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The pur­pose of this arti­cle is the struc­tur­ing of a cycle of a tech­no­log­i­cal process of log­ging oper­a­tions, enabling them to find ways to improve the use of meth­ods and means of tech­no­log­i­cal sup­port. The ele­ments of the struc­ture of the tech­no­log­i­cal cycle of drag­ging by a wheeled wood assort­ment pick-up are tak­en as the object of research. Cur­rent­ly, the analy­sis of cycles of a tech­no­log­i­cal process (TP) of log­ging oper­a­tions to assess the effi­cien­cy of their use a two-lev­el struc­ture is applied. The ele­ments of the cycle only on its input and out­put are con­sid­ered. The inter­nal struc­ture of the cycle is left unat­tend­ed. Con­sid­er­ing the analy­sis of the cycles of mul­ti-stage process­es per­formed by for­est machin­ery, it is nec­es­sary to build their struc­ture in a four-lev­el per­for­mance. The struc­tur­al scheme of a tech­no­log­i­cal cycle of log­ging by a wheeled wood assort­ment pick-up is giv­en. It reflects the struc­ture and the inter­nal form of orga­ni­za­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of log­ging oper­a­tions, as the uni­ty of sta­ble rela­tion­ships between its ele­ments. In a four-lev­el struc­ture of the TP of log­ging oper­a­tions the first lev­el of the devel­op­ment is a cycle that occu­pies the top of the struc­ture, the sec­ond is phas­es and the third is stages. The base of the struc­ture is the fourth lev­el – work­ing and sup­port­ing oper­a­tions. The mul­ti­level struc­ture allows to dis­cov­er ways to improve tech­no­log­i­cal process­es at all stages of the cycle. This approach makes it pos­si­ble to iden­ti­fy the most effec­tive imple­men­ta­tion of poten­tial pos­si­bil­i­ties of the ways and means of tech­no­log­i­cal sup­port. The results of the arti­cle are rec­om­mend­ed for the improve­ment of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of log­ging oper­a­tions with the aim of increas­ing their effec­tive­ness, both at the stage of their devel­op­ment, and dur­ing the oper­a­tion of mul­ti­func­tion for­est machines.

    Key­words: cycle, phase, stage oper­a­tion, mul­ti-lev­el per­for­mance, wheeled wood assort­ment pick-up. 

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    10 Vasyakin E.A., Dobrynin Y.A. Dam­age to trees in selec­tive felling.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Mech­a­nized selec­tive log­ging is accom­pa­nied by the dam­age of the for­est stand. The num­ber of dam­aged trees and the size of the dam­age depends large­ly on improv­ing the func­tion­ing of the select­ed sys­tem «machine-man-envi­ron­ment» for the imple­men­ta­tion of the process. The com­bi­na­tion of nat­ur­al-cli­mat­ic fac­tors reflect­ing the sub­sys­tem «envi­ron­ment» leads to the need for cor­rect choice of hard­ware (sub­sys­tem «machine») and a reli­able pro­fes­sion­al ser­vice (the sub­sys­tem «per­son»). The pur­pose of this arti­cle is to deter­mine the dam­age to trees while pass­ing thin­ning in the typ­i­cal con­di­tions of the south­ern taiga of the North-West­ern Fed­er­al dis­trict of Rus­sia. The objects of study are the tree-length log­ging felling trees and trim­ming branch­es with chain saws and skid­ding at san­i­tary felling skid­ding wheel assem­bled with cord-block equip­ment. The stud­ies were car­ried out as field exper­i­ments with their plan­ning and study­ing nat­ur­al and pro­duc­tion con­di­tions via analysing the results obtained with the appli­ca­tion of prob­a­bil­i­ty the­o­ry and math­e­mat­i­cal sta­tis­tics. The agri­cul­tur­al trac­tor MTZ-82 (pow­er mod­ule) and tech­no­log­i­cal mod­ule (skid plate and winch) were used as the skid plate out­fit. In the process of iden­ti­fy­ing dam­age to leave trees when pass­ing thin­ning in the south­ern taiga of North-West Rus­sia with the use of whiplash tech­nol­o­gy sam­ple of trees and wheel out­fit «MTZ-82+technology» mod­ule the pos­si­bil­i­ty of dam­age to trees in a peri­od of slow SAP flow in them does not exceed 3.0%, which meet the require­ments of the con­ser­va­tion of the for­est reserve for farm­ing is deter­mined. At the same time there is a sig­nif­i­cant prob­a­bil­i­ty of occur­rence of dam­aged trees dur­ing works when there is the process of active SAP flow in them. The num­ber of dam­age in these con­di­tions is 1.6–2.2 times high­er than the reg­u­la­to­ry require­ments, which indi­cates the inex­pe­di­en­cy of con­duct­ing MDP in this veg­e­ta­tion peri­od of devel­op­ment of plan­ta­tions. There is no doubt in fea­si­bil­i­ty of flow log­ging with whiplash-sam­ple for­est wheel out­fit «MTZ-82+process mod­ule». The skid plate Assem­bly has a high adapt­abil­i­ty to con­duct these types of works.

    Key­words: dam­ag­ing trees, whiplash tech­nol­o­gy, wheel out­fit, through cutting.

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    11 Gro­mov I.A., Tyurin N.A. Espe­cial­ly in the cre­ation of dig­i­tal ter­rain mod­els for design­ing the trans­port net­work of mul­ti-pur­pose for­est management.

    Anno­ta­tion

    When design­ing the for­est trans­port net­work in terms of mul­ti-pur­pose, con­tin­u­ous and sus­tain­able for­est man­age­ment in the frame­work of the mod­el of inten­sive for­est man­age­ment requires infor­ma­tion about the eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of the trans­port devel­op­ment in areas of for­est land. To solve this prob­lem, it is pos­si­ble to cre­ate dig­i­tal ter­rain mod­el (DTM) show­ing the dis­tri­b­u­tion of net income (NI) the for­est areas with the for­est trans­port net­work devel­op­ment. The tech­nique of cre­at­ing DTM includes four stages: col­lec­tion of base­line infor­ma­tion; GIS analy­sis; deter­mi­na­tion of the NI; the estab­lish­ment of the DTM in GIS. The first stage is col­lect­ing the data nec­es­sary to deter­mine the val­ue NI and cre­ate a mod­el in GIS. The sec­ond stage involves the inte­gra­tion of data into GIS, their pro­cess­ing and analy­sis with the aim of obtain­ing indi­ca­tors for the deter­mi­na­tion of NI. In the third stage cal­cu­lat­ed NI for each pri­ma­ry unit of the trans­port net­work devel­op­ment. At the final stage, on the basis of spe­cif­ic val­ues of NI in the GIS gen­er­at­ed the­mat­ic map reflect­ing the lev­els of NI. Using this tech­nique allows to cre­at­ing DTM which visu­al­ly reflects the eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of the trans­port devel­op­ment for­est, what is the basis for the design and lay­out of the ele­ments of the for­est trans­porta­tion net­work. The tech­nique of devel­op­ing ETM is inte­gral part of a more Gen­er­al method­ol­o­gy for the design of the trans­port net­work in terms of mul­ti-pur­pose, con­tin­u­ous and sus­tain­able for­est management.

    Key­words: design, for­est roads, trans­porta­tion net­work, mul­ti­pur­pose use of forests, net income, for­est rents, dig­i­tal ter­rain mod­el, GIS.

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    12 Dmitrie­va M.N., Khakhi­na A.M., Lukhmin­skij V.A. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for eval­u­a­tion of rut depth after a small-sized skid­der passover.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The paper presents a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el designed to cal­cu­late the depth of the rut formed by the small-sized skid­der on soft soils. The mod­el bases on sci­en­tif­ic research in the the­o­ry of off-the-road loco­mo­tion, com­plet­ed with the authors’ own the­o­ret­i­cal devel­op­ments. The mod­el uses defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus and bear­ing capac­i­ty as inte­gral char­ac­ter­is­tics of strength and deforma­bil­i­ty of the soil. More­over, because the defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus of soft soils has a low val­ue and is com­pa­ra­ble to the nor­mal stress­es, the mod­el uses a refined depen­dence for link­ing the soil defor­ma­tion and the load para­me­ters. Oth­er phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil expressed in terms of its mod­u­lus, the expres­sions obtained as a result of the approx­i­ma­tion of the ref­er­ence data. The devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el uses refined for­mu­la to account the rela­tion­ship of tire deflec­tion of small-sized skid­der and the soil defor­ma­tion. The for­mu­la allows to take into account the fact that, ceteris paribus on soft soils defor­ma­tion of the tire is small­er in val­ue than the tire defor­ma­tion on stronger soils. The mod­el also takes into account the devi­a­tion of the direc­tion of load result­ing from the nor­mal to the sur­face of soil and trans­la­tion­al speed of the mover. This is achieved by intro­duc­ing into the for­mu­las for cal­cu­la­tion of the bear­ing capac­i­ty of soil-ground cor­rec­tion fac­tors on the direc­tion of appli­ca­tion of the load and the dynam­ic coef­fi­cient, cal­cu­lat­ed using the soil’s rhe­o­log­i­cal para­me­ter in cal­cu­lat­ing the aver­age pres­sure on the con­tact patch of soil with the mover. The mod­el is imple­ment­ed numer­i­cal­ly in the soft­ware pack­age Maple 2015. As a result of the cal­cu­lat­ed data approx­i­ma­tion obtained a sim­pli­fied mod­el to esti­mate the depth formed on the soft soils under the influ­ence of the small-sized skidder’s mover. The sim­pli­fied mod­el is intend­ed for prac­ti­cal cal­cu­la­tions by vary­ing soil defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus of 0.1 to 1 MPa, wheel width from 0.15 to 0.3 m wheel diam­e­ter from 0.6 to 1.2 m, tire pres­sure of 0.15 to 0.75 MPa, wheel load of 5 to 25 kN, skid­der speed of 1–5 m and the load devi­a­tion from the nor­mal from 0 to 30 degrees.

    Key­words: soft soil, small-sized skid­der, rut­ting, defor­ma­tion modulus.

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    13 Kre­tinin V.I., Markov V.A., Sokolo­va V.A., Markov A.N. The­o­ret­i­cal back­grounds of dura­bil­i­ty picware­house parts when hardening.

    Anno­ta­tion

    This arti­cle is devot­ed to the study of the dura­bil­i­ty of the work­ing bod­ies of for­est machines. Indi­ca­tors of longevi­ty are inex­tri­ca­bly linked to wear and have the strongest impact on the preser­va­tion of health picware­house elements.
    Dur­ing picware­house work items (knife, loos­en­ing the clutch­es, the ploughshare of Geron­i­mo, etc.) exposed to abra­sive wear, result­ing in chang­ing their geo­met­ric dimen­sions. Thus picware­house resource ele­ments is affect­ed by a num­ber of fac­tors relat­ed to mate­r­i­al prop­er­ties, details and design para­me­ters. The most effec­tive means of deal­ing with the wear and dulling of blades picware­house parts is ensur­ing that they are self-sharp­en­ing in oper­a­tion. To ensure self-sharp­en­ing of picware­house details nec­es­sary to achieve a cer­tain val­ue of the sim­i­lar­i­ty cri­te­ri­on for the dete­ri­o­ra­tion process of a two-lay­er blade. At the steady state wear process, the shape of the blade sta­bi­lizirue­most and the inten­si­ty of wear of the two lay­ers is main­tained at a cer­tain lev­el. With the right choice of mate­r­i­al dou­ble-lay­er blade it is pos­si­ble to pro­vide self-sharp­en­ing and there­by elim­i­nate time-con­sum­ing peri­od­ic sharp­en­ing of the cut­ting edge. The pro­vi­sion of the required resource soil-cul­ti­vat­ing work­ing bod­ies to hard­en their wear-resis­tant coat­ings due to the imple­men­ta­tion of two main inter­con­nect­ed objec­tives: 1. Obtain­ing met­al plat­ing of the required thick­ness with desired physi­co-mechan­i­cal and per­for­mance prop­er­ties. 2. The For­ma­tion of a firm con­nec­tion of the coat­ing to the sub­strate. The thick­ness of the cut­ting lay­er (coat­ing) is installed with the stand­point of the func­tion­al require­ments picware­house detail, since this para­me­ter affects the sharp­ness of the blade under con­di­tions of steady-state self-sharp­en­ing. The low­er lim­it of the thick­ness of the cut­ting lay­er set for rea­sons of obtain­ing the required resource.

    Key­words: picware­house details, forestry machines, recov­ery, productivity

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    14 Manichev D.N., Mya­sishchev D.G. The arti­cle describes the results of inves­ti­ga­tion tests exam­in­ing work oper­a­tion need­ed for start­ing of a motor by a starter as well as of work oper­a­tion need­ed while using elec­tri­cal start­ing system.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents the results of research tri­als deter­min­ing the ener­gy to run the motor starter and mechan­i­cal work expend­ed with elec­tric start sys­tem. The devel­op­ment will increase the oper­a­tional effi­cien­cy leso­trans­port­nyh process­es in the areas of thin­ning, using a chain­saw motor with gear, not only as an eas­i­ly remov­able trig­ger unit (PU), but also the back unit to the saw unit, and at the same time will elim­i­nate the bat­tery (elec­tric start), and there­by improv­ing the qual­i­ty of start­ing, espe­cial­ly in adverse ambi­ent tem­per­a­tures. The aim is to – increase oper­a­tional effi­cien­cy leso­trans­port­nyh process­es in the areas of har­vest­ing thin­nings using adapt­ing hard­ware for dif­fer­ent pur­pos­es. In win­ter, two exper­i­ments were con­duct­ed to deter­mine the effi­cien­cy of the engine is start­ed using the pro­to­type and stan­dard PU sys­tem bat­tery-starter in the win­ter. The aim of the research was to deter­mine the work expend­ed to run the trac­tor engine and PU using a stan­dard sys­tem bat­tery-starter in the win­ter oper­at­ing con­di­tions of the trac­tor self-pro­pelled chas­sis T‑16M and the com­par­i­son of these works. The exper­i­ment con­firmed the pos­i­tive aspects of the project. Con­clu­sions: 1) har­mo­niza­tion of the start­ing device, as the engine of the start­ing device (PU) can be used not only to start the engine, but also, if nec­es­sary, dis­man­tled and used as a tool Gaso­line engine; 2) the loss is elim­i­nat­ed over time as com­pared to the case in elec­tric start­ing bat­tery dis­charge; 3) PU reduces the human fac­tor; 4) weight reduc­tion start­ing sys­tem; 5) dur­ing the win­ter peri­od at a neg­a­tive tem­per­a­ture decreas­es dur­ing the tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tions on the prepara­to­ry work asso­ci­at­ed with the heat­ing of the engine of the trac­tor; 6) increase the scrolling time the crank­shaft of the diesel engine at the time of the launch of PU; 7) PU ensures reli­able oper­a­tion under all tem­per­a­ture conditions.

    Key­words: starter, start­ing pow­er, work oper­a­tion need­ed for motor start­ing.

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    15 San­nikov S.P., Herz E.F. Method of the mon­i­tor­ing ille­gal chop­ping tree with use RFID-device and WSN-network.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The pos­si­bil­i­ty of the use radio-fre­quen­cy sen­sor hap­pens to In arti­cle for pre­ven­tion ille­gal chop­ping tree. Such chop­pings occur sea­son­ly and trend to reduc­tion does not exist. The Stud­ies con­duct­ed in Ural State For­est Engi­neer­ing Uni­ver­si­ty, have shown the fol­low­ing results. That only sen­sors, set up with wood, capa­ble in good time to check the sit­u­a­tion with ille­gal chop­ping tree, but also many oth­er fac­tors, for instance: wild­fires, logis­tics of the dis­place­ment lum­ber, esti­ma­tion stud­ies remote. The Object of the study is an area in wood-park Spe­cial­ist in forestry to Rus­sia (cit.Ekaterinburg). The Instru­ment of the study are an radio-fre­quen­cy device, unit­ed in wire­less sen­sor net­work (WSN). The Explored sound spec­tral fea­tures chain saw with motor Taiga and Shtil. Pre­sent­ed meth­ods is designed on base of the analy­sis sound wood and sep­a­ra­tions of the spec­trum of the work saw-device (for instance: chain), pub­lish­ing sound dif­fer­ent from noise winds and rus­tle sheet. Also researched the noise work­ing unit with gaso­line and diesel engine. In brought spec­tral fea­ture are cho­sen, on deter­mined sign, typ­i­cal cri­te­ria for sort­ing area to sound sequence of the back­ground. Results of the exper­i­men­tal stud­ies con­firm that sound work­ing chain saw with motor heard in radius 500–700 m are Revealled influ­ence of the relief and weath­er con­di­tions on range of the spread­ing the sound chain saw with motor. The Bleep was analysed by method Furie, for dynam­ic and tem­po­rary scal­ing. The Sound fea­tures chain saw with motor with­out load and when saw­ing dif­fer so a cor­rec­tion wave­length is offered. This required for choice of the ana­log-to-dig­i­tal con­vert­er (ADC) when design­ing sen­sor check­ing the ille­gal chopping.

    Key­words: radio fre­quen­cy mon­i­tor­ing of for­est fund, with­out wire touch net­work (WSN), the para­me­ters of the tim­ber ambi­ence, ille­gal chop­pings tree.

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    16 Sidorenkov N.A., Mar­tynov B.G. And prob­a­bilis­tic mod­el to cal­cu­late on-the-dejnos­ti nodes and inter­faces of the manipulator.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Dur­ing oper­a­tion of hydraulic manip­u­la­tors (GM), there aris­es the prob­lem of extend­ing the life cycle of the GM. Cur­rent­ly, it is under full load UM from 3 to 5 years or 6000 hours before over­haul. Depend­ing on the con­di­tions of oper­a­tion and main­te­nance of this resource, accord­ing to «Lift­ing machines», can be used for 8 months. The user man­u­al for the GM iden­ti­fies five kinds: UTB and four plates. And in a war­ran­ty peri­od defined by the work of the GM until the first fail­ure. It cor­re­sponds to about 120 hours. To extend the ser­vice life of the GM over­haul need to move from con­ven­tion­al pre­ven­tive sys­tem of main­te­nance and repair to a proac­tive sys­tem. The basis for proac­tive main­te­nance and R is the cor­rect man­age­ment of the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the mech­a­nism with the pur­pose of increas­ing its ex-oper­a­tional reli­a­bil­i­ty, deter­min­ing the opti­mal fre­quen­cy and R, which in turn requires full infor­ma­tion about the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the mech­a­nism and reli­a­bil­i­ty of its com­po­nents and inter­faces. The pur­pose of proac­tive main­te­nance and repair – to pre­vent fail­ure of the nodes and inter­faces of the mech­a­nism. To achieve this goal it is nec­es­sary to devel­op reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els of the GM and car­ry­ing out sta­tis­ti­cal stud­ies of fail­ures of ele­ments of the mech­a­nism. There­fore, this task is urgent. In this paper, we pro­vide an expres­sion that will form the ser­vic­ing strat­e­gy for this type of manip­u­la­tors to extend their ser­vice life. The pur­pose of the study: the devel­op­ment of prob­a­bilis­tic reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els of the nodes and inter­faces of GM to address one of the prob­lems of con­trol of tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the mech­a­nism in order to jus­ti­fy the proac­tive main­te­nance and R.

    Key­words: hydraulic crane, reli­a­bil­i­ty, prob­a­bil­i­ty, per­for­mance, failure.

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    1. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY
    17 Bas­trikov D.V., Vlasov Yu.N., Iljushenko D.A., Kuch­er S.V. Exper­i­men­tal stud­ies of ener­gy con­sump­tion of pine debark­ing wastes shredding.

    Anno­ta­tion

    This arti­cle devoteы to exper­i­men­tal deter­mi­na­tion of pat­terns to assess the ener­gy con­sump­tion required for pine debark­ing waste shred­ding, depend­ing on the shred­ding ratio and the humid­i­ty. The research uses meth­ods of exper­i­ment plan­ning and pro­cess­ing of exper­i­men­tal data, meth­ods of math­e­mat­i­cal analy­sis. We con­sid­er three approx­i­mate shred­ding law pat­terns pre­sent­ed in tech­ni­cal lit­er­a­ture, the struc­ture of which forms the basis of the sec­ond order exper­i­men­tal design. The exper­i­ments test­ed three exper­i­men­tal groups of the mate­r­i­al rel­a­tive humid­i­ty: waste imme­di­ate­ly after rotary machine debark­ing (rel­a­tive humid­i­ty about 70%), dried in air (rel­a­tive humid­i­ty about 40%) and dried in an oven (rel­a­tive humid­i­ty about 10%). Pre-sep­a­ra­tion of the mate­r­i­al was car­ried out on the ALGM-3-set in order to col­lect the waste into three groups by aver­age par­ti­cle size of the pieces before shred­ding (approx­i­mate­ly 70, 50 and 30 mm). After the pre-sep­a­ra­tion, the sam­ples were ground in an indus­tri­al shred­der Erd­wich M600/1–400. Dur­ing the oper­a­tion, the shredder’s chop­per record­ed data on the con­sump­tion of the cur­rent strength, the work done dur­ing the shred­ding was cal­cu­lat­ed from the record­ed data on the con­sump­tion of amper­age at a cer­tain volt­age in the net­work. After the shred­ding, the aver­age par­ti­cle size was deter­mined by the treat­ed sam­ples, and then cal­cu­lat­ed the shred­ding ratio. Accord­ing to the results of exper­i­men­tal data on debark­ing waste shred­ding pro­cess­ing, the paper estab­lish­es that the spe­cif­ic ener­gy con­sump­tion of pine debark­ing waste shred­ding asso­ciates with the rel­a­tive humid­i­ty of the waste and the shred­ding ratio in a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, which fol­lows the struc­ture of Kir­pichev-Kik law. The exper­i­men­tal data pro­cess­ing shows that the caloric val­ue of dry mat­ter con­tained in the shred­ding prod­uct, and the ener­gy expend­ed in its shred­ding, link each oth­er as a non­lin­ear func­tion of the bark humid­i­ty with opti­mal humid­i­ty of 27%. The results also show that the spe­cif­ic ener­gy con­sump­tion of pine debark­ing waste shred­ding of at the opti­mum humid­i­ty is pro­por­tion­al to the nat­ur­al log­a­rithm of the shred­ding ratio. At opti­mal humid­i­ty for shred­ding pine debark­ing waste in 5–15 times it is need­ed to expend ener­gy, which is 7–14% of the waste calorif­ic val­ue. In con­clu­sion, the paper prospects that fur­ther exper­i­men­tal stud­ies should be focused on detailed analy­sis of ener­gy con­sump­tion of oth­er wood species waste debark­ing shredding.

    Key­words: shred­ding, debark­ing waste, opti­mal humid­i­ty, ener­gy con­sump­tion.

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    18 Sergee­vichev A.V., Kush­nerev V.O. The analy­sis of influ­ence of para­me­ters of a cut­ting instru­ment and cut­ting modes on qual­i­ty and pow­er indi­ca­tors in the con­di­tions of roundup of logs.

    Anno­ta­tion

    In com­par­i­son with oth­er tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tions roundup of logs the most respon­si­ble, heavy and pow­er-inten­sive tech­no­log­i­cal work defin­ing appear­ance of fin­ished prod­uct and its qual­i­ty. Now in the coun­tries con­duct­ing in this area process­es of roundup of logs, pro­cess­ing con­di­tions and cut­ting instru­ments con­stant­ly are improved. In this regard a research of influ­ence of para­me­ters of a cut­ting instru­ment and cut­ting mode on pow­er and qual­i­ty indi­ca­tors of roundup of logs, it is nec­es­sary to con­sid­er urgent. Entered prob­lems of the pilot stud­ies: study­ing of influ­ence of para­me­ters of cut­ters and a cut­ting mode on pow­er and qual­i­ty indi­ca­tors of roundup of logs cut­ting; estab­lish­ment of com­mu­ni­ca­tion of char­ac­ter of a cut­ting. Results of the exper­i­men­tal expe­ri­ences and tech­nique of their real­iza­tion are giv­en in this arti­cle, the design of expe­ri­enced knot of the cut­ting estab­lished on a sup­port of the pilot unit is described graph­ic schemes and prin­ci­pal spec­i­fi­ca­tions are pro­vid­ed. This design pro­vides four degree of free­doms for a cut­ter that allows to focus an edge in space and to receive cor­ners nec­es­sary for car­ry­ing out exper­i­ments. The chuck has two rotary flat hinges with lim­bus­es, and also the device for turn of a trim­ming blade on the required rake angles and pro­vi­sions of a cut­ter. When car­ry­ing out expe­ri­ences accord­ing to a method­i­cal grid depen­dence of pow­er was defined on cut­ting from the major regime and instru­men­tal fac­tors at roundup of pine and fir-tree logs with humid­i­ty of 30%. Expe­ri­ences were car­ried out on the basis of a tech­nique of a one-fac­to­r­i­al exper­i­ment. Results were exposed to sta­tis­ti­cal pro­cess­ing, in sub­se­quent pro­cess­ing of the obtained data was made by a graph­ic method with iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of expo­nen­tial laws. On the basis of depen­dences of pow­er of cut­ting on major fac­tors we received pri­vate and com­mon depen­dences of pow­er of cut­ting. In the cut­ting cov­er­ing head of the posi­tion­al machine, there have to be two groups of knives: knives for rough­ing and knives for smooth­ing. The major dom­i­nat­ing fac­tors influ­enc­ing cut­ting pow­er at roundup of logs draft cut­ters are: giv­ing on a cut­ter, the main cor­ner in the plan, a cut­ter rake angle. For fair cut­ters under equal oth­er con­di­tions the dom­i­nat­ing fac­tor is the slope angle of a trim­ming blade of a cut­ter. With increase in giv­ing at a cut­ter rang­ing from 0,2 to 0,6 mm/cycle, cut­ting pow­er at roundup by draft cut­ters increas­es. With increase in the main thing in respect of a draft cut­ter the pow­er of cut­ting decreas­es. With increase in a rake angle of a draft cut­ter the pow­er of cut­ting increas­es. For pro­vid­ing stan­dard con­di­tions of roundup of logs with the many knifes tool in the form of the cov­er­ing rotor head, in prac­tice on posi­tion­al machines the fol­low­ing val­ues for draft cut­ters are rec­om­mend­ed: Sz =0 = 0,4÷0,6 mm/cycle; φ = 50÷60 °; ε = 15÷20°, cut­ters sharp (ρ = 10–15 microns), mate­r­i­al of cut­ters – quick cut­ting steel (R9, R18). Cut­ters: inte­gral or equipped with plates from quick cut­ting steel. For pro­vid­ing stan­dard con­di­tions of cut­ting and the required qual­i­ty of a sur­face of pro­cess­ing, the slope angle of fair sharp cut­ters is rec­om­mend­ed with­in 20÷30°.

    Key­words: roundup of logs, para­me­ters of a cut­ting instru­ment and cut­ting modes.

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    1. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY
    19 Shkol’nikov E.V. Syn­the­sis and vibra­tional spec­tra of glass-form­ing semi­con­duct­ing com­pounds TlAsS2 and TlAsSe2.

    Anno­ta­tion

    1. Glass­es were syn­the­sized by the vac­u­um melt­ing method from high­ly pure ele­men­tal sub­stances at a tem­per­a­ture of 700 °C fol­lowed by quench­ing of the ampoules with melts in air rang­ing from 500 °C, and from Tl2X and As2X3 com­pounds at 500 °C for 5 hours with quench­ing in air. X‑ray amor­phism, the lack of crys­talline microin­clu­sions when thin sec­tions are viewed in the MIM-8and MIK‑1 micro­scopes showed the glassy state and homo­gene­ity of the obtained glass­es. Accord­ing to the mol­e­c­u­lar mod­el, the cor­rect trig­o­nal pyra­mid AsX3has C3v sym­me­try with four vibra­tional modes: two sym­met­ri­cal modes of stretch­ing ν1(А1) and bond bend­ing ν2(А1), as well as two asym­met­ric dou­ble-degen­er­ate modes of stretch­ing ν3(Е) and bond bend­ing ν4(Е). The improp­er pyra­mid XtAsX2 with two iden­ti­cal bridge As–X bonds and one unbridged (ter­mi­nal) short bond has low­er sym­me­try Cs. More­over, the degen­er­a­tion of vibra­tions ν3(Е) and ν4(Е) is removed, and all six vibra­tional modes become active in the infrared spec­tra. Then, it can be expect­ed that due to the low­er­ing of sym­me­try С3v → Cs dur­ing the tran­si­tion from the trig­o­nal-pyra­mi­dal AsX3/2 struc­tur­al units (s.u.) with the three bridge As–X bonds in the As2X3 crys­tals to the chained s.u. Tlq+Xq–AsX2/2(X = S, Se) with two bridge bonds and the short unbridged As–Xt bond, the absorp­tion bands ν3(Е) and ν4(Е) in the vibra­tional IR spec­trum of the TlAsX2 crys­tals are split into two bands: ν2(А’, νs) and ν5(А”, νa) of the cor­re­spond­ing sym­met­ric and asym­met­ric stretch­ing vibra­tions of the As–X bonds inside theXtAsX2 pyra­mids with sym­me­try Сs,ν4(А’, δs), and ν6(А”, δa) of the sym­met­ric X–As–X and asym­met­ri­cal X–As–Xt bend­ing vibrations(for sin­gle crys­tal TlAsS2 ν1 = 334, ν2 = 312, ν3 = 141, ν4 = 190, ν5 = 287, ν6 = 178 cm–1). The high fre­quen­cy bands νcb and νca in the spec­tra of the crys­tals and broad absorp­tion bands at 370–395 and 240–270 cm–1 in the spec­tra of glass of the cor­re­spond­ing TlAsSe2 and TlAsS2 can be relat­ed to the stretch­ing vibra­tions of the As–Х–As bridges between the two АsХ3 pyra­mids, which arise dur­ing the removal of the degen­er­a­tion of the inter­mol­e­c­u­lar cou­pling mode (c) and dif­fer in fre­quen­cy(aIn the IR vibra­tional spec­tra of TlAsX2 glass­es, due to the dis­ap­pear­ance of the long-range order and the pres­ence of the dis­per­sion of the lengths of the As–X chem­i­cal bonds, char­ac­ter­is­tic also for mon­o­clin­ic crys­tals of TlAsX2, there are only four broad absorp­tion bands in the wave num­ber range of 60–400 cm–1.These bands are a super­po­si­tion of 2–3 intense absorp­tion bands in the spec­tra of the crys­tals and indi­cate the per­sis­tence of chained s.u. Tlq+Xq–AsX2/2 (X = S, Se) in the glass. Based on the results of DTA and ther­mo­dy­nam­ic cal­cu­la­tions, the soft mode of syn­the­sis of TlAsS2 and TlAsSe2 glass­es uni­form in com­po­si­tion and struc­ture is pro­posed from thal­li­um and arsenic chalco­genides. The vibra­tional IR spec­tra of poly­mer-chain glass­es and TlAsX2 crys­tals are stud­ied, the prob­a­ble assign­ment of the observed absorp­tion bands is per­formed, and the pres­ence of a pyra­mi­dal struc­tur­al unit Tlq+Xq–AsX2/2 in glass­es and crys­tals with two bridge bonds and a short­er As–X unbridged bond is established.

    Key­words: mode syn­the­sis of homo­ge­neous glass­es, vibra­tional infrared spec­tra, the struc­tur­al-chem­i­cal fea­tures of glass form­ing com­pounds TlAsS2 and TlAsSe2.


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    1. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

    20 Vagi­zov M.R., Dubov D.A. Devel­op­ment of the geoin­for­ma­tion sys­tem for hunt­ing farms.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Dis­cuss­es the neces­si­ty of devel­op­ing a spe­cial­ized geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tem for hunt­ing groung. Car­ried out a descrip­tion of the orga­ni­za­tion­al struc­ture of geoin­for­ma­tion sys­tems and func­tions to be ren­der­ing. Deter­mined nec­es­sary require­ments for the design of the GIS and the tasks which the sys­tem are able to solve. The orga­ni­za­tion­al struc­ture of the geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tem and the func­tions to be visu­al­ized are described. Com­piled tech­ni­cal scheme and visu­al­iza­tion GUI. In accor­dance with the strat­e­gy of devel­op­ment of the hunt­ing indus­try of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion until 2030, it is required to increase the soft­ware and infor­ma­tion sup­port for hunt­ing users. The basis for devel­op­ment is the lack of a uni­fied sys­tem of col­lec­tion, stor­age and sys­tem­ati­za­tion of data on the state of hunt­ing, pop­u­la­tion and car­ry out the nec­es­sary mea­sures. The devel­op­ment of a spe­cial GIS is able to pro­vide sup­port in the sys­tem of deci­sion-mak­ing by a per­son in the inter­ests of man­ag­ing the ter­ri­to­ries of hunt­ing farms. The devel­op­ment of a thought­ful inter­ac­tive inter­face will bring the GIS to the most high-qual­i­ty lev­el of inter­ac­tion. It is well known that the spa­tial data are the basis for infor­ma­tion sup­port of geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tems, includ­ing local GIS. For con­tin­u­ous updates of the geo­da­ta requires a time­ly update infor­ma­tion on the serv­er in which the sys­tem is deployed. There­fore, as the tech­no­log­i­cal base of the select­ed design it is the web appli­ca­tion run­ning through a pre­set user’s brows­er. The imple­men­ta­tion of the func­tions of this GIS, intel­li­gent man-machine inter­face, includ­ed in its com­po­si­tion, will allow you to use this sys­tem not only hunters, but also to inter­est­ed pro­fes­sion­als in relat­ed indus­tries, forestry, car­tog­ra­phy, geoin­for­mat­ics, zoo­geog­ra­phy, and hunt­ing. The devel­oped sys­tem can be used in edu­ca­tion­al process for train­ing stu­dents in var­i­ous areas in high­er edu­ca­tion­al institutions.

    Key­words: geoin­for­ma­tion sys­tems, hunt­ing facil­i­ties, pro­gram inter­faces, geoinformatics.

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    21 Chu­dovskaya L.A., Galileyev M.M. The method of using the method of com­pos­ite indi­ca­tors, and the method of ran­dom­ized aggre­gates for qual­i­ty eval­u­a­tion of objects

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents a car­ried out com­par­a­tive analy­sis of a lev­el of qual­i­ty of the wood-shav­ing plates. The tech­nique of con­struct­ing the com­pos­ite indi­ca­tor of qual­i­ty is shown. Mod­el­ing the uncer­tain­ty of the choice of weight­ing coef­fi­cients from the class of admis­si­ble vec­tors of these coef­fi­cients with assign­ment of the Gauss­ian mem­ber­ship func­tions, we obtain a ran­dom vec­tor of weight coef­fi­cients, which gives by sub­sti­tut­ing into the for­mu­la rollup ran­dom­ized (ran­dom) a sum­ma­ry indi­ca­tor that describes the qual­i­ty of the object with the uncer­tain­ty of the job fac­tors. The scat­ter of the val­ues of ran­dom­ized aggre­gates will be mea­sured stan­dard devi­a­tions of the respec­tive ran­dom vari­ables. Auto­mat­ed eval­u­a­tion sys­tem allows you to dis­play the result of eval­u­at­ing qual­i­ty. To esti­mate the qual­i­ty of the wood-shav­ing plates by the results obtained in a sort­ed table accord­ing to the val­ues of indi­vid­ual and com­pos­ite indi­ca­tors, qual­i­ty chip­board. Attract­ing addi­tion­al infor­ma­tion about the rel­a­tive impor­tance to con­sumers of select­ed indi­ca­tors of the qual­i­ty of the wood-shav­ing plates allows you to refine the results of the analy­sis, sub­stan­tial­ly reduc­ing the vari­a­tion in the esti­mates of the aver­age aggre­gat­ed qual­i­ty indi­ca­tors. So, analy­sis of the lev­el of qual­i­ty of the wood-shav­ing plates that meets the require­ments of the nor­ma­tive doc­u­ments, with the help of con­struct­ing ran­dom­ized aggre­gates, test­ed work­ing method­ol­o­gy, allow­ing to assess the qual­i­ty of the inspect­ed objects.

    Key­words: the tech­nique, lev­el of qual­i­ty, the wood-shav­ing plates, set-the­o­ret­ic uncer­tain­ty, con­struct­ing ran­dom­ized aggre­gates, the method of ran­dom­ized sum­ma­ry indicators.

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  • Issue 218
  • Name of article

    Page

    Arti­cle

    1. FORESTRY

    1 Kovyazin V.F., Do H.H. Sil­vi­cul­tur­al and den­dro­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of trees and shrubs in reserve «Yun­tolovsky».

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    We present the results of sil­vi­cul­tur­al and dendrological
    char­ac­ter­is­tics of trees and shrubs in the reserve “Yun­tolo­vo”, which is the first spe­cial­ly pro­tect­ed area of St. Peters­burg region­al sig­nif­i­cance, where it is not stored in cer­tain types of plants, and the whole apart­ment com­plex nature. Land­scape struc­ture of the reserve includes a nat­ur­al-ter­ri­to­r­i­al com­plex­es, char­ac­ter­iz­ing coastal, wet­lands ecosys­tems, devel­op­ing the nat­ur­al laws of nature. Since its ter­ri­to­ry is locat­ed on the flat low­land the Gulf of Fin­land with an alti­tude ter­rain 0–9 m above the lev­el of the Baltic Sea, and also is lim­it­ed in the north of the nat­ur­al pro­jec­tion Litori­nal ter­races, the plant­i­ng of the reserve are the «stan­dard of the coastal forests.» On this ter­ri­to­ry before the cre­ation of the reserve were peat, in 80 years of the last cen­tu­ry mined sand shoals Lahti spill recla­ma­tion for urban area and out­side the bor­ders of the reserve is cur­rent­ly under inten­sive con­struc­tion land high-rise build­ings, res­i­dents are using reserve for recre­ation­al pur­pos­es. All these fac­tors have influ­enced the com­po­si­tion of the land­scape veg­e­ta­tion reserve. Accord­ing to the research iden­ti­fied dif­fer­ent cat­e­gories of land with dif­fer­ent humid­i­ty and com­po­si­tion of trees and shrubs. Iden­ti­fied areas of land occu­pied by the dom­i­nant species in the taiga zone and sil­vi­cul­tur­al-list­ed den­dro­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of trees and shrubs and their eco­nom­ic impor­tance. Accord­ing to the research pro­posed sil­vi­cul­tur­al mea­sures to pre­serve the sta­bil­i­ty of trees and shrubs in a giv­en habi­tat. Rec­om­mend­ed activ­i­ties and sil­vi­cul­tur­al char­ac­ter­is­tics of trees and shrubs can be use­ful Direc­torate of Pro­tect­ed Areas of St. Peters­burg for the annu­al plan­ning of work in the reserve «Yun­tolovsky».

    K e y w o r d s: Spe­cial­ly pro­tect­ed areas, reserve, woody plants, shrubs, for­est land, wetlands.

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    2 Levan­dovskaya S.N. Mor­pho­log­i­cal vari­abil­i­ty of the cul­ti­vars, Cal­lis­te­phus chi­nen­sis (L.) Neеs under con­di­tions of the intro­duc­tion of the Right-Bank For­est-Steppe zone of Ukraine

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Species of Cal­lis­te­phus chi­nen­sis (L.) Neеs is one of the lead­ing flo­ral-orna­men­tal plants which are used for land­scape gar­den­ing of the set­tle­ments of Ukraine. The great diver­si­ty of colours and forms of the inflo­res­cences, long flo­res­cence, unpre­ten­tious­ness in grow­ing and many oth­er advan­tages con­tribute to the growth in pop­u­lar­i­ty of this plant. It was stud­ied the mor­pho­log­i­cal vari­abil­i­ty of the sorts C. chi­nen­sis, intro­duced under con­di­tions of the Right-Bank For­est-Steppe zone of Ukraine. The iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of degree of the vari­abil­i­ty of mor­pho­log­i­cal char­ac­ters, con­cep­tion about ampli­tude of their vari­a­tion is of great impor­tance for the com­pre­hen­sion of the process­es of mor­pho­gen­e­sis and adap­ta­tion to the envi­ron­ment. The objects of the research were plants of the eight cul­ti­vars of the Ger­man selec­tion from the col­lec­tion of С. chi­nen­sis (kallis­te­fariya) of the Bila Tserk­va Nation­al Agrar­i­an Uni­ver­si­ty. The inves­ti­ga­tion of the mor­pho­log­i­cal char­ac­ters and their assess­ment was car­ried out accord­ing to the pro­ce­dure V.F. Voroby­ov. It was point­ed the results of the inves­ti­ga­tion of vari­abil­i­ty of the mor­pho­log­i­cal char­ac­ters in par­tic­u­lar: «inflo­res­cence diam­e­ter», which is char­ac­ter­ized by very low lev­els of the vari­abil­i­ty (Cv < 7%), «height of the bush» with the low lev­el of the variability
    (Cv = 7,1–12%) and «num­ber of shoots of the first order» with the high vari­abil­i­ty (Cv = 21,1–40%). The con­duct­ed bio­met­ric mea­sure­ments revealed that the largest diam­e­ter of the inflo­res­cence val­ues in all sorts was reached in 2015, the least – in 2016. The coef­fi­cient of the vari­a­tion of this char­ac­ter in all sorts for the three years of the research remained on the same, very low lev­el of the vari­abil­i­ty (Cv = 3,3–¬5,8%). The sim­i­lar changes were observed in the char­ac­ters of the «height of the bush» and «num­ber of shoots of the first order». The weath­er con­di­tions in 2016 turned out to be a lim­it­ing fac­tor, which caused the decrease in the aver­age bio­met­ric indi­ca­tors of the researched char­ac­ters and the increase of the coef­fi­cient of their vari­abil­i­ty. The vari­a­tion in mor­pho­log­i­cal char­ac­ters of the researched sorts does not exceed the lev­els of the vari­abil­i­ty. It was con­clud­ed, that the con­di­tions of the Right-Bank For­est-Steppe zone of Ukraine is favourable for the fur­ther intro­duc­tion of the cul­ti­vars C. chi­nen­sis of the Ger­man selection.

    Ke y w o r d s: Cal­lis­te­phus chi­nen­sis, cul­ti­var, land­scap­ing, intro­duc­tion, vari­abil­i­ty, mor­pho­log­i­cal char­ac­ters, the coef­fi­cient of variation 

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    3 Nakvasi­na E.N., Yudin I.A., Volkov A.G. Adap­ta­tion vari­abil­i­ty of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.  P. obo­va­ta (Ledeb.)) in the prove­nance test of the Arkhangel­sk region.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Stud­ied the safe­ty and growth of spruce (Piceaa­bies (L.) Karst.  P. obo­va­ta (Ledeb.)), grow­ing in prove­nance test in the Arkhangel­sk region (62º 54′ N, 40º 24′ E) incor­po­rat­ed in Rus­sia as part of a large-scale exper­i­ment in the late 1970s.The col­lec­tion includes 27 prove­nances of Nor­way spruce, Siber­ian and intro­gres­sion hybrids of the ter­ri­to­ry of the Russ­ian Plain. Despite the fact that the dis­tance between the start­ing points of growth stands at a lat­i­tude of 12 degrees, lon­gi­tude – 32 degrees, the vari­abil­i­ty of the safe­ty indi­ca­tors, the aver­age diam­e­ter and height is quite low (the coef­fi­cient of vari­a­tion does not exceed 20%).The set­tle­ment terms (the vol­ume of a tree trunk and wood stock) by com­bi­na­tive signs it increas­es to 38%. Not shown and the dif­fer­ences between prove­nances grouped into zones/subzones grow­ing source plants. With­in the col­lec­tion of sig­nif­i­cant cor­re­la­tion with safe­ty geo­graph­i­cal and cli­mat­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the orig­i­nal plant­i­ngs has not been estab­lished. The most depen­dent on envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors of the ter­rain, which was formed in cli­mate, alti­tude, which is sig­nif­i­cant­ly asso­ci­at­ed with indi­ca­tors such as east lon­gi­tude, length of the grow­ing peri­od, the annu­al aver­age tem­per­a­ture and the aver­age tem­per­a­ture in Jan­u­ary, the annu­al pre­cip­i­ta­tion and hydrother­mal coef­fi­cient. The aver­age diam­e­ter of prove­nances asso­ci­at­ed only with the last two fig­ures. That abun­dance of pre­cip­i­ta­tion may be con­sid­ered a sign, hered­i­tary deter­mi­nant of spruce growth. As a result, the best growth and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty in the mid­dle taiga sub­zone (Arkhangel­sk region) is dif­fer­ent from Euro­pean spruce opti­mum breed grow­ing areas (areas with a mar­itime cli­mate). Off­spring growth decreas­es with advanc­ing home­land ini­tial plant­i­ng to the east, with increas­ing con­ti­nen­tal cli­mate and reduce the amount of pre­cip­i­ta­tion. When test­ing the off­spring of spruce dif­fer­ent geo­graph­i­cal ori­gin marked by high plas­tic­i­ty and per­spec­tive the breed selec­tion of local populations.

    K e y w o r d s: spruce, prove­nance test, prove­nances, variability.

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    4 Orlo­va L.V., Potokin A.F., Kopt­se­va E.M., Vasiliev E.Yu., Kir­illov P.S., Egorov A.A. Tax­o­nom­ic diver­si­ty of spruce forests and their dis­tri­b­u­tion in the nation­al Park «Taganay» (South Urals).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents a brief his­to­ry of the sys­tem­at­ic study of the spruce of the Urals and adja­cent ter­ri­to­ries. Accord­ing to many domes­tic researchers in the Urals and behind the Urals, of Siber­ian spruce has con­sid­er­able genet­ic influ­ence of Nor­way spruce, which is asso­ci­at­ed with the his­to­ry of the for­ma­tion and prop­a­ga­tion of hybrid spruce in post-glacial time to the present. Some authors speak about the exis­tence in the south­ern Urals in the Bashkir CIS-Urals of sev­er­al genet­i­cal­ly dis­tinct pop­u­la­tions, con­fined to par­tic­u­lar alti­tu­di­nal zones. Among the impor­tant diag­nos­tic fea­tures of the repro­duc­tive organs hybri­doge­nous P. obo­va­ta and P. fen­ni­ca species marked with the fol­low­ing: shape and dimen­sions (length/thickness) of Mature cones, the angle of deflec­tion of the seed scales from the axis of the open cones; form and integri­ty of the upper edge of the seed scale, the dimen­sions (length and width), the shape and col­or of cov­er­ing scales. In the course of mor­pho­log­i­cal-sys­tem­at­ic and phy­to­cenot­ic stud­ies of spruce forests and analy­sis of the results obtained in the nation­al Park Taganay was first revealed two mor­pho­log­i­cal groups of Siber­ian spruce (P. obo­va­ta). These mor­pho­log­i­cal groups ded­i­cat­ed to dif­fer­ent high-alti­tude zone and dif­fer­ent plant com­mu­ni­ties. More­over, between the upper and low­er alti­tu­di­nal zones there is a tran­si­tion zone, where the com­po­si­tion of the for­est com­mu­ni­ties there are instances of both mor­pho­log­i­cal groups. In addi­tion to the Siber­ian spruce (P. obo­va­ta), in the study areas revealed the Finnish spruce (P. fen­ni­ca (Regel) Kom.), which is close mor­pho­log­i­cal­ly to P. obo­va­ta. Pecu­liar­i­ties of dis­tri­b­u­tion of these groups of fir-trees with­in dif­fer­ent alti­tu­di­nal belts.

    K e y w o r d s: Picea obo­va­ta, Picea fen­ni­ca, sys­tem­at­ics, his­to­ry of study, dis­tin­guish­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics, geo­graph­i­cal dis­tri­b­u­tion, south­ern Urals.

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    2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

    5 Antono­va T.S., Tyurin N.A. Plan­ning the logis­tics flows of a tim­ber company

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    For effec­tive log­ging com­pa­ny plan­ning it is advis­able to use a logis­tics approach. When plan is made annu­al­ly, a lot of fac­tors need to be tak­en into account: cut­ting cycle, road avail­abil­i­ty, pos­si­ble amount of wood pro­duc­tion, demand for the prod­uct, etc. Nowa­days felling fund selec­tions and wood-trans­port road arrange­ment are done man­u­al­ly, on the basis of Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion laws and spe­cial­ist’s qual­i­fi­ca­tion and expe­ri­ence. Plan­ning trans­port process­es of a tim­ber com­pa­ny is direct­ly relat­ed to the selec­tion of cut­ting areas. Selec­tion of for­est fund is car­ried out in the short and long peri­ods. The most expe­di­ent to car­ry out plan­ning for the long peri­od, it improves the effi­cien­cy of the use of for­est resources of the enter­prise and sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduces the costs, includ­ing trans­porta­tion. Reduc­ing trans­port com­po­nent can achieve a good trans­port net­work plan­ning and con­sid­er­a­tion of a num­ber of fac­tors, such as the choice of trans­port, the choice of trans­port schemes, the choice of the type of traf­fic, ratio­nal plan­ning of deliv­ery routes, coor­di­na­tion of trans­port and pro­duc­tion. Com­put­er tech­nolo­gies nowa­days allows to auto­mate the process of choos­ing an opti­mal vari­ant of road pat­tern. This arti­cle pre¬sents a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of opti­mal resource-and-trans­porta­tion plan, that takes into account cut­ting cycles and pos­si­bil­i­ty to min­i­mize cut­ting area work costs, haul road feed­er con­struc­tion, main­te­nance and repair of roads. To solve this issue a method of dynam­ic pro­gram­ming is applied. Usage of this method will allow to prove the choice of felling fund in a cer­tain peri­od of the year. Also, it will be pos­si­ble to build up a high­way sys­tem for a peri­od of 10 years.

    K e y w o r d s: Cut­ting area, for­est roads, logis­tics, geoin­for­ma­tion sys­tems, dynam­ic pro­gram­ming.

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    6 Arte­mev V.V., Bessarab G.A., Kochanov V.V.The­o­ret­i­cal back­ground of hard­en­ing the lay­ers of rub­ble rocks in for­est road pave­ments rein­force­ment of their geo­cell volume.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    This arti­cle describes the tech­nol­o­gy of hard­en­ing lay­ers of crushed stone road for­est road con­struc­tion geo­cell rein­force­ment of their vol­ume in order to reduce deforma­bil­i­ty-shear process­es and sta­t­ic loads on the low­er lay­ers of the under­ly­ing sub­grade and for­est roads. The shear resis­tance of bulk mate­ri­als – it is their resis­tance to fric­tion with the angle of inter­nal fric­tion φ is direct­ly pro­por­tion­al to nor­mal pres­sure σn is Coulom­b’s law. How­ev­er, dur­ing the com­pres­sion of the bulk mate­r­i­al lay­er, a «total val­ue of clutch c», which con­sists of a rigid struc­tur­al cou­pling, frac­ture and irre­versible adhe­sion plas­tic. Vol­u­met­ric geo­cell lay­er in road is con­sid­ered as mate­r­i­al ten­sile hor­i­zon­tal wall and com­press­ing it in the ver­ti­cal plane. When the shear lay­er of grav­el packed bulk geo­cell rein­forced, lim­it­ing resis­tance in a large range of com­pres­sive pres­sures and stressed con­di­tions (ten­sile, shear, com­pres­sion) describe enve­lope cir­cles lim­it­ing stress­es, which is close to the curvi­lin­ear rela­tion. In a pilot study deter­mined the nature of change the hor­i­zon­tal shift and ver­ti­cal crush pel­let mix­tures struc­tur­al pave­ment lay­ers. The study of defor­ma­tion process­es Sys­tem grav­el-geo­cell per­formed on var­i­ous frac­tions of grav­el sam­ples under the action of the ver­ti­cal load on the hard round stamp with lim­it­ed lat­er­al and axi­al move­ment of the mate­r­i­al. Data are processed using math­e­mat­i­cal sta­tis­tics method with a high degree of reli­a­bil­i­ty. Analy­sis of the data shows the pos­i­tive impact of vol­ume geo­cell almost all mix­tures of rub­ble sol­id rock in terms of , , , and Z.

    K e y w o r d s: Macadam road con­struc­tion mate­ri­als, rocks, vol­ume geo­cell, shear strength, inter­nal cohe­sion, inter­nal fric­tion angle, spe­cif­ic pressure.

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    7 Belono­go­va N.A., Vino­gradov A.Yu., Vino­gradovа T.А., Doganovsky D.A.,
    Kon­drat’ev A.N., Markov M.L., Minaev A.N., Motovilov B.P., Nikiti­na I.S.,
    Salmi­nen E.O.
    About time lag and some mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of streams of the for­est zone.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The cal­cu­la­tion of the max­i­mum water flow dur­ing the high water, espe­cial­ly on small water­sheds, in order to effec­tive­ly design engi­neer­ing of road struc­tures, is a very dif­fi­cult task due to the lack of suf­fi­cient obser­va­tions. In addi­tion, the char­ac­ter­is­tics of rain­fall, and their deter­mi­nants have a high spa­tial and tem­po­ral vari­abil­i­ty, which fur­ther com­pli­cates their def­i­n­i­tion. Cur­rent­ly rec­om­mend­ed method of deter­min­ing the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the max­i­mum rain­wa­ter, as the expe­ri­ence, needs imme­di­ate clar­i­fi­ca­tion of dimen­sions and ver­i­fy links. Par­tic­u­lar atten­tion is paid to the cal­cu­la­tion of lag time, includ­ed in the for­mu­las as the defin­ing para­me­ter. Full­ness riverbeds has high spa­tial and tem­po­ral het­ero­gene­ity and vari­abil­i­ty. The gen­er­al move­ment of water in the clos­ing align­ment ordered and uni­form. The aver­age rate of slight­ly increased or decreased depend­ing on the dry­ness of the sea­son. Each cross-sec­tion cor­re­sponds to the val­ue of aver­age flow veloc­i­ty. These data are from the late 70-ies are not pub­lished. Pro­cess­ing of exist­ing data sug­gests that there is a slight increase in the flow veloc­i­ty with increas­ing basin areas. There­fore, as a con­stant time lag is invit­ed to take the time deter­mined by the char­ac­ter­is­tic seg­ments of the chan­nel path from the source to the align­ment of the test..

    K e y w o r d s: forestry engi­neer­ing con­struc­tions, rain­fall, max­i­mum water flow, time lag, cross-sec­tion­al area, rough­ness, mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of small for­est streams.

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    8 Vino­gradov A.Ju., Vino­grado­va T.A., Doganovskij D.A., Kon­drat’ev A.N., Abramov D.V., Vino­gradov I.A., Sitkin V.A. Changes in the mor­pho­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of small for­est streams for the esti­mat­ed peri­od of oper­a­tion of the road drainage sys­tem (the exam­ple of the For­est water-bal­ance sta­tion «MEZHDURECHYE».

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    We define the para­me­ters of cul­verts and drainage con­struc­tions when design road drainage in small for­est streams. These para­me­ters depend on the cal­cu­lat­ed val­ues of max­i­mum water flow. In the cal­cu­la­tions of all mod­ern meth­ods as a basic con­di­tion is assumed per­ma­nence of land­scape char­ac­ter­is­tics. In fact, the para­me­ters of basins and streams are changed dur­ing the oper­a­tion peri­od. This arti­cle reviews the main changes of the mor­pho­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of small rivers: catch­ment area, length of the water­course, the riv­er net­work den­si­ty, for­est cov­er­age, wet­lands and bias­es of water sur­face. Land­scape para­me­ters con­sid­ered by the exam­ple of streams and small rivers locat­ed on the ter­ri­to­ry of the for­est water-bal­ance sta­tion «MEZHDURECHYE». Sta­tion area is locat­ed between the rivers Vol­ga, Dnieper and the West­ern Dvina. Data on the maps in 1938, 1952–1985 are used for assess­ments. Length streams increased dur­ing these years. Wood­land and wet­land basins have grown. Тhis leads to a sig­nif­i­cant reduc­tion in the results of cal­cu­la­tions. In most cas­es decreased bias­es of streams. This led to a drop in the cal­cu­lat­ed max­i­mum water flow. These changes could not be pro­vid­ed in advance.

    K e y w o r d s: road drainage, for­est water-bal­ance sta­tions, hydro­log­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions, small rivers, flood flows, the bias­es of water sur­face..

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    9 Kon­drat’ev A.N. Con­sid­er­a­tion of risks in the eval­u­a­tion of chan­nel defor­ma­tions for the design of cul­verts on for­est roads.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Esti­mat­ed risks in the design of cul­verts on for­est roads by the exam­ple of the cal­cu­la­tion of chan­nel ero­sion on the banks of small water­cours­es. The result of the cal­cu­la­tion of hydro­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics in the mod­ern nor­ma­tive doc­u­ments on research work spe­cif­ic val­ues. For exam­ple, ero­sion of the coast in align­ment with the pro­ject­ing pipe is 10 m. Inac­cu­ra­cies and errors of cal­cu­la­tion are not tak­en into account, although they can lead to the fact that the designed struc­ture may be blurred, or vice ver­sa, silt­ed. In fact, the cal­cu­la­tions are hid­den all kinds of errors. There­fore, an inter­val of vari­a­tion of the cal­cu­la­tion result, for exam­ple, 8–12 m. Speci­fici­ty of engi­neer­ing-hydrom­e­te­o­ro­log­i­cal sur­vey in the prepa­ra­tion of data for the design of for­est infra­struc­ture is that in this case, a more inter­est­ing upper bound, that is, we should accept the ero­sion of 12 m. the arti­cle con­sid­ers, as vari­a­tion results of such cal­cu­la­tions can affect the cost. For the eval­u­at­ed tran­si­tion from the val­ues of Bank ero­sion dur­ing the peri­od of project oper­a­tion facil­i­ties and secu­ri­ty (P, %), cost (Z, rub.), then risk (R, rub.), which is defined as the prod­uct of the cost of the secu­ri­ty R = ZP. Con­tri­bu­tion of dif­fer­ent cost parts, which is main – 1) con­struc­tion and 2) liq­ui­da­tion of the acci­dent. It turned out that at dif­fer­ent ratios of the cost of con­struc­tion and the elim­i­na­tion of the acci­dent will be opti­mized with dif­fer­ent strate­gies: in low-cost liq­ui­da­tion of the acci­dent is advan­ta­geous to reduce the cost of con­struc­tion, with the high cost of liq­ui­da­tion of the acci­dent it is bet­ter to choose more secure options, even if you increase the cost of construction.

    K e y w o r d s: : forestry tech­nol­o­gy, for­est roads, design of cul­verts, chan­nel process­es, ero­sion of the river­banks, the uneven­ness of the river­banks deformations

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    10 Lorenz A.S., Mya­sis­chev D.G. . Fea­tures of the device, the design and use of exper­i­men­tal equip­ment for the study of ele­ments of brake sys­tems, chas­sis timber.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    This arti­cle pro­vides an overview of the struc­ture of exper­i­men­tal equip­ment for the study of brake sys­tems. With an increase in traf­fic and the total weight for­est sys­tem per­for­mance require­ments increase and the safe­ty brake. Tow speed and brak­ing prop­er­ties for­est machines linked. The high­er the speed of move­ment of the machine, the more effec­tive it must be inhibito­ry prop­er­ties. There­fore, traf­fic safe­ty and per­for­mance in more depen­dent on inhibito­ry prop­er­ties for­est machine. In addi­tion, there is a whole range of in-plant mobile equip­ment (fork­lifts, stack­ers, etc.), where the maneu­ver­ing secu­ri­ty is also direct­ly relat­ed to the effi­cien­cy of the brake sys­tem com­po­nents, and in par­tic­u­lar the wheel brake. Exist­ing brakes have a num­ber of short­com­ings, the removal of which leads to high­er reli­a­bil­i­ty and increased life of brake devices, which in turn deter­mines the safe­ty of move­ment of wheeled trans­port and tech­no­log­i­cal machines. In solv­ing these prob­lems is very impor­tant improve­ment and the cre­ation of brak­ing devices and mech­a­nisms, the study of their ther­mal and pow­er load­ing, the basic details of oscil­la­to­ry process­es, nat­ur­al and forced cool­ing fric­tion cou­ples, as well as research aimed at improv­ing the effec­tive­ness of the brakes. In this paper the exper­i­men­tal set­up sim­u­lates the work of the brakes with a sup­ply of com­pressed air into the region of the fric­tion­al con­tact. The equip­ment will allow more accu­rate com­pre­hen­sive explore and ana­lyze the phys­i­cal process­es of brak­ing wheel self-pro­pelled chas­sis and tim­ber haulage vehicles.

    K e y w o r d s: full-scale exper­i­ment, the exper­i­men­tal set­up, brake tester, the fric­tion pair.

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    11 Posy­panov S.V. . Inves­ti­ga­tion find­ings of a pack­aged bilevel raft­ing unit sta­tion­ary motion in water.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Form­ing of bilevel pack­aged raft­ing units (BPRU) of round wood is fea­si­ble at areas of inflow of small rivers to the larg­er ones. Form­ing of the BPRUs at the win­ter log stor­age and bundling areas is prefer­able in cas­es of cut-to-length log­ging in rel­a­tive­ly small vol­umes, when usage of spe­cial log bundling machin­ery is unfea­si­ble. Appli­ca­tion of BPRU cre­ates con­di­tions for eco-friend­ly and eco­nom­ic trans­porta­tion of wood raw mate­r­i­al. Engi­neer­ing val­u­a­tions of BPRU are based on infor­ma­tion con­cern­ing water resis­tance to sta­tion­ary motion of a body. The top­ic analy­sis showed rea­son­abil­i­ty of the inves­ti­ga­tion. The fac­tors of water resis­tance to sta­tion­ary motion of BPRU were educed the­o­ret­i­cal­ly. The derived depen­dence was trans­formed to dimen­sion­less form. Based on the the­o­ry of the sub­ject, two fac­tors were exclud­ed: the rel­a­tive wood den­si­ty and the Reynolds num­ber. As a result, the sym­bol­ic descrip­tion was pre­sent­ed as a depen­dence of water resis­tance coef­fi­cient on the BPRU shape coef­fi­cient, length/height rela­tion and the Freud num­ber. Based on the cri­te­r­i­al solu­tion, the exper­i­men­tal stud­ies were per­formed using mod­els of quadric B‑plan under con­di­tion of cor­re­spon­dence of derived cri­te­ria in the mod­el and nat­ur­al con­di­tions. The regres­sion mod­els of length­wise and trans­verse motion of a BPRU were worked out. These mod­els make pos­si­ble to deter­mine a water resis­tance force using the New­ton for­mu­la. The review of the mod­els indi­cat­ed that the named fac­tors affect more sig­nif­i­cant­ly dur­ing the trans­verse motion. The Freud num­ber increase con­tributes to enlarge­ment of a resis­tance coef­fi­cient. Influ­ence of the shape coef­fi­cient is depend­able on oth­er fac­tors, includ­ing rel­a­tive length. The impact rate of the fac­tors, as the rule, depends on the val­ue of oth­er factors.

    K e y w o r d s: wood, tim­ber raft­ing, raft­ing unit, pack­age, even motion, water resistance.

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    12 Pham Ngoc Linh. Mul­ti­modal wheeled vehi­cles con­struc­tion of for­est for forestry Vietnam.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Arti­cle seeks to sub­stan­ti­ate the for­ma­tion of ratio­nal struc­ture of the MTP forestry enter­pris­es in Viet­nam using mul­ti-oper­a­tional for­est wheeled vehi­cles mul­ti­modal con­struc­tion. The objects of research are con­sid­ered a mul­ti-machine build, cre­at­ed on the basis of com­mon pur­pose wheeled trac­tors tra­di­tion­al lay­out. Con­struc­tion of a mul­ti-hard­ware is a promis­ing direc­tion. It gives the oppor­tu­ni­ty on the basis of a lim­it­ed num­ber of pow­er mod­ules and a small num­ber of process mod­ules to form a plu­ral­i­ty of mul­ti- oper­a­tional wheeled for­est machines for var­i­ous appli­ca­tions. The use of these machines in Viet­nam due to com­pli­cat­ed vari­ety of nat­ur­al and pro­duc­tion con­di­tions of prepa­ra­tion and restora­tion of forests. The main advan­tages of the con­struc­tion of a mul­ti-wheeled vehi­cles is to improve the struc­ture of the MTP due to expand­ed capa­bil­i­ties, increased mech­a­niza­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of all types of work, a reduc­tion in invest­ment in the pur­chase of hard­ware and reduce oper­at­ing costs for their main­te­nance. Giv­en the prospect of build­ing a mul­ti-for­est-wheeled vehi­cles, it is rec­om­mend­ed to form the basis of their struc­ture of the machine and trac­tor parks forestry enter­pris­es of the Repub­lic of Vietnam.

    K e y w o r d s: ratio­nal struc­ture, ener­gy, and process mod­ule, mul­ti-cen­ters and mul­ti­func­tion machines

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    3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

    13 Ilyushchenko A.V. Analy­sis meth­ods of pro­cess­ing images tim­ber with defects.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The degree of pre­ci­sion sort­ing plants by the pho­to­graph­ic method depends on many fac­tors: light­ing, humid­i­ty, feed rate lum­ber. The impact of the fac­tors you can not reverse the pro­gram activ­i­ties. The great­est dif­fi­cul­ty is the selec­tion and imple­men­ta­tion of the most appro­pri­ate in terms of real out­put image pro­cess­ing cir­cuit. No less impor­tant is the prop­er selec­tion of the ele­ments of this scheme (seg­men­ta­tion meth­ods). This study was con­duct­ed to ana­lyze the pos­si­bil­i­ty of apply­ing math­e­mat­i­cal and soft­ware defects in seg­men­ta­tion algo­rithms recog­ni­tion task and tim­ber defects. Shows the sequence of steps for image pro­cess­ing. Dis­ad­van­tages of the sys­tem, tak­en as a basis, and adjust­ments made to it. Iden­ti­fy the main prob­lem of seg­men­ta­tion: sep­a­rat­ing the clean wood of vices, evils sep­a­ra­tion from each oth­er, noise fil­ter­ing, iso­la­tion defects closed bor­ders. Is look­ing for a uni­ver­sal method of its imple­men­ta­tion. To solve this prob­lem in the course of research have been briefly described: the pos­si­bil­i­ty of using one of the col­or image RGB-com­po­nents, use first and sec­ond deriv­a­tives, and meth­ods of seg­men­ta­tion halftone col­or image bina­riza­tion, tex­ture analy­sis, and the use of fil­ters. Presents the advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages of meth­ods, ways to solve some of the prob­lems asso­ci­at­ed with their imple­men­ta­tion. A test of the per­for­mance of the seg­men­ta­tion meth­ods. The results of stud­ies, includ­ing the rea­sons for which some of the meth­ods are not applic­a­ble in real pro­duc­tion. It was con­clud­ed that a uni­ver­sal method for the iso­la­tion of all vices and defects on the back­ground clean tim­ber does not exist among the above.

    K e y w o r d s: image seg­men­ta­tion, sort­ing of sawn tim­ber, wood defects.

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    14 Prusako­va V.A., Kri­vokolesko V.P., Rogov V.A. On the issue of wood dust depo­si­tion in the electrocyclone.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The wood­work­ing indus­try devel­ops in high gear today, mak­ing harm­ful effects on state of envi­ron­ment, and, there­fore, on health of the pop­u­la­tion. The most effec­tive dust removal devices for clean­ing dust-air flow in wood­work­ing shops are elec­tro­cy­clones. In them par­ti­cles of wood dust are removed under the influ­ence of cen­trifu­gal and elec­tric forces. For increase in effi­cien­cy of clean­ing dust-air flow there is a need of increase in the size of par­ti­cles. Forces of the elec­tric nature effec­tive­ly influ­ence inter­ac­tion of dis­perse par­ti­cles in sys­tem and lead to essen­tial changes in dis­perse struc­ture. In case of impact of elec­tro­sta­t­ic field on fine par­ti­cles of wood dust there is their coag­u­la­tion. The­o­ret­i­cal research­es of move­ment dust-air flow are giv­en in elec­tro­sta­t­ic field, math­e­mat­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions are car­ried out. Forces oper­at­ing on a dust par­ti­cle in elec­tro­sta­t­ic field are revealed. The equa­tion of a tra­jec­to­ry of motion of par­ti­cles under the influ­ence of elec­tro­sta­t­ic field is received. As a result the par­ti­cle moves on a curvi­lin­ear tra­jec­to­ry, at the same time, the more the par­ti­cle size, the quick­er there is a sed­i­men­ta­tion process. The par­ti­cle size is less, the clos­er it a tra­jec­to­ry to a cir­cle and the more slow­ly it is besieged. Effi­cien­cy of clean­ing increas­es with increase in the size of par­ti­cles. In case of influ­ence of elec­tro­sta­t­ic field in a cyclone the par­ti­cle is affect­ed by the elec­tric force which does­n’t give emis­sion of par­ti­cles less than 10 microns. Par­ti­cles of the dif­fer­ent sizes in case of impact of elec­tro­sta­t­ic and cen­trifu­gal forces are besieged with out­stand­ing per­for­mance. Thus, by a set­tle­ment way it is estab­lished high extents of purifi­ca­tion of air of fine par­ti­cles of wood dust in an elec­tro­cy­clone. High total extent of clean­ing is reached, there­by, the coef­fi­cient of extent of clean­ing in an elec­tro­cy­clone reach­es 99,9%.

    K e y w o r d s: elec­tro­cy­clone, wood dust, move­ment tra­jec­to­ry, elec­tro­sta­t­ic force, effi­cien­cy of clean­ing, coagulation.

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    15 Sergee­vichev A.V., Arte­menkov A.M. Scop­ing of inter­gran­u­lar space of the grind­ing tool when pro­cess­ing wood and wood materials

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Rel­e­vance of a prob­lem of obtain­ing nec­es­sary qual­i­ty of the processed sur­face of wood becomes more and more sig­nif­i­cant in con­nec­tion with increase in require­ments to qual­i­ty of pro­duc­tion of a wood­work­ing and obtain­ing the great­est eco­nom­ic effect for the enter­prise now. Many researchers dealt with an issue of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el oper­a­tion of a sur­face of the grind­ing tool for the pur­pose of the objec­tive descrip­tion of its relief. So, at the solu­tion of a prob­lem of estab­lish­ment of inter­re­la­tion of a relief of the tool with a rough­ness of a sur­face of the processed detail meth­ods of its rep­re­sen­ta­tion in the form of a set of pro­files were used: in the form of «a carv­ing comb», in the form of real­iza­tion of ran­dom sta­tion­ary func­tion, in the form of the par­tial effi­cient pro­files. The sec­ond path of mod­el oper­a­tion of a sur­face of the tool used at estab­lish­ment of com­mu­ni­ca­tion between char­ac­ter­is­tics of a relief and its cut­ting abil­i­ty con­sists in rep­re­sen­ta­tion of abra­sive grains in the form of bod­ies of var­i­ous forms: sphere, ellip­soid. The sta­tis­ti­cal poly­he­dral mod­el of abra­sive grain is rather pop­u­lar. On the mod­ern rep­re­sen­ta­tions, the main rea­son for decrease in ser­vice­abil­i­ty and wear resis­tance of abra­sive papers when pro­cess­ing wood is the balling which occurs owing to jam­ming the unbound par­ti­cles of wood in inter­gran­u­lar space, stick­ing of par­ti­cles of grind­ing dust to a skin sur­face that is caused by stick­i­ness of lubri­cant and selec­tion of resinous sub­stances of wood when heat­ing, accu­mu­la­tion on a skin of an elec­tro­sta­t­ic charge, the poor vol­ume of the free inter­gran­u­lar space. Ser­i­al build-up of pres­sure of a clip allows to use the cut­ting abil­i­ty of an abra­sive belt more ful­ly. The analy­sis shows that dura­tion of each sub­se­quent stage of increase in a clip will be more, than pre­vi­ous, in con­nec­tion with decrease of a share of the got stuck wood while effi­cien­cy of process of grind­ing remains at the pre­vi­ous lev­el. For increase in wear resis­tance of abra­sive belts it is nec­es­sary to increase the vol­ume of inter­gran­u­lar space and to reduce the vol­ume of the shav­ing which is get­ting stuck in this space.

    K e y w o r d s : grind­ing of wood and wood mate­ri­als, increase in wear resis­tance of abra­sive belts..

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    16 Chu­bin­skiy A.N., Kovalenko I.V., Rusakov D.S., Varank­i­na G.S. Ground of the modes of agglu­ti­na­tion of aspen lead of.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The qual­i­ty of the for­ma­tion of adhe­sive joints when glu­ing wood veneers depends on many fac­tors, the main ones are the den­si­ty and mois­ture con­tent of wood, its sur­face prop­er­ties, type of adhe­sive and its char­ac­ter­is­tics, bond­ing modes. Ply­wood glued veneers of aspen on applied prac­tice modes, char­ac­ter­ized by low­er strength in com­par­i­son with birch ply­wood. The use of aspen wood in man­u­fac­tur­ing of mate­ri­als and prod­ucts is lim­it­ed due to its low mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, cor­ro­sion sus­cep­ti­bil­i­ty destruc­tive lesion decay, its lack of prop­er jus­ti­fi­ca­tion pro­cess­ing tech­nol­o­gy. Unclaimed aspen dif­fi­cult eco­nom­ic con­di­tions in the for­est, degrades the species com­po­si­tion of for­est stands and pre­vents restora­tion of soft­wood. The adhe­sion of wood and ply­wood strength increas­es with increas­ing com­paction pres­sure, how­ev­er, leads to an increase in per­ma­nent defor­ma­tion, and the like­li­hood of «bub­bles» in the pack­age are glued veneer. That is why the sup­port of the press­ing and glue flow pres­sure for bond­ing the veneer on the basis of struc­ture and prop­er­ties of aspen wood is an urgent task. Reduc­ing pres­sure legal­ly relax­ing stress to reduce the pres­sure of the gas mix­ture in the veneer pack­age, reduces the prob­a­bil­i­ty of fail­ure of the adhe­sive joint when remov­ing the exter­nal force. One effec­tive way of increas­ing the bond­ing strength is the use of lig­no­sul­fonate as a mod­i­fi­er for syn­thet­ic resins.

    K e y w o r d s: aspen veneer, press­ing pres­sure, veneer defor­ma­tion, mod­i­fi­ca­tion, lig­no­sul­fonates, bond­ing modes, the bond­ing strength. 

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    4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

    17 Ivanov-Omskii V.I., Gerasyu­ta S.M., Ivano­va E.I. IR-spec­troscopy of hydro­gen bond­ing in wood

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Inves­ti­gat­ed the IR spec­tra of spruce wood in the area of absorp­tion of the stretch­ing vibra­tions of hydrox­yl groups. Been stud­ied, as sam­ples with nat­ur­al mois­ture, and sub­ject­ed to anneal­ing at S. Sam­ples for research were col­lect­ed from adult trees of Nor­way spruce (Picea abies) at a height of 2.5–3.0 m (age in the area of cut 25–30 years). From cleared areas were cut sam­ples in the form of cubes of size 3×3×3 cm³, of which just before record­ing the spec­trum pro­duced 5 tan­gen­tial micro­tome sec­tions with a thick­ness of 80–100 nm. Spec­tral analy­sis was per­formed using IR-Fouri­er spec­trom­e­ter FSM-1201 with a res­o­lu­tion of 4 cm–1. Shows that the real microstruc­ture of spruce does not pre­vent the sep­a­ra­tion of scat­tered and absorbed radi­a­tion. For the char­ac­ter­is­tic lengths and ener­gies of hydro­gen bonds used are known from the lit­er­a­ture cor­re­la­tion of the ratio between the fre­quen­cy of absorp­tion of hydrox­yl groups cov­ered by hydro­gen bonds with their length and ener­gy. To this end, the exper­i­men­tal spec­trum in the region of absorp­tion of OH-groups approx­i­mat­ed by a Gauss­ian con­tours, each of which is asso­ci­at­ed with a cer­tain kind of H‑bonds. The fre­quen­cy shifts fit­ting con­tours of the rel­a­tive fre­quen­cy of OH-groups not cov­ered by the H‑bond, is used to eval­u­ate ener­gies and bond lengths, and the ratio of their squares to esti­mate their con­cen­tra­tions. It is shown that under ther­mal anneal­ing is burn­ing low fre­quen­cy wing of the absorp­tion bands of OH-groups. A dia­gram of the dis­tri­b­u­tion of H‑bonds ener­gy on con­cen­tra­tions pre­sent­ed before and after anneal­ing. It is shown that anneal­ing the strongest bonds is slight­ly decreas­ing, but their ener­gy decreas­es sig­nif­i­cant­ly. The weak­est dis­ap­pear alto­geth­er. A detailed study of this phe­nom­e­non will allow us to jus­ti­fy the choice of lim­it­ing the tem­per­a­ture of the heat treat­ment of wood that do not vio­late its mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties. Note­wor­thy high­er tem­per­a­ture sta­bil­i­ty of intramol­e­c­u­lar bonds with ener­gies of ≈10 kJ/mol.

    K e y w o r d s: Fouri­er trans­form infrared spec­troscopy, hydro­gen bond, Рicea abies, ther­mal annealing.

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    18 Kru­tov S.M., Ipa­to­va E.V., Kosyakov D.S., Ulyanovskiy N.V. ESI-MS analy­sis of hydrol­y­sis lignin alka­line destruc­tion products.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    It was shown, that hydrol­y­sis lignin alka­li solvol­y­sis at tem­per­a­ture 220 C leads to its com­plete con­ver­sion into water-sol­u­ble prod­ucts, caused by destruc­tion reac­tions. For deter­mi­na­tion of lignin destruc­tion prod­ucts were used time of flight mass-spec­trom­e­try in elec­tric field with neg­a­tive and pos­i­tive modes. This paper presents results of analy­sis of tech­ni­cal hydrol­y­sis lignin alka­li solvol­y­sis prod­ucts. The alka­li solvol­y­sis was per­formed at tem­per­a­ture 220 C with 5% NaOH dur­ing 2 hours. This treat­ment con­di­tions leads to com­plete con­ver­sion into water-sol­u­ble prod­ucts. The lignin destruc­tion prod­ucts were ana­lyzed by ESI-MS in pos­i­tive and neg­a­tive elec­tric field modes. The ESI-MS results of destruc­tion prod­ucts ace­tone sol­u­ble frac­tion obtained in pos­i­tive mode showed, that alka­li solvol­y­sis leads to aro­mat­ic monomers for­ma­tion. The results of ESI-MS obtained in neg­a­tive mode showed, that lignin destruc­tion prod­ucts con­tain com­pounds with masses
    of 200–700 Da which cor­re­sponds to di‑, three‑, tetra- and pen­tamers. The exact mass­es and chem­i­cal for­mu­las were iden­ti­fied by ESI-MS. Pos­si­ble chem­i­cal struc­tures of com­pounds cor­re­spond­ing with tetramers were sup­posed on a basis of its chem­i­cal for­mu­las. It was found, that this com­pounds may have struc­tures typ­i­cal for hydrol­y­sis lignin, which con­tains β–O–4 bonds, phe­nil­coumarin struc­tures, and oth­ers. That indi­cates about sta­bil­i­ty of this struc­tures despite of con­di­tions of acid hydrol­y­sis fol­lowed by alka­li solvolysis.

    K e y w o r d s: tech­ni­cal hydrol­y­sis lignin, alka­li solvol­y­sis, ESI-MS.

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    19 Rakovskaya E.G., Kudryasho­va O.A. Improv­ing work­ing con­di­tions by apply­ing a rust con­vert­er mod­i­fied P‑2.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The real work is devot­ed to study­ing of a pos­si­bil­i­ty of use of the P‑2 rust sol­vent for prepa­ra­tion of a sur­face of steel for col­or­ing for the pur­pose of replace­ment of eco­log­i­cal­ly harm­ful mechan­i­cal ways of clean­ing and improve­ment of its pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties by intro­duc­tion of organ­ic inhibitors. When machin­ing met­als in large num­bers fine parts of a var­nish, fine met­al dust, oxides of met­als (Fe, Al) which neg­a­tive­ly affect the per­son are allo­cat­ed. For replace­ment of mechan­i­cal ways of clean­ing of a met­al sur­face, harm­ful to the envi­ron­ment, prepa­ra­tion with­out removal of prod­ucts of cor­ro­sion which con­sists in draw­ing on the rusty sur­face of mod­i­fiers or soil of mod­i­fiers of a rust is offered. The essence of oper­a­tion of mod­i­fiers of a rust con­sists in abil­i­ty to sta­bi­lize their con­di­tion of a rust and to neu­tral­ize aggres­sive impu­ri­ty. Cor­ro­sion inhibitors gain the increas­ing val­ue in anti­cor­ro­sive pro­tec­tion of met­al prod­ucts every year. Achieve­ments in the field of devel­op­ment of sci­en­tif­ic bases of effect of inhibitors and cre­ation of new inhibitors of dif­fer­ent func­tion have allowed to offer a method of anti­cor­ro­sive pro­tec­tion which is based on intro­duc­tion of inhibitors to paint and var­nish cov­er­ings. Rust sol­vents will trans­form cor­ro­sion prod­ucts to the insol­u­ble con­nec­tions form­ing pro­tec­tive lay­ers on which then paints and var­nish­es are applied. For a research of kinet­ics of elec­tro­chem­i­cal reac­tions the method of removal of polar­iz­ing curves by means of a poten­tio­stat of P‑5828 of M was used. Tests were car­ried out on steel 3 and U8A steel. The kinet­ics of the process­es pro­ceed­ing at pas­si­va­tion was stud­ied by method of removal the anod­ic poten­tio­sta­t­ic curves, resis­tance of pro­tec­tive films, an exit was also deter­mined by cur­rent and cor­ro­sion speed. The research of influ­ence of N‑and S‑of the con­tain­ing organ­ic com­pounds on para­me­ters of pas­si­va­tion of steel sam­ples in the envi­ron­ment of the P‑2 rust sol­vent has shown that these addi­tives pro­mote tran­si­tion of steel to a pas­sive state, reduce pas­si­va­tion cur­rent, pro­mote increase in resis­tance of pas­sive films. Reduc­tion of an exit of met­al on cur­rent and con­se­quent­ly, and reduc­tion of speed of cor­ro­sion is a con­se­quence of such influ­ence of organ­ic addi­tives on para­me­ters of pas­si­va­tion. Results of work can be used at selec­tion of the inhibitors entered into the P‑2 rust sol­vent for more effec­tive pro­tec­tion of met­al against cor­ro­sion and safe­ty of health of the person.

    K e y w o r d s: rust, organ­ic addi­tives, met­al cor­ro­sion pro­tec­tion, mechan­i­cal clean­ing meth­ods, improved bar­ri­er prop­er­ties, the cor­ro­sion rate.

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    5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING
    AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

    20 Chu­dovskaya L.A., Zatenko S.I., Tara­ban M.V. Util­i­ty func­tion and deter­mi­na­tion of func­tion­al depen­dence form of the util­i­ty ben­e­fits from its extent.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle deals with a close­ly tied con­nec­tion of the con­cept of ben­e­fit cus­tom val­ue (val­ue in use) and more spe­cif­ic with con­cept of goods qual­i­ty. The inter­pre­ta­tion of the con­cept ben­e­fit is com­mon to be applic­a­ble to prod­ucts of dif­fer­ent nature (from real goods and ser­vices to infor­ma­tion, com­mu­ni­ca­tion and cre­ativ­i­ty). The most wide­ly used util­i­ty func­tions of eco­nom­ic ben­e­fits (in par­tic­u­lar: the util­i­ty func­tion of mon­ey) are viewed in the arti­cle. There are five dif­fer­ent approach­es giv­en to define the form of the func­tion­al depen­dence of the util­i­ty of eco­nom­ic ben­e­fits (in par­tic­u­lar mon­ey) from its extent. The main types of util­i­ty func­tions are: Bernoul­li util­i­ty func­tion; Cramer clas­si­cal util­i­ty func­tion; nor­mal­ized util­i­ty func­tion of Bernoul­li; nor­mal­ized util­i­ty func­tion of Cramer; a gen­er­al­ized nor­mal­ized util­i­ty func­tion. It is shown that the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of the func­tion­al depen­dence form of the util­i­ty ben­e­fit from its extent goes on in terms of set-the­o­ret­ic uncer­tain­ty, when there is an entire class of para­me­ter­ized func­tions that are defined to the pre­ci­sion of the para­me­ter, the pos­si­ble val­ues of which lie in some interval.

    K e y w o r d s: val­ue in use, util­i­ty, ben­e­fit, qual­i­ty, util­i­ty func­tion, class of func­tions, para­me­ter, set-the­o­ret­ic, uncertainty.

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    2016:
  • Issue 217
  • Name of article

    Page

    Arti­cle

    1. FORESTRY

    1 Vetrov L.S., Niki­forchin I.V. The struc­ture of the stands of pine in the con­di­tions of for­est Park Sosnovka.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    It is well-known that con­di­tions of growth of tree species in city line dif­fer from habi­tat marked­ly. Exis­tence of con­tin­u­ous anthro­poge­nous influ­ence ren­ders an essen­tial con­se­quence on growth and devel­op­ment of trees, espe­cial­ly conif­er­ous breeds. Object of research were nat­ur­al for­est stands of a pine (Pinus sylvestris) of a for­est park Sos­nov­ka grow­ing in city con­di­tions. As a result of mea­sure­ments on tri­al the areas ranks of dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees of a pine on steps of thick­ness and cat­e­gories of state of trees have been received. Cal­cu­lat­ed val­ues of index­es of cat­e­gories of state of trees (1.57–1.86) have shown that for­est stands of a pine belong to the cat­e­go­ry of weak­ened. The math­e­mati­co-sta­tis­ti­cal analy­sis of ranks of dis­tri­b­u­tion has allowed to estab­lish some devi­a­tions in a struc­ture of for­est stands from the reg­u­lar­i­ties inher­ent in for­est stands not sub­ject to anthro­poge­nous influ­ence. So, val­ue of coef­fi­cients of vari­abil­i­ty of diam­e­ters into all tri­al squares there is less thresh­old val­ue placed for sub­ur­ban for­est stands. There­fore, the stud­ied plant­i­ngs come under com­plex influ­ence of rekre­ant, a gas con­t­a­m­i­na­tion of the air envi­ron­ment and oth­er fac­tors which it is reflect­ed in a struc­ture of for­est stands. On two skilled objects neg­a­tive val­ues of coef­fi­cient of asym­me­try of ranks of dis­tri­b­u­tion on diam­e­ter are received that is char­ac­ter­is­tic for the old of the for­est stands which have stopped growth despite their actu­al 95-year age. Val­ues of coef­fi­cients of asym­me­try and an excess of ranks of dis­tri­b­u­tion on diam­e­ter, don’t exceed three times an own mis­take, there­fore, dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees close to nor­mal. As the­o­ret­i­cal mod­els of ranks of dis­tri­b­u­tion dis­tri­b­u­tions are con­sid­ered: Grama–Charlier’s and Pear­son of I and III types. Ver­i­fi­ca­tion of exper­i­men­tal ranks of dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees on diam­e­ter in object of research with data of their the­o­ret­i­cal mod­el­ing it was checked by cal­cu­la­tion of cri­te­ri­on Pear­son­’s chi-square and his sub­se­quent com­par­i­son with tab­u­lar val­ue. It is estab­lished that math­e­mat­i­cal rep­re­sen­ta­tion of ranks of dis­tri­b­u­tion on diam­e­ter in the con­di­tions of a for­est park Sos­nov­ka with prob­a­bil­i­ty of 95% can be car­ried out on Grama–Charlier’s distribution.

    K e y w o r d s: for­est stands, struc­ture of for­est stands, num­ber of dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees, sta­tis­ti­cal analy­sis, dis­tri­b­u­tion models

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    2 Gerasi­mov A.O., Chuguno­va M.V. Influ­ence of anti-ice mate­ri­als on mag­ne­sium chlo­ride basis onto high­er plants and soil microorganisms.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Anti-ice mate­ri­als used in win­ter for deic­ing are the one of the most harm­ful anthro­pogenic fac­tors affect­ing the soils and veg­e­ta­tion in the urban envi­ron­ment. This arti­cle presents the results of lab­o­ra­to­ry and field stud­ies on the effects of the main anti-ice mate­ri­als used in St. Peters­burg, on high­er plants and soil microor­gan­isms. The envi­ron­ment impact of anti-ice mate­ri­als based on mag­ne­sium chlo­ride («Bishofit», «Green­ride», «Rock­melt») was com­pared with the effect of the tech­ni­cal salt (sodi­um chlo­ride), tra­di­tion­al­ly used for deal­ing with the win­ter anti-icing in St. Peters­burg. In lab­o­ra­to­ry tests car­ried out on sod-pod­zolic soil, high dos­es of mag­ne­sium chlo­ride and sodi­um chlo­ride sig­nif­i­cant­ly inhib­it­ed the microor­gan­isms. The oppres­sion of seeds sprouts and plant bio­mass in many cas­es reached 100%. More­over, even the min­i­mum dos­es of chlo­rides inhib­it­ed the veg­e­ta­tion. At the same time in the field exper­i­ments, the neg­a­tive effects of anti-ice mate­ri­als even­tu­al­ly were turned off by nat­ur­al fac­tors. The chlo­rides were washed off by rain­wa­ter from the upper soil hori­zons into the low­er. Thus, the con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed soils’ tox­i­c­i­ty for plants and microor­gan­isms was marked­ly decreas­ing. At the end of the grow­ing sea­son, even the max­i­mum con­cen­tra­tion of chlo­rides made a slight­ly tox­ic effect on the test-objects. The study estab­lished that all mag­ne­sium chlo­rides are much less­er eco­log­i­cal­ly destruc­tive than sodi­um chlo­ride, and can be rec­om­mend­ed for use. In St. Peters­burg a mag­ne­sium chlo­ride per­mit­ted con­cen­tra­tion for appli­ca­tion in the streets can be con­sid­ered 50 g/m2.

    Ke y w o r d s: anti-ice mate­ri­als, soils, microor­gan­isms, plants, toxicity 

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    3 Man­aenkov A.S., Chernyavsky Y.V. Struc­ture and geo­graph­i­cal cost dynam­ics on afforesta­tion by the pine of sandy lands of the steppe zone.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In steppe regions of the Euro­pean part of Rus­sia owing to long irra­tional man­ag­ing the soil cov­er is bro­ken. Process of nat­ur­al recov­ery of strong­ly bro­ken ter­ri­to­ries pro­ceeds slow­ly and often is inter­rupt­ed by anthro­poge­nous impact. Addi­tion­al afforesta­tion of sandy lands allows to raise an eco­nom­ic, eco­log­i­cal and social con­di­tion that pro­motes devel­op­ment of droughty regions. The tech­no­log­i­cal modes are sta­ti­cized. Mod­els of cal­cu­la­tion of direct costs and a cost amount on cre­ation and cul­ti­va­tion of a pine in case of for­est melio­ra­tion of hectare of sandy lands of a steppe zone of the Euro­pean ter­ri­to­ry of Rus­sia are received. Geo­graph­i­cal con­sis­tent pat­terns of expense dynam­ics are deter­mined. To put the cost of han­dling of the soil, 2‑year seedlings, agrotech­ni­cal tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tions con­sti­tute expens­es on cre­ation of 1 hectare of cul­tures of a pine. Expens­es are cut with growth of humid­i­ty of cli­mate and con­di­tions of the soil (from dry to the reg­u­lar steppe and from hilly sand to plains with sandy soils) and con­sti­tute 351–533 c.u./hectare. In their struc­ture 69,7–43,7% are occu­pied by the cost of saplings that dur­ing cre­ation of plant­i­ngs on hilly sand and sandy lands exceeds the cost of agro tech­ni­cal actions. Expens­es on cul­ti­va­tion of plant­i­ngs have the return ten­den­cy (care of the wood to 50-year age: clear­ings, thin­ning, cab­in through pas­sage). They increase more than by 4 times from hilly sand of this and droughty steppe to plains with sandy soils of the dry steppe in con­nec­tion with sharp increase in num­ber nec­es­sary tech­no­log­i­cal trans­ac­tions in young plant­i­ngs and con­sti­tute 595‑2521 c.u./hectare. The amount of all direct costs in case of afforesta­tion of sand of a steppe zone (946‑3054 c.u./hectare). Increas­es with growth of dry­ness of cli­mate and weight­ing of par­ti­cle size dis­tri­b­u­tion of the soil.

    Ke y w o r d s: steppe zone, sandy lands, afforesta­tion, costs for cre­ation and cul­ti­va­tion of plantings.

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    4 Seli­v­ano­va A.S., Kar­tasho­va N.P. Eval­u­a­tion green­ing the nat­ur­al com­plex of the city of Voronezh.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Green­ing is an essen­tial com­po­nent of a com­plex urban devel­op­ment. Accord­ing to the town plan­ning norms plan­ta­tions should occu­py a cer­tain area in a res­i­den­tial area, dis­trict, indus­tri­al area, so it is nec­es­sary to iden­ti­fy their per­cent­age in rela­tion to all the green areas of the city and to eval­u­ate their real con­di­tion, give advice on care and main­te­nance. As a result, that will change the eco­log­i­cal state of the city, improve the qual­i­ty of recre­ation. In assess­ing the plant­i­ng area of nat­ur­al com­plex of the city of Voronezh in the full-scale sur­vey areas record­ed var­i­ous mea­sures to enable an assess­ment to deter­mine the exist­ing plant­i­ngs, sus­tain­abil­i­ty, eval­u­a­tion of the aes­thet­ic state plan­ta­tions. This used a visu­al method based on the grad­ing scale for eval­u­at­ing the state of the exter­nal signs and tool, based on the mea­sure­ment of mor­pho­log­i­cal para­me­ters of the plant. As a result, research has been defined for each lev­el land­scap­ing of res­i­den­tial area and found the total area of green areas green areas of the city, which was 9.3 m² of green space per inhab­i­tant of the city. Thus, plant­i­ng rate per capi­ta is less than nor­ma­tive. It has been found that the pro­vi­sion of shared objects city green­ing 6.7 m² also below the low­er lim­it of rec­om­mend­ed stan­dards and 10 m² lev­el is less than opti­mal plant­i­ng. Thus, it defines the sta­tus of green space in the park area of Voronezh and rec­om­men­da­tions for improve­ment of qual­i­ty indi­ca­tors of green areas, which will help in creasedec­o­ra­tive plants and resis­tance to adverse exter­nal influences

    K e y w o r d s: : nat­ur­al com­plex, urban con­struc­tion, landscaping

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    5 Zaru­bi­na L.V. Growth under­sto­ry renew­al efi on felling of birch forests bilberry.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The pecu­liar­i­ties of growth of the main and lat­er­al shoots and bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of podologues ate with age (suc­ces­sion­al) chang­ing birch blue­ber­ry. It is estab­lished that at the age shift birch growth and for­ma­tion of spruce pop­u­la­tions are deter­mined by the joint ontoge­ny derived (birch) for­est and recov­er­ing pop­u­la­tions of spruce, com­plete­ness and den­si­ty of for­est canopy. At the ini­tial stages of the for­ma­tion of birch for­est stand growth spruce is deter­mined main­ly by envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors. Reduc­tion pen­e­trat­ing under the canopy of the emerg­ing tree of solar radi­a­tion with increas­ing age leads to reduced growth of spruce, the short­en­ing of the main and lat­er­al shoots, the dete­ri­o­ra­tion of the bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics. Max­i­mum val­ues (22,4 cm per year) increase in api­cal shoots, the spruce reach­es in plan­ta­tions 6–8 years of age at the ini­tial stages of set­tle­ment felling of decid­u­ous species. After clos­ing decid­u­ous canopy deter­min­ing the posi­tion in the for­ma­tion of the spruce pop­u­la­tion belongs to intraspe­cif­ic com­pe­ti­tion, which result­ed in large trees inhib­it the growth of small­er trees, and upper canopy, pre­vent­ing the pen­e­tra­tion of light and heat under the canopy. Already in the 13-year-old birch pop­u­la­tion ate expe­ri­enc­ing adverse effects from birch. With 20–25 years of age birch begins full bio­log­i­cal depres­sion spruce birch, which con­tin­ues until the out­put of spruce in the first tier. n mature birch first recep­tion grad­ual cut­tings advis­able to start spend­ing aged birch with­in 50–60 years, the sec­ond in 8–10 years.

    K e y w o r d s: birch blue­ber­ry, spruce, growth, ontoge­ny, bio­mass structure.

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    2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

    6 Alek­san­drov V.A., Alek­san­drov A.V. Vibroload­ing of the oper­a­tor feller bunch­er mode lift the tree by an arrow.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle dis­cuss­es vibroload­ing of the oper­a­tor feller bunch­er mode lift the tree by an arrow. The study was con­duct­ed on a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of bio­dy­nam­ic sys­tem «oper­a­tor – Feller Bunch­er – tree». Math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is made in the form of Lagranzhe equa­tions of the sec­ond kind. Mod­el of the oper­a­tor is pre­sent­ed in the form of two-mass. Dur­ing the study var­ied: accel­er­a­tion arrows in the range of 0,2…0,8 rad/s2. Cal­cu­la­tions are made to the source data in rela­tion to the feller bunch­ers LP-19А.Proposed a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el to deter­mine the vibra­tion effects on the body of the oper­a­tor of the FB in the devel­op­ment stage of the design documentation.

    K e y w o r d s: fall­er bencher, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, shake, buf­fet­ing, vibra­tion, seat, oper­a­tor..

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    7 Bas­trikov D.V., Vlasov Yu.N., Kuch­er S.V., Kunit­skaya D.E. Exper­i­men­tal stud­ies of ener­gy con­sump­tion of debark­ing wastes shredding.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents results of exper­i­ments on shred­ding of debark­ing waste with an indus­tri­al shred­der Erd­wich M600 / 1–400. The exper­i­ments use three groups of waste’s humid­i­ty: waste imme­di­ate­ly after debark­ing (rel­a­tive humid­i­ty 70%), dried in air (rel­a­tive humid­i­ty 40%) and dried in the dry­ing cam­era (rel­a­tive humid­i­ty 10%). The aver­age size of the pieces before shred­ding was 70, 50 and 30 mm. The results set a pat­tern for eval­u­at­ing the ener­gy costs required for shred­ding of debark­ing waste depend­ing on the rel­a­tive humid­i­ty and the shred­ding ratio. The results prove that the ener­gy con­sump­tion of debark­ing waste shred­ding asso­ciates with rel­a­tive humid­i­ty of the waste and shred­ding ratio with a non­lin­ear depen­dence, which repeats struc­ture of the Kir­pichev-Kik depen­dence. The paper proves that the caloric val­ue of dry mat­ter con­tained in the shred­ding prod­uct, and the ener­gy expend­ed in its shred­ding, link each oth­er as a non­lin­ear func­tion of the bark humid­i­ty with opti­mal humid­i­ty of 25%. The spe­cif­ic ener­gy con­sump­tion of the debark­ing waste shred­ding at the opti­mal humid­i­ty is pro­por­tion­al to the nat­ur­al log­a­rithm of the shred­ding ratio. At the opti­mal humid­i­ty of debark­ing waste shred­ding with ratio 5–15 requires expend­ing ener­gy around 5–10% of the waste caloric val­ue. The paper also con­tains sug­ges­tions about fur­ther prospec­tive research in the field of wood­en mate­ri­als shredding..

    K e y w o r d s: shred­ding, debark­ing waste, opti­mal humid­i­ty, ener­gy consumption.

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    8 Belono­go­va N.A., Vino­gradov A.Yu., Vino­gradovа T.А., Doganovsky D.A.,
    Kon­drat’ev A.N., Markov M.L., Minaev A.N., Motovilov B.P., Nikiti­na I.S.,
    Salmi­nen E.O.
    About time lag and some mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of streams of the for­est zone.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The cal­cu­la­tion of the max­i­mum water flow dur­ing the high water, espe­cial­ly on small water­sheds, in order to effec­tive­ly design engi­neer­ing of road struc­tures, is a very dif­fi­cult task due to the lack of suf­fi­cient obser­va­tions. In addi­tion, the char­ac­ter­is­tics of rain­fall, and their deter­mi­nants have a high spa­tial and tem­po­ral vari­abil­i­ty, which fur­ther com­pli­cates their def­i­n­i­tion. Cur­rent­ly rec­om­mend­ed method of deter­min­ing the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the max­i­mum rain­wa­ter, as the expe­ri­ence, needs imme­di­ate clar­i­fi­ca­tion of dimen­sions and ver­i­fy links. Par­tic­u­lar atten­tion is paid to the cal­cu­la­tion of lag time, includ­ed in the for­mu­las as the defin­ing para­me­ter. Full­ness riverbeds has high spa­tial and tem­po­ral het­ero­gene­ity and vari­abil­i­ty. The gen­er­al move­ment of water in the clos­ing align­ment ordered and uni­form. The aver­age rate of slight­ly increased or decreased depend­ing on the dry­ness of the sea­son. Each cross-sec­tion cor­re­sponds to the val­ue of aver­age flow veloc­i­ty. These data are from the late 70-ies are not pub­lished. Pro­cess­ing of exist­ing data sug­gests that there is a slight increase in the flow veloc­i­ty with increas­ing basin areas. There­fore, as a con­stant time lag is invit­ed to take the time deter­mined by the char­ac­ter­is­tic seg­ments of the chan­nel path from the source to the align­ment of the test..

    K e y w o r d s: forestry engi­neer­ing con­struc­tions, rain­fall, max­i­mum water flow, time lag, cross-sec­tion­al area, rough­ness, mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of small for­est streams.

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    9 Khitrov E.G., Khakhi­na A.M., Dmitrie­va M.N., Peskov V.B., Grig­ore­va O.I. Refined mod­el for wheeled forestry machin­ery trac­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics evaluation.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    This paper presents a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, designed to eval­u­ate trac­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of a wheeled mover. The mod­el con­tains results obtained by inde­pen­dent researchers of off-the-road loco­mo­tion and a deal of sub-mod­els, obtained by the authors. In par­tic­u­lar, the mod­el includes refined for­mu­la for cal­cu­lat­ing the shape of con­tact area between wheel and the ground (the for­mu­la allows to take into account effect of the ground defor­ma­tion mod­ule on the con­tact area shape); refined for­mu­la cal­cu­lat­ing the tire deflec­tion (for­mu­la allows to take into account the inner pres­sure in the tire, geom­e­try of the wheel and the ground defor­ma­tion); refined for­mu­la describ­ing the impact of speed of the wheel on the ground defor­ma­tions; refined for­mu­la assess­ing the soil shear defor­ma­tion (for­mu­la allows to take into account the phe­nom­e­non of slip­ping trac­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics of the wheel). The mod­el con­tains for­mu­lae for cal­cu­la­tion of cohe­sion, angle of inter­nal fric­tion, bulk den­si­ty, the thick­ness of the deformable lay­er of the ground and the shear mod­u­lus of the soil depend­ing on the defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus, this approach lets com­pare the results of cal­cu­la­tions to WES-mod­els’ results. In arti­cle set out the pro­ce­dure for cal­cu­lat­ing the pro­posed mod­el and an exam­ple of the cal­cu­la­tion results (coef­fi­cient of rolling resis­tance, thrust coef­fi­cient, draw­bar pull coef­fi­cient and rut depth after a sin­gle pass of the wheel for giv­en val­ues of its diam­e­ter, width, tire inner pres­sure, speed of the wheel, slip ratio and the wheel load).

    K e y w o r d s: soil inter­ac­tion, rolling resis­tance coef­fi­cient, thrust coef­fi­cient, draw­bar pull coef­fi­cient, rut depth..

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    10 Chibirev O.V., Kunit­skaya O.A., Ilyushchenko D.A. Exper­i­men­tal stud­ies of pine saw­dust bri­quet­ting under hydraulic press equipment.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle focus­es on the depen­dence between stiff­ness of pine saw­dust, its fac­tion and com­paction degree in the process of bri­quet­ting under hydraulic press. Exper­i­men­tal sam­ples came from saw­dust pro­duced with saw­ing of pine wood with cir­cu­lar saw and a chain­saw. The exper­i­men­tal mate­r­i­al was sep­a­rat­ed using a col­umn of sieves in order to obtain sam­ples of var­i­ous frac­tions: 5–10 mm 3–5 mm 2–3 mm, 0.5–2 mm, <0.5 mm (on the pan). The saw­dust had 7–10% humid­i­ty. Bri­quet­ting of the exper­i­men­tal sam­ples was per­formed with RUF BP-600 hydraulic press at a pres­sure of 150 MPa. (15 exper­i­men­tal sam­ples total, 3 reps for each saw­dust frac­tion). The results estab­lish that in gen­er­al the exper­i­men­tal depen­dence between required com­paction pres­sure and the bri­quettes den­si­ty appears as a pow­er func­tions. Based on exper­i­men­tal data, research sets that the defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus of pine saw­dust varies from 0.5 to 5 GPa and sig­nif­i­cant­ly depends on the den­si­ty and frac­tions of the mold­ed mate­r­i­al. The paper estab­lish­es that 3–5 mm frac­tion of saw­dust is eas­i­er com­pact­ed com­pared to oth­er frac­tions. Opti­mal frac­tion of saw­dust in the exper­i­ments was 3.7 mm. Saw­dust frac­tion over 7 mm has sharply increased stiff­ness, there­by press­ing process becomes com­pli­cat­ed. In con­clu­sion, the arti­cle high­lights prospec­tive top­ics for fur­ther exper­i­men­tal research, pro­vid­ing guid­ance on the struc­ture of plans for sub­se­quent experiments.

    K e y w o r d s: : frac­tion, defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus, stiff­ness, saw­dust briquetting.

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    11 Skryp­nikov A.V., Kozlov V.G., Gusev, Y.V., Kapustin V.P.Design­ing the struc­ture of infor­ma­tion sup­port of the road trans­port hauling.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Deals with the Gen­er­al prin­ci­ples of infor­ma­tion sup­port sys­tem of tim­ber trans­porta­tion road trans­port, as well as the basics of sys­tem oper­a­tion log­ging of road trans­port and infor­ma­tion pro­vi­sion. When devel­op­ing solu­tions for infor­ma­tion secu­ri­ty defines the basic cri­te­ria and mea­sures for opti­miza­tion of infor­ma­tion sup­port sys­tems in the func­tion­ing of for­est road trans­port. The stages of the struc­ture of infor­ma­tion pro­vi­sion. Deter­mined that the main task of the man­age­ment sys­tem of infor­ma­tion sup­port of the func­tion­ing of for­est road trans­port is to achieve the max­i­mum of some func­tion­al (com­posed of indi­vid­ual cri­te­ria) under cer­tain restric­tions on the choice of con­trol actions by chang­ing the sys­tem para­me­ters. Accord­ing to the study find­ings, which sug­gests that the nor­mal func­tion­ing of the tim­ber-car­ry­ing road trans­port is asso­ci­at­ed with the abil­i­ty of the infor­ma­tion sup­port sys­tem of tim­ber-car­ry­ing road trans­port to adapt depend­ing on changes in spe­cif­ic con­di­tions, but also defined the bound­aries of the exter­nal and inter­nal envi­ron­ment, are two of the con­trol mech­a­nism of the sys­tem con­trol infor­ma­tion main­te­nance haul­ing road trans­port. Bib­li­og­ra­phy. 2 the name. Il. 3.

    K e y w o r d s: infor­ma­tion secu­ri­ty, trans­port, effi­cien­cy, adap­ta­tion, research, operation.

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    3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

    12 Agapov A.I. Metodi­ka postanov­ki i resh­eniya zadachi opti­mizacii raskroya pilovochni­ka krup­nih razmerov s vip­ili­vaniem dvuh bru­sev i che­tireh par bokovih obreznih dosok s uchetom shiri­ni propila.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    For the first time made up a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of opti­miza­tion prob­lems for this scheme cut­ting logs, includ­ing the objec­tive func­tion and con­straint equa­tions. The arti­cle dis­cuss­es pifagorich­eskaya zone logs. There­fore, the objec­tive func­tion is rep­re­sent­ed as the sum of the cross sec­tion­al area of edg­ing boards Equa­tions com­mu­ni­ca­tion pre­sent­ed in the form of equa­tions, in which the inter­re­la­tion diam­e­ter logs in the ver­tex end with the size of the edg­ing boards. This rela­tion­ship is described based on the use of the Pythagore­an the­o­rem. This rep­re­sen­ta­tion of a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the opti­miza­tion prob­lem is quite log­i­cal. How­ev­er, the solu­tion to this math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the clas­si­cal method proved prob­lem­at­ic. In order to solve the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the method of Lagrange mul­ti­pli­ers. An algo­rithm for solv­ing the prob­lem to deter­mine the opti­mal size of the boards and the side edg­ing boards con­sid­er­ing cut­ting width. Using a numer­i­cal method for the opti­mum size of beams and boards, in which the objec­tive func­tion takes the max­i­mum val­ue. It was found that with an increase in the thick­ness of the boards of the kerf increas­es and the size of the lat­er­al edg­ing boards are reduced. Dimen­sions out­er side­boards with increas­ing kerf reduced to a greater extent than the side boards, which are locat­ed clos­er to the cen­ter of the log. An algo­rithm for solv­ing the opti­miza­tion prob­lem it is rec­om­mend­ed to use for cal­cu­la­tion and put in the design and oper­a­tion of the saw lines for the pro­duc­tion of lum­ber. When using the pro­posed algo­rithm for solv­ing the opti­miza­tion prob­lem lum­ber out­put increas­es by 3–5 percent.

    K e y w o r d s: logs, width of cut, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, objec­tive func­tion, the cou­pling equa­tions, numer­i­cal method, algo­rithm tasks.

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    13 Bacherikov I.V., Lok­sh­tanov B.M Influ­ence of tem­per­a­ture and humid­i­ty on the angle of repose of wood bulk materials.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the design of open and closed stor­age ware­hous­es chopped wood mate­ri­als for bulk mate­ri­als such as wood chips and saw­dust, great impor­tance has an angle of repose (sta­t­ic and dynam­ic) of these mate­ri­als. In the tech­ni­cal lit­er­a­ture are con­flict­ing reports about the mag­ni­tude of these angles, which leads to errors in the design of ware­hous­es. In the ref­er­ences­does not take into account the con­di­tions under which oper­at­ed capac­i­ties for stor­age of bulk mate­ri­als, and prop­er­ties and con­di­tion of the bulk mate­r­i­al. The design errors lead to prob­lems (hang­ing, arch­ing, «flood­ing», etc.) and acci­dents in the oper­a­tion of hop­pers and silos at the mills. The arti­cle pro­vides infor­ma­tion on the impact of humid­i­ty and tem­per­a­ture on the angle of repose of gran­u­lar mate­ri­als. On the basis of lab­o­ra­to­ry and field exper­i­ments, con­duct­ed with the help of spe­cial­ly devel­oped tech­niques and facil­i­ties has been adjust­ed for­mu­la for deter­min­ing the angle of repose (sta­t­ic and dynam­ic) for the shred­ded wood mate­ri­als depend­ing on their frac­tion­al and species com­po­si­tion, humid­i­ty (absolute and rel­a­tive) and tem­per­a­ture. It is pos­si­ble, by using the cor­rect­ed for­mu­la, to deter­mine the angle of repose of loose wood mate­ri­als with aver­age par­ti­cle size of from 0.5 mm to 15 mm (wood dust to pulpchips) in var­i­ous oper­at­ing con­di­tions. The arti­cle can be help­ful to design­ers in the cal­cu­la­tion of the angle of incli­na­tion of the fun­nel faces pro­duces bunkers and silos for­est indus­tries and pulp and paper industry.

    K e y w o r d s: angle of repose, bulk mate­ri­als, bins and silos, wood chips.

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    14 Vasi­lyev V.V., Hos­sei­ni S.Z., Sizo­va L.I., Kon­dratie­va E.V. Physi­co-chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the sur­face of indus­tri­al wood-based pan­els of dif­fer­ent types.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Over the past 15 years an inten­sive growth of pro­duc­tion of wood-based pan­els was observed in Rus­sia. The annu­al rate of increase in release par­ti­cle­boards amount­ed to 7.5%, and medi­um den­si­ty fiber­board (MDF) – 38.7%. Simul­ta­ne­ous­ly with the increase in pro­duc­tion, mas­tery man­u­fac­tur­ing of plates of dif­fer­ent types which dif­fer by the type of wood par­ti­cles, syn­thet­ic resins and addi­tives (hard­en­ers, water-proof­ing mate­ri­als, anti­ad­he­sives, flame retar­dants, anti­sep­tics, etc.) occurred. The pro­duced wood plates are main­ly used in the fur­ni­ture indus­try and con­struc­tion, where they are usu­al­ly sub­ject­ed to fin­ish. An urgent task is to increase the qual­i­ty and reduc­ing the con­sump­tion of mate­ri­als. Opti­mal liq­uid con­sump­tion mate­ri­als (put­ty, primer, paint, glue) depends on the sur­face prop­er­ties of wood-based pan­els. We inves­ti­gat­ed four types of indus­tri­al par­ti­cle­boards (P2, P3, P5, P6) and one type of MDF, which are pro­duced in Rus­sia under the name “plates of wood, mono­struc­tur­al fiber­boards, brand of «PMV». It was found that the acid­i­ty of the sur­face of the wood plates ranges from pH 6.0 to 6.7, which cor­re­sponds to the rec­om­men­da­tions of the experts. Val­ue of sur­face wet­ting angle of solu­tion of urea-formalde­hyde resin on the sur­face of the par­ti­cle­boards is between 79 to 85о, and on the sur­face of the MDF – 68о. The data obtained sug­gest that aque­ous solu­tion of film binders bet­ter spreads on sur­face boards «PMV». Absorp­tion of liq­uids by sur­face of plates of dif­fer­ent types varies con­sid­er­ably. Test­ing accord­ing to Euro­pean method­ol­o­gy EN 382–1 showed that the length of the route of toluene ranges from 57 mm (plate «PMV») to 351 mm (plate of type P5), i.e. plate «PMV» active­ly absorbs organ­ic sol­vent. Water absorp­tion also varies wide­ly. So for 10 min­utes the plate «PMV» absorbs 67 g/m2 sur­face, and plate of type P2-712 g/m2. The process of absorp­tion of toluene by sur­face of wood-based pan­els depends main­ly on the size of the aver­age den­si­ty bound­ary zones of the sur­face lay­er of the plate, i.e. from the poros­i­ty of the sur­face. The high­er the den­si­ty, the low­er the absorp­tion of toluene. View of syn­thet­ic binder, which is used in plate, and the pres­ence of hydropho­bic addi­tives in the form of paraf­fin has vir­tu­al­ly no effect on this indi­ca­tor. The rate of the water absorp­tion by sur­face of the wood-based pan­els depends main­ly on the avail­abil­i­ty of hydropho­bic addi­tives in the out­er lay­ers boards, as well as the den­si­ty of the bound­ary sur­face zones. In the pres­ence of paraf­fin, water absorp­tion is dra­mat­i­cal­ly reduced. Increas­ing the den­si­ty of the sur­face also helps reduce water absorp­tion speed.

    K e y w o r d s : par­ti­cle­boards of dif­fer­ent types, medi­um den­si­ty fibre­boards, qual­i­ty fin­ish­es, sur­face qual­i­ty of wood-based pan­els, den­si­ty sur­face lay­er, liq­uid absorp­tion, рН of sur­face, sur­face wet­ting angle, strength..

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    15 Kovalenko I.V., Chu­bin­sky M.A., Rusakov D.S., Varank­i­na G.S. Sur­face prop­er­ties and struc­ture of aspen wood.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The use of aspen wood in man­u­fac­tur­ing of mate­ri­als and prod­ucts is lim­it­ed due to its low mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, cor­ro­sion sus­cep­ti­bil­i­ty destruc­tive lesion decay, its lack of prop­er jus­ti­fi­ca­tion pro­cess­ing tech­nol­o­gy. Unclaimed aspen dif­fi­cult eco­nom­ic con­di­tions in the for­est, degrades the species com­po­si­tion of for­est stands and pre­vents restora­tion of soft­wood. Wood aspen worse moist­ened with water com­pared to oth­er breeds. The study of its struc­ture and sur­face prop­er­ties at the micro lev­el is of great inter­est to study the inter­ac­tion of wood with water, liq­uid adhe­sives and pro­tec­tive-dec­o­ra­tive mate­ri­als. This is the prob­lem whose solu­tion can be a new tool for the study of sci­ence-inten­sive tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of dry­ing, impreg­na­tion, glu­ing and sur­face fin­ish­es. Real wood sur­face, formed by the machin­ing (peel­ing, saw­ing, milling) sig­nif­i­cant­ly greater its pro­jec­tion on the plane as a result of cut­ting the microstruc­tur­al ele­ments. Sur­face irreg­u­lar­i­ties dis­tort the results of mea­sure­ment of sur­face prop­er­ties which are deter­mined based on the con­tact angle. Giv­en that the size of the cell walls is less than the size of the cav­i­ties, the true sur­face area of the veneer, depend­ing on the type of inci­sion, may be ten times the appar­ent. The dete­ri­o­ra­tion of the abil­i­ty of wet­ted explains the for­ma­tion of droplets on the sur­face of adhe­sive deposit­ed on the veneer by rolling. When ply­wood hot press­ing at a first time increas­es mobil­i­ty of adhe­sive mol­e­cules, decreas­es the mod­u­lus of elas­tic­i­ty of wood, sur­face is aligned, improv­ing the con­di­tions of inter­ac­tion of the glue and the wood. To deter­mine the true char­ac­ter­is­tics of the wood, glue flow study, the abil­i­ty of wood to absorb liq­uid it is nec­es­sary to know the size of microstruc­tur­al ele­ments and their dis­tri­b­u­tion, the amount of sur­face cav­i­ties. The effec­tive radius of aspen wood cav­i­ties can be described using frac­tal theory.

    K e y w o r d s: the struc­ture of aspen wood, aspen veneer, the sur­face prop­er­ties of wood, wood wet­ting abil­i­ty, frac­tal the­o­ry, the effec­tive radius of the cav­i­ties of wood cells. 

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    16 Markov V.A., Markov A.N., Kre­tinin V. I., Sokolo­va V.A., Gaiduko­va P.A. Opti­miza­tion of choice of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of details’ restoration.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the con­di­tions of the mar­ket rela­tions the ques­tion of the choice of ratio­nal meth­ods of repair and restora­tion of worn-out work­ing sur­faces has rel­e­vance as labor pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, econ­o­my of the elec­tric pow­er and mate­ri­als for draw­ing cov­er­ings, struc­ture of oper­a­tions of a route of restora­tion of a worn-out sur­face. Even­tu­al­ly, dura­bil­i­ty of a detail, knot, the car unit depends on his deci­sion. Restora­tion of worn-out sur­faces of details pro­vides devel­op­ment of sur­face’s route of restora­tion. The main oper­a­tion is draw­ing a cov­er­ing. For resolv­ing issues of opti­miza­tion of the choice of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of details restora­tion it is nec­es­sary to have the esti­mat­ed indi­ca­tors which allow­ing to esti­mate their tech­no­log­i­cal routes by cri­te­ri­on of cost of restora­tion. Accord­ing to the the­o­ry of pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of the equip­ment and work to com­par­i­son of routes of restora­tion It is nec­es­sary to apply esti­mat­ed indi­ca­tors: valid and tech­no­log­i­cal pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of the equip­ment and process, spe­cif­ic pow­er pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of the equip­ment, the coef­fi­cient con­sid­er­ing met­al loss­es. After repair one restored detail with a coef­fi­cient of restora­tion of a resource more than 1 won’t be able to raise a unit resource. There­fore increase of a resource is pos­si­ble only when using sev­er­al details with the raised resources, first of all it con­cerns cou­ples of fric­tion and inter­faces. Exis­tence of com­par­a­tive esti­mat­ed indi­ca­tors allows to pass to the solu­tion of a para­met­ri­cal task, both sep­a­rate oper­a­tion of restora­tion, and the oper­a­tions enter­ing a route of oper­a­tions of restora­tion, and a restora­tion route in gen­er­al. Val­ue of num­ber of pos­si­ble refusals on the restored detail in post repair ser­vice life allows to dis­tin­guish a share of expens­es from the gen­er­al costs of elim­i­na­tion of the pos­si­ble refusals con­nect­ed with repair and restora­tion of a detail. Use of depen­dences of esti­mat­ed indi­ca­tors of tech­no­log­i­cal restora­tion process­es of details will allow the log­ging enter­pris­es to choose the most suit­able tech­no­log­i­cal processes.

    K e y w o r d s: for­est cars; restora­tion; pro­duc­tiv­i­ty; com­pos­ite mate­ri­als; refusals.

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    17 Sergee­vichev A.V. The analy­sis of heat­ing of abra­sive belts when pro­cess­ing wood and wood materials.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Among the fac­tors influ­enc­ing a wear and a blunt­ing of the grind­ing tool, one of the main roles is played by tem­per­a­ture. The adhe­sion and dif­fu­sion process­es occur­ring when cut­ting wood which, in turn, influ­ence the speed and size of a blunt­ing of abra­sive papers depend on tem­per­a­ture. Many researchers who used a method of sources of warmth for the solu­tion of objec­tives dealt with an issue of def­i­n­i­tion of a tem­per­a­ture pro­file in a zone of con­tact of the grind­ing tool with the processed mate­r­i­al. Its sub­stance con­sists that the stud­ied process of dis­tri­b­u­tion of warmth is replaced with the equiv­a­lent tot­ing of ther­mal process­es from the par­tial point sources. Con­sid­er­ing grind­ing as a kind of high-speed cut­ting, it is pos­si­ble to con­sid­er that set of the cen­ters of ele­vat­ed tem­per­a­ture of a zone of con­tact of an abra­sive belt with a detail rep­re­sents a sim­ple source of warmth which works, con­tin­u­ous­ly mov­ing on a detail sur­face with con­stant speed. The form and the sizes of a ther­mal source are char­ac­ter­ized by the sur­face of con­tact of a tape and a detail. The analy­sis of heat­ing and cool­ing of an abra­sive belt dur­ing its work shows that on heat con­tent of a tape the great influ­ence is exert­ed by length of con­tact of a tape with wood, the clip pres­sure, trav­el­ing speed of a tape, its length, design fea­tures of the machine. In most cas­es the abra­sive belt works in the favor­able con­di­tions, that is man­ages to be cooled to envi­ron­ment tem­per­a­ture dur­ing one turn. Dur­ing the work as a worn-out skin for main­tain­ing of effi­cien­cy of grind­ing at the giv­en lev­el it is nec­es­sary to put the larg­er pres­sure of a clip that leads to increase in a heat gen­er­a­tion in a cut­ting zone to such an extent that the tape does not man­age to be cooled dur­ing the address. There is a sharp tem­per­a­ture increase in a grind­ing zone, and, as a result, burn of the sur­faces of the processed detail.

    K e y w o r d s: machin­ing of wood and wood mate­ri­als, heat­ing of abra­sive belts when cutting.

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    18 Fedyaev A.A., Fedyae­va N.Yu., Shumyako­va N., Kush­nerev V.O. The effec­tive­ness of glued wood­en structures.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The results of the analy­sis of the basic direc­tions of per­fec­tion of glued lam­i­nat­ed beam tech­nol­o­gy, improve its per­for­mance prop­er­ties are pre­sent­ed. One pos­si­ble way to improve the qual­i­ty of the glued mate­ri­als and struc­tures is the cor­rect choice of the glue depends on the oper­at­ing con­di­tions of pro­duc­tion. Selec­tion of glue for the man­u­fac­ture of wood­en struc­tures depends not only on their func­tion­al­i­ty, but also the con­di­tions of man­u­fac­ture. Jus­ti­fi­ca­tion glu­ing mode para­me­ters, the basic tech­nol­o­gy fac­tors will allow to pro­vide the desired bond­ing strength. Analy­sis of pre­lim­i­nary exper­i­ments showed that the qual­i­ty of the glu­ing are strong­ly influ­enced by a num­ber of fac­tors, which can be divid­ed into three groups: wood prop­er­ties, adhe­sive prop­er­ties, the terms of glu­ing. Uni­vari­ate exper­i­ments allowed to deter­mine the min­i­mum and max­i­mum val­ue of these fac­tors, jus­ti­fy their vary­ing lev­els. The arti­cle presents the results of the mul­ti­vari­ate exper­i­ment in jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of the con­di­tions and modes of bond­ing of glued lam­i­nat­ed beam. The fac­tors that sig­nif­i­cant­ly affect the shear strength of the bond are deter­mined. The effect of the den­si­ty of the wood, the glue con­sump­tion and ambi­ent tem­per­a­ture on the bond­ing strength of wood, glued with polyvinyl acetate (PVA) and an emul­sion poly­mer iso­cyanate (EPI) glues, wide­ly used in enter­pris­es of the North-West of Rus­sia. With increase of wood den­si­ty the adhe­sion strength grows. EPI adhe­sives are less sen­si­tive to changes in glu­ing con­di­tions. The com­pounds of this glue have the req­ui­site strength even at fix­ing inves­ti­gat­ed fac­tors at a low­er lev­el. Effect of adhe­sive con­sump­tion on the strength of adhe­sive joints at EPI adhe­sives is less sig­nif­i­cant­ly as com­pared to the PVA. Found that by fix­ing one of the para­me­ters in the low­er lev­el when using PVA adhe­sive, the oth­er two with an increase to the max­i­mum lev­el of adhe­sive strength increas­es of wood joints. Obtained math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els describ­ing this influence.

    K e y w o r d s: glu­lam, wood den­si­ty, glue con­sump­tion, the strength of adhe­sive joints of wood, the tem­per­a­ture of the environment.

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    4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

    19 Bay­dakov D.L The dif­fu­sion coef­fi­cients 110mAg iso­tope in cop­per-con­tained chalco­genide films obtained by chem­i­cal deposition.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The method of chem­i­cal depo­si­tion from solu­tions of chalco­genide glass­es in n‑butyl amine obtained mul­ti­com­po­nent chalco­genide films CuI–As2Se3, CuI–PbI2–As2Se3, CuI–SbI3–As2Se3, CuI–SbI3–PbI2-As2Se3. Syn­the­sis of cop­per mul­ti­com­po­nent chalco­genide glass­es, used for film depo­si­tion was car­ried out by vac­u­um melt­ing in quartz ampoule at a tem­per­a­ture of 400…950 C and a resid­ual pres­sure of not more than 0.13 Pa. The tem­per­a­ture of glass pro­duced from the 600 C to the ice water spill of the melt in the ampoule. Weigh glass com­min­ut­ed to a pow­der and heat­ed in n‑butylamine until com­plete dis­so­lu­tion. To pre­vent oxi­da­tion, depo­si­tion and anneal­ing of the films was car­ried out in an atmos­phere of nitro­gen chem­i­cal­ly inert. The sub­strate is placed on a device for rotat­ing, it was applied to the solu­tion and the sub­strate was rotat­ed at a speed of sev­er­al thou­sand rev­o­lu­tions per minute. Anneal­ing of the films was car­ried out at 100 C for 1 hour. Mea­sure­ment of the elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty of the obtained films was con­duct­ed at a con­stant cur­rent and vari­able depend­ing on the con­duc­tiv­i­ty val­ues in the tem­per­a­ture range from 20 to 100 C. Mea­sure­ment of dif­fu­sion coef­fi­cients was per­formed accord­ing to the absorp­tion method. From dif­fu­sion exper­i­ments, the val­ues of the dif­fu­sion coef­fi­cients 110mAg iso­tope cations in cop­per chalco­genide films. It was found that the val­ues of the dif­fu­sion coef­fi­cients of the ions Ag+ in a chem­i­cal­ly deposit­ed films and the orig­i­nal glass­es are indis­tin­guish­able. The anal­o­gy of the dif­fu­sion coef­fi­cient val­ues 110mAg iso­tope in chalco­genide glass­es and films based on them can be attrib­uted to the preser­va­tion of the poly­mer net­work con­nec­tions chalco­genide glass­es when dis­solved in organ­ic bases (amines). Dur­ing appli­ca­tion and film for­ma­tion the poly­mer (macro­mol­e­c­u­lar) struc­ture of chalco­genide glass­es of the solu­tion is maintained.

    K e y w o r d s: Lar­ix sibir­i­ca (Ledeb.), nee­dles, phe­no­lic com­pounds, phe­no­lic acids, phe­no­lic alde­hy­des, phe­no­lic ketones, flavonols, resin acids, high­er fat­ty acids.

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    20 Gera­su­ta S.M., Smolin A.S., Ivano­va E.I., Kanevskaya V.S. Study of coef­fi­cient of vari­a­tion and the aver­age size ingo­mogen­i­ty for var­i­ous types of paper with help of for­ma­tion ana­lyz­er the AP‑2.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    TThe pur­pose of the research is the assess­ment of paper uni­form for­ma­tion as it is among the most impor­tant char­ac­ter­is­tics that define its end-prop­er­ties. To eval­u­ate the prop­er­ties of the paper dur­ing this research it was used the method of deter­min­ing the nature of the paper to cal­cu­late ingo­mogen­i­ty para­me­ters of paper for­ma­tion – the coef­fi­cient of vari­a­tion of the light beam trans­mit­ted through the sam­ple and medi­um-sized lin­ear opti­cal macro-ingo­mogen­i­ty of rotat­ing paper sam­ple by the radi­ograph­ic col­li­mat­ed beam of light; con­vert­ing the light sig­nal trans­mit­ted through the sam­ple, the elec­tron­ic using a pho­tode­tec­tor, sep­a­rate sig­nal mea­sure­ment of con­stant and vari­able com­po­nents. The coef­fi­cient of vari­a­tion was cal­cu­lat­ed by the ratio of sig­nal fre­quen­cies. By mea­sur­ing the rel­a­tive fre­quen­cy of rota­tion of the sam­ple by 5 tracks scan­ning light sig­nal deter­mined by the aver­age lin­ear dimen­sion of the inho­mo­gene­ity of the sam­ple for­ma­tion. The com­par­a­tive analy­sis was made on sam­ples of Russ­ian paper mills being giv­en on paper forums. It showed the dif­fer­ence in terms of var­i­ous paper com­po­nents. Analy­sis of a num­ber of sam­ples of newsprint con­sis­tent­ly tak­en along the strip, equal to the width of the web of newsprint paper machine has revealed het­ero­gene­ity of the coef­fi­cient of vari­a­tion of the paper web, which can lead to rup­ture of the paper dur­ing pick-up to the press nip. It is pro­posed to use these results of the rapid analy­sis of the pro­posed method in par­tic­u­lar for head­box check­out. The stud­ies were con­duct­ed with the help of the for­ma­tion ana­lyz­er the AP‑2 based on the devel­oped at the depart­ment of physics of Leningrad For­est Acad­e­my togeth­er with VNPObumprom and CBPPT with OP of indus­tri­al stan­dard OST 13–299-87. «Paper. The for­ma­tion het­ero­gene­ity. Nomen­cla­ture of para­me­ters». The require­ments to the uni­form for­ma­tion in accor­dance with this stan­dard are two stan­dard­ized para­me­ters: ν, % – the coef­fi­cient of vari­a­tion of light flux trans­mit­ter through the sheet of paper and L, mm-aver­age lin­ear dimen­sion of the opti­cal macro-het­ero­gene­ity of paper.

    K е w o r d s: paper, coef­fi­cient of vari­a­tion, lin­ear ingomogenity.

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    5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

    21 Zatenko S.I., Tara­ban M.V., Chu­dovskaya L.A. Analy­sis of accu­ra­cy fore­cast of con­tin­u­ous gen­er­al­ized Bayesian mod­el of reli­a­bil­i­ty soft­ware based on pri­o­ry gam­ma distribution.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents a car­ried out com­par­a­tive analy­sis of con­tin­u­ous gen­er­al­ized Bayesian mod­el of reli­a­bil­i­ty soft­ware, based on pri­o­ry gam­ma dis­tri­b­u­tion and Lit­tle­wood-Ver­all mod­el. This com­par­a­tive analy­sis shows that new reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els based on the use of inter­val reli­a­bil­i­ty indi­ca­tors make it pos­si­ble to obtain a more accu­rate fore­cast. The com­par­a­tive analy­sis of con­tin­u­ous gen­er­al­ized Bayesian reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­el of soft­ware based on a pri­ori gam­ma dis­tri­b­u­tion with well-known and well-proven mod­el of Lit­tle­wood-Ver­rll is made in the arti­cle. In the new inter­val mod­el it is assumed that the con­tin­u­ous ran­dom vari­ables, the time between fail­ures of the pro­gram in the debug­ging process have an expo­nen­tial dis­tri­b­u­tion, where the dis­tri­b­u­tion para­me­ter (fail­ure rate) is a ran­dom vari­able with den­si­ty Gamma(ai, bi). The new mod­el com­bines Bayesian approach and the prin­ci­ple of max­i­mum like­li­hood, that allows to give qual­i­ta­tive fore­cast of soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty even in the case of small amount of sta­tis­ti­cal infor­ma­tion. The mod­el takes into account the soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty growth process of debug­ging and can be adjust­ed by chang­ing the set­ting of pre­cau­tion. The paper deals with lin­ear and qua­drat­ic growth func­tions. The qual­i­ty of the mod­els is test­ed by com­par­ing the pre­dict­ed val­ues with the actu­al val­ues of time before fail­ure in the process of debug­ging the soft­ware. The aver­age devi­a­tion is anal­ized for the mod­els, count­ed to 13 and 23 pre­dic­tions for var­i­ous growth func­tions, with the option of pre­cau­tion equal to 0.5. The analy­sis results are pre­sent­ed in graphs and tables. This com­par­a­tive analy­sis showed that the new mod­el of reli­a­bil­i­ty based on the use of inter­val indi­ca­tors, pro­vides a bet­ter qual­i­ty fore­cast in com­par­i­son with clas­si­cal prob­a­bilis­tic mod­els. This com­par­a­tive analy­sis was car­ried out with devel­oped mod­el­ing soft­ware complex.

    K e y w o r d s: reli­a­bil­i­ty soft­ware, inter­val Bayesian mod­el of reli­a­bil­i­ty, coef­fi­cient of pes­simism, growth function.

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    6. HISTORY OF THE CHEMICAL PROCESSING OF WOOD

    22 Roshchevskaya L.P. Roshchevskaya L.P.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    On the basis of archival doc­u­ments caus­es of estab­lish­ment, results of activ­i­ties, staff of the tech­no­log­i­cal lab­o­ra­to­ry of wood chem­istry of the Base of the USSR Acad­e­my of Sci­ences for the Study of the North in Syk­tyvkar, Komi ASSR in 1941 are recon­struct­ed for the first time. The staff of the lab­o­ra­to­ry inves­ti­gat­ed indus­tri­al facil­i­ties and con­di­tions for pro­cess­ing resin and tur­pen­tine raw mate­ri­als which at that time was con­sid­ered one of sources for obtain­ing cam­phor, motor fuel and lubri­cat­ing oils as well as explo­sive mate­ri­als. The cen­tre of inves­ti­ga­tions of chem­i­cal wood pro­cess­ing was All-Union Sci­en­tif­ic Research Insti­tute of sul­phate-spir­it and hydrol­y­sis indus­try in Leningrad. Dur­ing the Great Patri­ot­ic War promi­nent researchers and experts worked in Syk­tyvkar. Under their lead­er­ship the most impor­tant research of defen­sive nature was con­duct­ed. It was found that dur­ing the war before the staff of the lab­o­ra­to­ry of wood chem­istry in Syk­tyvkar were set tasks to iden­ti­fy and char­ac­ter­ize min­er­al and veg­etable raw mate­ri­als required for defense needs of the coun­try, to devel­op a method of pro­duc­ing motor fuels and lubri­cat­ing oils, made of local non-defi­cient raw mate­ri­als. The lab­o­ra­to­ry pro­duced the most impor­tant research of defen­sive nature, major fig­ures of sci­ence and indus­try worked there. The lead­ers of the team were evac­u­at­ed to Syk­tyvkar future cor­re­spond­ing mem­ber of the USSR Acad­e­my of Sci­ences pro­fes­sor D.N. Kur­sanov and Stal­in Prize win­ner M.A.Grehnev who proved that in the Komi ASSR pine should be used for obtain­ing tur­pen­tine oil. The staff stud­ied the tech­no­log­i­cal process of pro­duc­ing resin and tur­pen­tine. On the basis of these sci­en­tif­ic con­clu­sions dur­ing the war resin and tur­pen­tine man­u­fac­ture in the Repub­lic was fur­ther devel­oped. The basis for these devel­op­ments was the local wood­work­ing indus­try. The work and liv­ing con­di­tions of the lab­o­ra­to­ry staff dur­ing the war are pre­sent­ed. Assump­tions are made about the rea­sons for the clo­sure of the lab­o­ra­to­ry of wood chem­istry in 1946.

    K e y w o r d s: Base of the USSR Acad­e­my for the Study of the North in the Komi Repub­lic, tech­no­log­i­cal lab­o­ra­to­ry of wood chem­istry (1941–1946), tur­pen­tine pro­duc­tion, D.N. Kur­sanov, win­ner of the Stal­in Prize M.A.Grehnev, every­day work in wartime.

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  • Issue 216
  • Name of article

    Page

    Arti­cle

    1. FORESTRY

    1 Bon­darenko A.S., Zhi­gunov A.V., Lev­ko­ev E.A. Impacts of selec­tion activ­i­ties on phe­no­typ­ic and genet­ic diver­si­ty of nor­way spruce and scotch pine plus tree seed progenies.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Under con­di­tions of chang­ing cli­mate and nat­ur­al resources deple­tion, inter­est to the forests as to impor­tant source of ecosys­tem ser­vices and a raw mate­r­i­al is grow­ing stronger. At that, atten­tion on a genet­ic diver­si­ty of the for­est form­ing species is focused. This is because the genet­ic diver­si­ty is con­sid­ered to be relat­ed with selec­tion poten­tial and sus­tain­abil­i­ty of the tree­stands. Nowa­days, sig­nif­i­cant efforts are put in research and preser­va­tion of bio­log­ic and genet­ic diver­si­ty. In the con­text of genet­ic diver­si­ty preser­va­tion prob­lem, research on breed­ing pro­gram effects on the genet­ic diver­si­ty of arti­fi­cial tree­stands is impor­tant. In cur­rent research, eval­u­a­tion of breed­ing pro­gram effects on genet­ic and phe­no­typ­ic diver­si­ty of Nor­way spruce and Scotch pine tri­als has been car­ried out. To esti­mate the effect, com­par­i­son of the growth rate for plus tree prog­e­nies and con­trol prog­e­nies was made for the stud­ied tri­als. The phe­no­typ­ic vari­a­tion for the prog­e­nies stud­ied is esti­mat­ed based on stan­dard devi­a­tion of bio­met­ric para­me­ters. The lev­el of genet­ic diver­si­ty and its age dynam­ics is esti­mat­ed based on broad-sense her­i­tabil­i­ty coef­fi­cients of bio­met­ric para­me­ters. As the result, no sig­nif­i­cant effects of breed­ing pro­grams on phe­no­typ­ic and genet­ic diver­si­ty of plus tree prog­e­nies is observed.

    K e y w o r d s: tri­als, plus tree, Nor­way spruce, Scotch pine, genet­ic diver­si­ty, prog­e­nies, growth rate


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    2 Bol­shakov N.M., Gurye­va L.A., Zhidel­e­va V.V. Mod­el of for­ma­tion of the inno­v­a­tive mul­ti­level for­est edu­ca­tion­al clus­ter in a region.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Con­tra­dic­tions of the tra­di­tion­al clas­si­cal edu­ca­tion­al expe­ri­ence in con­di­tions of con­tem­po­rary Russ­ian soci­ety are con­sid­ered in the paper. The main con­tra­dic­tion of con­tem­po­rary expe­ri­ence is a gap between the tra­di­tion­al prod­uct of any high­er edu­ca­tion (knowl­edge, skills, qual­i­fi­ca­tion and suc­cess­ful edu­ca­tion­al expe­ri­ence) and the real demand of busi­ness struc­tures for poten­tion­al employ­ees that pos­sess the required com­pe­tences and are pre­pared for the real project activ­i­ties in con­di­tions of inno­v­a­tive econ­o­my. The clas­si­cal mod­el of busi­ness mar­ket rela­tions and soci­ety is not able to solve the basic con­tra­dic­tion of con­tem­po­rary econ­o­my deal­ing with the gap between busi­ness val­ues (prof­it) and soci­ety (life qual­i­ty) and has become the obsta­cle on the way of the coun­try to inno­v­a­tive econ­o­my and to the new tech­no­log­i­cal way of life. Mar­ket rela­tions need a seri­ous rationing. Based on the the­o­ry of coevo­lu­tion a neo­clas­si­cal mod­el of mar­ket rela­tions in the for­est clus­ter in the frame of the con­cept of inno­v­a­tive com­plex con­sump­tion val­ues was devel­oped as its method­olog­i­cal basis that made the grounds for busi­ness and soci­ety joint efforts in order to achieve the desired sol­i­dar­i­ty. A dif­fer­en­tial pecu­liar­i­ty of a new mod­el is in mak­ing a chain to form an inno­v­a­tive social­ized com­plex prod­uct, when the eco­nom­ic val­ue (prof­it) is made in such a way that it includes a social val­ue for soci­ety in every busi­ness under­tak­ing. The goals, aims, prin­ci­ples of the clus­ter cre­ation, its struc­ture and steps of devel­op­ment of the com­pe­ti­tion process­es are described in the paper. The core fac­tor of the clus­ter is devel­op­ment of an inno­v­a­tive com­plex edu­ca­tion­al prod­uct, defin­ing the edu­ca­tion­al process and a new type of rela­tions and con­nec­tions with edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions, employ­ers and research insti­tu­tions. The exam­ple of the for­est inno­v­a­tive edu­ca­tion­al clus­ter expe­ri­ence in the Komi Repub­lic is giv­en in the paper.

    Ke y w o r d s: clus­ter mod­el, con­cept of inno­v­a­tive joint edu­ca­tion­al val­ues, for­est edu­ca­tion­al clus­ter of the region.


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    3 Gri­bov S.E., Gri­azkin A.V., Kor­chagov S.A. To a ques­tion of use of the woods and wild-grow­ing berries in the Volog­da region.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In mod­ern con­di­tions of sus­tain­able for­est man­age­ment, the for­est sec­tor must devel­op on the prin­ci­ples of mul­ti­pur­pose use of for­est resources, as evi­denced by glob­al trends. Analy­sis of lit­er­a­ture sug­gests that the Volog­da oblast has sig­nif­i­cant poten­tial for the har­vest­ing and pro­cess­ing of non wood for­est resources. The region­al Depart­ment of for­est com­plex on Octo­ber 1, 2015 915 con­clud­ed lease con­tracts of for­est plots in the total area is 6348 thou­sand hectares, from them, to har­vest­ing and col­lec­tion of non wood for­est resources con­clud­ed only one agree­ment on a rental area of 2.5 thou­sand hectares. The con­tract cov­ers the pro­cure­ment of Christ­mas trees. This sit­u­a­tion is the result of sev­er­al fac­tors, chief among which is the lack of frame­work for the prepa­ra­tion and pro­cess­ing of the main types of non wood for­est resources. Dur­ing the research there were used the mate­ri­als of for­est inven­to­ry at dif­fer­ent stages. Account­ing doc­u­men­ta­tion of the enter­pris­es of a for­est com­plex, since the 70-ies of the last cen­tu­ry and com­mer­cial struc­tures, involved in the pur­chase and pro­cess­ing of non wood for­est prod­ucts. The pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and reserves of the main types of berry plants were derived from the For­est plan of the Volog­da region and the forestry reg­u­la­tions of forestry. In the recent past on the ter­ri­to­ry of the Volog­da region forestry har­vests mush­rooms, berries, med­i­c­i­nal and tech­ni­cal raw mate­ri­als fall in quan­ti­ties. In some years the amount of har­vest­ing only wild berries reached 1400 t cur­rent­ly, despite sig­nif­i­cant stocks of wild berries, mush­rooms, med­i­c­i­nal raw mate­ri­als and oth­er resources, com­mer­cial har­vest­ing is not con­duct­ed, there are no lease con­tracts for their har­vest. Col­lect cer­tain types of non wood for­est prod­ucts pro­duced, usu­al­ly by local pop­u­la­tion for own con­sump­tion or for sale to rep­re­sen­ta­tives of pri­vate firms, oper­at­ing out­side the area. All of this caused by lack of atten­tion by the state to this activ­i­ty. Ratio­nal use of diverse envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly prod­ucts of the for­est Fund allows you to address issues of food and envi­ron­men­tal secu­ri­ty of the country.

    Ke y w o r d s: lease con­tract, non wood for­est resources, oper­a­tional stock of wild-grow­ing berries, food secu­ri­ty, Lesnoy plan of the Volog­da region, income, budget.


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    4 Gro­mov I.A., Tyurin N.A. Tech­nique for the design of for­est trans­port net­work in terms of mul­ti­ple use of forest.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The sub­ject of the arti­cle is a tech­nique for the devel­op­ment of for­est trans­port net­work in terms of mul­ti­ple use of forests. The aim of this work is a demon­stra­tion of this method and the ques­tions con­nect­ed with it. The design of for­est trans­porta­tion net­work in con­di­tions of mul­ti­pur­pose use of forests requires spe­cial tech­niques that take into account the spe­cif­ic fea­tures of these con­di­tions. The pro­posed method is based on two com­po­nents. The first com­po­nent is the method of opti­miza­tion of for­est trans­port net­work. Opti­miza­tion is per­formed on the basis of opti­mal para­me­ters of the net­work, defined by the cri­te­ri­on of min­i­mum total spe­cif­ic costs of imple­men­ta­tion of com­plex of mea­sures on the involve­ment of forests into eco­nom­ic cir­cu­la­tion. It is to iden­ti­fy for­est areas in need of trans­port devel­op­ment, which is car­ried out with the use of geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tems. In this case it is used method of analy­sis and cre­ation of buffer zones. The arti­cle describes the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of opti­miza­tion of para­me­ters of trans­porta­tion net­work. This mod­el does not take into account the indi­vid­ual char­ac­ter­is­tics of spe­cif­ic for­est areas and does not reflect the eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of their devel­op­ment, which requires the use of a spe­cial method. The sec­ond com­po­nent of the method is the tech­nique of cre­at­ing eco­nom­ic mod­el of the ter­rain that reflects the spa­tial dis­tri­b­u­tion of for­est rent on the for­est ter­ri­to­ry. The arti­cle presents the math­e­mat­i­cal rela­tion­ships on the basis of which are deter­mined by the indi­ca­tors of for­est rent for each for­est land. The mod­el gen­er­at­ed in GIS is dis­played in the form of the­mat­ic maps. It allows to take into account the indi­vid­ual con­di­tions of for­est land and deter­mine the degree of eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of  devel­op­ment of for­est areas. Inte­gra­tion cre­at­ed in GIS of buffer zones and eco­nom­ic mod­el of the ter­rain allows to iden­ti­fy the trans­port of unde­vel­oped for­est land and areas requir­ing trans­port devel­op­ment. The pro­posed method allows to take into account the influ­ence of the con­di­tions of mul­ti­pur­pose use of forests. It also allows and to car­ry out the design of a trans­porta­tion net­work based on opti­mal para­me­ters accord­ing to the cri­te­ri­on of min­i­mum total unit cost and the cri­te­ri­on of pos­i­tive for­est rents, which increas­es the effi­cien­cy of the design.

    K e y w o r d s: design, for­est roads, trans­porta­tion net­works, mul­ti­pur­pose use of forests, for­est rents, GIS.


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    5 Zaru­bi­na L.V. Growth under­sto­ry renew­al efi on felling of birch forests bilberry.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The pecu­liar­i­ties of growth of the main and lat­er­al shoots and bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of podologues ate with age (suc­ces­sion­al) chang­ing birch blue­ber­ry. It is estab­lished that at the age shift birch growth and for­ma­tion of spruce pop­u­la­tions are deter­mined by the joint ontoge­ny derived (birch) for­est and recov­er­ing pop­u­la­tions of spruce, com­plete­ness and den­si­ty of for­est canopy. At the ini­tial stages of the for­ma­tion of birch for­est stand growth spruce is deter­mined main­ly by envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors. Reduc­tion pen­e­trat­ing under the canopy of the emerg­ing tree of solar radi­a­tion with increas­ing age leads to reduced growth of spruce, the short­en­ing of the main and lat­er­al shoots, the dete­ri­o­ra­tion of the bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics. Max­i­mum val­ues (22,4 cm per year) increase in api­cal shoots, the spruce reach­es in plan­ta­tions 6–8 years of age at the ini­tial stages of set­tle­ment felling of decid­u­ous species. After clos­ing decid­u­ous canopy deter­min­ing the posi­tion in the for­ma­tion of the spruce pop­u­la­tion belongs to intraspe­cif­ic com­pe­ti­tion, which result­ed in large trees inhib­it the growth of small­er trees, and upper canopy, pre­vent­ing the pen­e­tra­tion of light and heat under the canopy. Already in the 13-year-old birch pop­u­la­tion ate expe­ri­enc­ing adverse effects from birch. With 20–25 years of age birch begins full bio­log­i­cal depres­sion spruce birch, which con­tin­ues until the out­put of spruce in the first tier. n mature birch first recep­tion grad­ual cut­tings advis­able to start spend­ing aged birch with­in 50–60 years, the sec­ond in 8–10 years.

    Key words: birch blue­ber­ry, spruce, growth, ontoge­ny, bio­mass structure.

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    6 Chernikhovsky D.M. Ass­es­ment of rela­tions hips between mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of relief with quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the arti­cle are shown results of assess­ment of rela­tion­ships between quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests and mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of relief on exam­ple of two mod­el plots. The rel­e­vance of the inves­ti­ga­tion is con­nect­ed with need of improve­ment the sys­tem of for­est eval­u­a­tion oper­a­tions in the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion, tak­ing into account use the land­scape approach. The pos­si­ble direc­tion for real­iza­tion of land­scape approach on prac­tice can be inves­ti­ga­tion of rela­tion­ships between char­ac­ter­is­tics of forest­stands and char­ac­ter­is­tics of relief. For mod­el plots locat­ed in Leningrad region and in Khabarovskiy kray are gath­ered data of for­est inven­to­ry and dig­i­tal relief mod­els. On base of devel­oped tech­nique were esti­mat­ed mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of relief (aver­age height, stan­dard devi­a­tion of height, entropy, expo­si­tion and gra­di­ent of slopes, index­es of rugged­ness, rough­ness, cur­va­ture indices, etc.) and quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests with help GIS-tools. The mul­ti­fac­tor regres­sion analy­sis, where were used char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests (as depen­dent vari­ables) and mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of relief (as inde­pen­dent vari­ables), have been done. In result of research the set of mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of relief able to influ­ence to vari­abil­i­ty of quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests was iden­ti­fied. Are demon­strat­ed the regres­sion rela­tion­ships between char­ac­ter­is­tics of relief and char­ac­ter­is­tics of for­est stands. The planned direc­tions for con­tin­u­a­tion of research are shown too.

    K e y w o r d s: mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of relief, for­est meansura­tion, State for­est inven­to­ry, regres­sion analy­sis, quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests, dig­i­tal mod­el of relief.


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    7 Shvets I.V., Kolesnichenko E.V. Win­ter resis­tance of plants Darmera pelta­ta (Torr. ex Bent.) Voss in intro­duc­tion con­di­tions of Kiev.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Species of Darmera pelta­ta (Torr. ex Benth.) Voss is char­ac­ter­ized by a wide are­al of intro­duc­tion and cul­ti­va­tion in many coun­tries of West­ern and North­ern Europe as a beau­ti­ful-flow­er­ing and dec­o­ra­tive foliage plant. Species of D. pelta­ta has high dec­o­ra­tive per­for­mance, in par­tic­u­lar, ear­ly and con­tin­u­ous flow­er­ing, numer­ous flo­rets with light pink flow­ers, large in shape and size leaves that retain their dec­o­ra­tive effect until frost. Enhanced inter­est by this species asso­ci­at­ed with its eco­log­i­cal plas­tic­i­ty: the plants can grow in the shade, wet and water­logged areas at the same time. Intro­duc­tion in cul­ture plants of D. pelta­ta in Kiev is lim­it­ed by insuf­fi­cient infor­ma­tion about bio­log­i­cal resis­tance of plants to adverse fac­tors dur­ing autumn, win­ter and spring peri­od. The pur­pose of work was research­ing the win­ter reis­tance plants of D. pelta­ta in intro­duc­tion con­di­tions of Kyiv and the pro­vi­sion­ing of infor­ma­tion accord­ing to the fea­tures of cul­ti­va­tion of plants in open ground con­di­tions. Win­ter resis­tance of D. pelta­ta was stud­ied in Kiev, locat­ed in the north of Ukraine. The objects of study were plants of D. pelta­ta of the col­lec­tion area of Botan­i­cal Gar­den of the Nation­al Uni­ver­si­ty of Life and Envi­ron­men­tal Sci­ences of Ukraine. Frost resis­tance plants of D. pelta­ta was deter­mined by direct lab­o­ra­to­ry freez­ing the lev­el of dam­age to the roots. Research­es was made in the Lab­o­ra­to­ry of Plant Phys­i­ol­o­gy of the Insti­tute of Hor­ti­cul­ture NAAS of Ukraine accord­ing to the method of M.A. Solovie­va. Freez­ing plant roots was car­ried out at the tem­per­a­ture of –5, –8, –12 and –16 °C. It was deter­mined that the win­ter resis­tance plants of D.peltata depends not only on genet­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics but also the state of prepar­ing plant to the win­ter peri­od (the end time of growth in autumn, the con­di­tions of plant food dur­ing the grow­ing sea­son, a defeat dis­eases and pests). The weath­er con­di­tions of autumn peri­od in Kiev char­ac­ter­ized by a grad­ual reduc­tion of pho­tope­ri­od and mod­er­ate decreas­ing of air tem­per­a­ture that is favor­able to their suc­cess­ful tran­si­tion to the rest­ing state, and the accu­mu­la­tion of nutri­ents. Research­ing the plants of D. pelta­ta dur­ing the win­ter peri­od is not found out such phe­nom­e­na as the dampin­goff, water­log­ging and bulging the plants from the soil. Heavy frosts and air tem­per­a­ture changes did not cause sig­nif­i­cant dam­age to rhi­zomes of plant D. pelta­ta, as the soil tem­per­a­ture dur­ing this peri­od remained rel­a­tive­ly sta­ble due to the pres­ence of snow. The results of the lab­o­ra­to­ry freez­ing plants of D. pelta­ta show about the high actu­al and poten­tial frost resis­tance. That is why, the con­di­tions of Kiev is quite favor­able for win­ter­ing plants of D. pelta­ta in the open ground.

    K e y w o r d s: win­ter resis­tance, Darmera pelta­ta, intro­duc­tion, frost resis­tance, the rest­ing state, direct freeze method, the degree of tis­sues dam­age, winterkilling.


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    2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

    8 Alek­san­drov V.A., Alek­san­drov A.V. Vibro­di­ag­nos­tic oper­a­tor Feller bunch­er in the process of clear­ing the base of the tree from the snow swing.

    Anno­ta­tion

    In arti­cle the mod­el of dynam­ic sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor – feller – the pack­ag­ing car – an object of the labor – a tree». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagranzha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion sus­pen­sion seats of the oper­a­tor by a method of Runge–Kutta, by means of Wednes­day of pro­gram­ming Math­CAD. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly let out feller-pack­ag­ing cars LP-19А in a mode of trans­fer­ring of a pack­aged tree by plat­form turn in a hor­i­zon­tal plane. As a result of research­es it is estab­lished: vibroload­ing oper­a­tors of feller-pack­ag­ing cars in start­ing modes at trans­fer­ring of trees by plat­form turn to a hor­i­zon­tal plane exceeds the san­i­tary code in 1,1–4,3 times; on lev­el vibra­tion accel­er­a­tion on sit­ting of the oper­a­tor defin­ing influ­ence ren­ders inten­si­ty of a start­ing mode and vol­ume of a pack­aged tree; for decrease vibroload­ing oper­a­tors it is expe­di­ent to lim­it accel­er­a­tions in a dis­per­sal mode at mov­ing of a tree by plat­form turn to a hor­i­zon­tal plane to 0,2–0,25 it is glad/s2.

    K e y w o r d s: fall­er bencher, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, vibra­tion, seat.


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    9 Bazarov S.M., Belenkiy Yu.I., Soloviev A.N. Fun­da­men­tals of analy­sis tech­ni­cal and eco­nom­ic effi­cien­cy process tim­ber production.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Rep­re­sen­ta­tion of work of com­plex­es of for­est equip­ment as the dynam­ic sys­tem con­nect­ed by func­tion­al time of pro­duc­tion is a nec­es­sary con­di­tion of a sus­tain­able devel­op­ment of branch. Exter­nal (phys­i­cal) and inter­nal (func­tion­al) times in mul­ti­stage process­es are inter­faced and sup­ple­ment­ing each oth­er, form­ing uni­form time of pro­duc­tions: the first is simul­ta­ne­ous in sub­sys­tems of sys­tem, its course does­n’t depend on course of process­es; the sec­ond becomes a func­tion­al com­po­nent of objects of the labor (how many process­es: pro­duc­tion, trans­port, infor­ma­tion, finan­cial, etc.,-there are so much func­tion­al times) sub­sys­tems of sys­tem. Process­es are para­me­ter­ized in phys­i­cal time, and their pro­duc­tion coher­ence in the func­tion­al. Impor­tant prop­er­ty of func­tion­al time is its addi­tiv­i­ty that con­sec­u­tive research of effi­cien­cy of the car­ried-out oper­a­tions allows. Thanks to group oper­a­tion of coher­ence of the pre­sent­ed times, becomes pos­si­ble to inves­ti­gate over­all per­for­mance of tim­ber com­plex­es as deeply inte­grat­ed struc­tures, the con­nect­ed prin­ci­ple of a com­bi­na­tion of integri­ty and ana­lyt­ic­i­ty (har­mo­ny): integri­ty is built in func­tion­al time, and ana­lyt­ic­i­ty in the phys­i­cal. The prin­ci­ple of speed in func­tion­al space time of dif­fi­cult pro­duc­tion is pre­sent­ed in an ana­lyt­i­cal form and the min­i­mum val­ue of dis­per­sion of sta­tis­ti­cal fluc­tu­a­tions of para­me­ters of a state is for­mu­lat­ed as need of the max­i­mum syn­chro­niza­tion of the car­ried-out oper­a­tions, the min­i­mum time of tran­si­tion between them. One of the key rep­re­sen­ta­tive para­me­ters of a con­di­tion of a pro­duc­tion sys­tem are: pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, pow­er, tech­no­log­i­cal speed and prime cost defined in func­tion­al space time of process­es they bear the great­est infor­ma­tion­al con­tent about its tech­ni­cal and eco­nom­ic effi­cien­cy. For a gen­er­al con­cept of effi­cien­cy coef­fi­cients as the rela­tion of the para­me­ters of a state deter­mined in func­tion­al time to their val­ue in exter­nal (phys­i­cal) time are entered; on their num­ber the 4‑dimensional gen­er­al­ized func­tion­al space vec­tor length in which is a quan­ti­ta­tive assess­ment of mul­ti­ple-fac­tor effi­cien­cy of tim­ber indus­try process­es is under construction.

    K e y w o r d s: func­tion­al time-space, opti­miza­tion, har­mo­ny, pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, sync.


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    10 Belono­go­va N.A., Vino­gradov A.Ju., Gen­siorovskij Ju.A., Kaza­kov N.A., Kuz’min N.A., Minaev A.N., Niki­forovskij A.A., Salmi­nen Je.O. The new approach to the assess­ment of hydro­log­i­cal design lim­its in engi­neer­ing prospect­ing of the for­est zone.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The inter­ests of forestry man­age­ment include the tasks of secu­ri­ty ensur­ing of nat­ur­al areas, indus­tri­al and res­i­den­tial prop­er­ties. This require­ment can be achieved through the trou­ble-free oper­a­tion of hydraulic engi­neer­ing con­struc­tions locat­ed in this ter­ri­to­ry. The costs of con­struc­tion and oper­a­tion of road cul­verts depend on the results of cal­cu­la­tions of the max­i­mum water con­tent of the crossed rivers. The arti­cle deals with the prob­lems of the exist­ing hydro­log­i­cal design con­straints and cal­cu­la­tion meth­ods. The legit­i­ma­cy of using the appro­pri­ate math­e­mat­i­cal appa­ra­tus is under doubt. We jus­ti­fy an alter­na­tive sys­tem of such restric­tions. There is a spe­cif­ic exam­ple of an unjus­ti­fied over­state­ment of cal­cu­lat­ed water flow for the con­struc­tion of the first lev­el of respon­si­bil­i­ty. It is evi­dent from the per­spec­tive of com­par­a­tive assess­ment of the exist­ing and pro­posed approach­es to sys­tem of design con­straints. The max­i­mum mea­sured riv­er flow divid­ed by the aver­age of the max­i­mum flow rate of less than 4. The esti­mat­ed val­ue of the prob­a­ble max­i­mum riv­er flow divid­ed by the aver­age of the max­i­mum flow rate of less than 10. The cal­cu­lat­ed val­ue of the max­i­mum flow rate should vary with­in these limits.

    K e y w o r d s: the prob­a­bil­i­ty of exceed­ing, pro­vi­sion of hydro­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics, design limits


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    11 Demi­dov S.A. On the appli­ca­tion of the sys­tem of machines mod­u­lar block type in the advanced tech­nol­o­gy log­ging activities.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle deals with the prospects for the use of machines mod­u­lar block type in the advanced tech­nol­o­gy log­ging activ­i­ties, as well as the machin­ery prob­lems of log­ging enter­pris­es in Rus­sia. The research objec­tive. The study of the struc­ture and oper­at­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics of a sys­tem of for­est mod­u­lar block type machines in cur­rent con­di­tions with the prospect of their appli­ca­tion in the near­est future. It is nec­es­sary that a num­ber of impor­tant tech­ni­cal and tech­no­log­i­cal changes should be made to improve the tech­nol­o­gy of log­ging oper­a­tions and increase the eco­nom­ic effi­cien­cy of tim­ber indus­try com­plex. One of the solu­tions to improve work effi­cien­cy is the devel­op­ment and intro­duc­tion of for­est machines based on the prin­ci­ple of oper­a­tional mod­u­lar­i­ty. It will ensure the flex­i­bil­i­ty of the pro­duc­tion process, pro­vide high work effi­cien­cy and, what counts, will be envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly. The arti­cle gives the descrip­tion of the prin­ci­ple of the machine mod­ule block type, as well as the func­tions and how they are divid­ed between the two mod­ules. There are two pic­tures in the arti­cle. The first pic­ture gives the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of mod­ules accord­ing to their appli­ca­tion. The sec­ond pic­ture shows the prin­ci­ple of arrange­ment of mod­u­lar machine-block type. Both the main ener­getic mod­ule and some tech­no­log­i­cal mod­ules capa­ble of per­form­ing pro­cess­ing steps depend­ing on the con­di­tions and pro­duc­tion tech­nol­o­gy are pre­sent­ed. Accord­ing to the mar­ket analy­sis that shows that the most promis­ing direc­tion to improve the mech­a­niza­tion of for­est machin­ery is to cre­ate a com­plex mod­u­lar block machines on the base of a wheeled trac­tor equipped with hydro­sta­t­ic trans­mis­sion. It will make the machine design more flex­i­ble and mobile. The prin­ci­ple of for­ma­tion and oper­a­tion of the mod­u­lar sys­tem with mul­ti-func­tion machines process equip­ment is con­sid­ered as a promis­ing direc­tion for improve­ment of the process of logging.

    K e y w o r d s: machin­ery, machine com­plex, log­ging and forestry work, unit, hydro­sta­t­ic trans­mis­sion, technology.


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    12 Kotkas L.A., Rzhavt­sev A.A. Analy­sis of the­o­ries of motion of two-phase flow.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Wood pulp trans­porta­tion by a pipeline, espe­cial­ly over long dis­tances, it is a major sci­en­tif­ic and tech­ni­cal prob­lem, which has a num­ber of aspects, as well as tech­no­log­i­cal and socio-eco­nom­ic. Nowa­days there are many approach­es of pulp flow math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing, but none of them are appro­pri­ate for get­ting reli­able and accu­rate results, and does not have the prac­ti­cal use. There­fore, the top­ic under con­sid­er­a­tion is rel­e­vant. The wood pulp flow is a stream of par­ti­cles sus­pend­ed in a tur­bu­lent flu­id. The pro­vi­sions of the semi-empir­i­cal the­o­ry were applied for the devel­op­ment of the math­e­mat­i­cal appa­ra­tus nec­es­sary for the descrip­tion of tur­bu­lent flows. One of the first sci­en­tists who laid the foun­da­tion for the devel­op­ment of semi-empir­i­cal method was a French sci­en­tist Valentin Joseph Boussi­nesq, who sug­gest­ed that the tur­bu­lence caus­es mix­ing between the lay­ers are not micro­scop­ic par­ti­cles, and the final vol­ume of the medi­um. Also deci­sive steps in the devel­op­ment of a semi-empir­i­cal approach to the the­o­ry of tur­bu­lence was made by Jef­frey Tay­lor, Lud­wig Prandtl and Theodore von Kar­man. Cur­rent­ly there are works of authors such as A.P. Yufin, V.V. Tray­nis, A.E. Smol­dyrev., D.M. Newitt. In their the­o­ry the fun­da­men­tal role play con­cepts suchas the mix­ing length, tur­bu­lence inten­si­ty, the coef­fi­cients of tur­bu­lent vis­cos­i­ty, ther­mal con­duc­tiv­i­ty and dif­fu­sion. The par­tic­u­lar impor­tance in the devel­op­ment of semi-empir­i­cal meth­ods of cal­cu­lat­ing the basic char­ac­ter­is­tics of sus­pend­ed flow with­in the pul­sa­tion the­o­ry have stud­ies of I.S. Kryl. The results of these stud­ies were the main part of the the­o­ret­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions on the wood pulp trans­porta­tion in the arti­cle by B.M. Nuller, A.M. Minaev. It became pos­si­ble with the advent of fun­da­men­tal research tur­bu­lent nature and, as a con­se­quence, the emer­gence of the the­o­ry of sta­tis­ti­cal hydro­dy­nam­ics. Devel­op­ment of the the­o­ry asso­ci­at­ed with the stud­ies of A.N.Kolmogorov, as well as G.N. Baren­blat, A.S. Monin, A.M. Obukhov, R.I. Nig­mat­ulin, A.M. Yaglom. The basis of these stud­ies was the devel­op­ment of the the­o­ry of hydraulic trans­port, which is called a dis­crete or the pul­sa­tion the­o­ry. One of the main pro­vi­sions of this the­o­ry is the state­ment that the ener­gy for weight­ing par­ti­cles in the flow is tak­en from the pul­sat­ing move­ments char­ac­ter­is­tic of tur­bu­lent flow. The arti­cles of for­eign authors are con­sid­ered as well as data of Russ­ian research in this field. There are rec­om­men­da­tions in this arti­cle for fur­ther devel­op­ment of meth­ods of design­ing indus­tri­al wood pulp flow hydraulic transport.

    K e y w o r d s: two-phase flow, pipeline trans­porta­tion, trans­porta­tion of pulp.


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    13 Markov V.A., Kre­tinin V.I., Markov A.N., Sokolo­va V.A., Gaiduko­va P.A., Kozlenok A.V. A study on the caus­es of refusals of for­eign and domes­tic log­ging equipment

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the ter­ri­to­ry of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion every day the num­ber of the for­eign for­est equip­ment demand­ing repair or main­te­nance steadi­ly increas­es. Con­sid­er­ing the fact that some details of log­ging equip­ment have a cov­er­ing from the small mate­ri­als (the com­pos­ite alloys includ­ing in the struc­ture the titan, molyb­de­num and oth­er met­als) applied in domes­tic engi­neer­ing indus­try, at their repair there can be dif­fi­cul­ties con­cern­ing as direct­ly the choice of a way of restora­tion, and the choice of suit­able mate­r­i­al of a cov­er­ing. Accord­ing by data from machines fac­to­ry and deal­ers, was found that, most refusals caus­es of human fac­tor, also of non-orig­i­nal after­mar­ket spare parts and nat­ur­al wear of parts, final­ly because of defec­tive fac­to­ry parts. Life of repaired machines nor­mal­ly does not exceed 50–60% of stan­dard indi­ca­tors, often it is caus­es by wrong choice of repair method, mate­r­i­al for repair or by vio­la­tion of the process of repair coat­ing. Nec­es­sary to devel­op mod­ern meth­ods of parts repair to get nom­i­nal or increased ser­vice life, which lat­er give us the oppor­tu­ni­ty of repair pos­si­bil­i­ty of dif­fi­cult assem­blies and their parts on the Russ­ian repair fac­to­ries. Restora­tion of the major­i­ty of details of for­eign equip­ment is impos­si­ble in field con­di­tions and with­out spe­cial prepa­ra­tion and the equip­ment, and has to be made at repair plants. The choice of the cor­re­spond­ing mod­ern mate­ri­als and the equip­ment, and also prepa­ra­tion of per­son­nel at repair shops is nec­es­sary for the solu­tion of this task.

    K e y w o r d s: for­est machines, repair, com­pos­ite mate­ri­als, refusals.


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    14 Susel N.V. Improve­ment of the work­ing con­di­tions on pro­duc­tions of a chem­i­cal and a for­est com­plex by means of noise lev­els reduc­tion, cre­at­ed by gas dynam­ics devices.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the arti­cle was iden­ti­fied and ana­lyzed the main source of noise in the forest­wood- pro­cess­ing enter­pris­es of the wood- chem­i­cal com­plex. Sub­stan­ti­ates the rel­e­vance of the using of noise sup­pres­sion devices, which per­mit to con­vert tur­bu­lent air flow in laminar.The mate­ri­als of acoustic and aero­dy­nam­ic exper­i­men­tal stud­ies for the muf­fler mod­u­lar ele­ments obtained on a spe­cial­ly made test unit are list­ed. Spe­cif­ic size ane­choic cham­ber was uti­lized for the research. Mea­sure­ment of the noise was estab­lished in the out­let of the muf­fler. Dur­ing the exper­i­ments noise­proof­ing effi­cien­cy was checked on the basis of trans­for­ma­tion tur­bu­lent wind flow in lam­i­nary flow. Dif­fer­ent com­bi­na­tions of con­nect­ed muf­fler mod­u­lar ele­ments were checked. At every step of research noise para­me­ters in con­trol points were defined. For estab­lish­ment the capa­bil­i­ty of muf­flers, eval­u­a­tion of acoustic char­ac­ter­is­tics in the absence of noise pro­tec­tion means was includ­ed in the cal­cu­la­tion pro­ce­dure. More­over, was indi­cat­ed the fea­si­bil­i­ty of the sound pow­er lev­els dimin­ish­ment during

    the instal­la­tion of muf­flers and was esti­mat­ed size of the muf­flers, which pro­vides tech­no­log­i­cal and acoustic require­ments to the site of instal­la­tion. This research illu­mi­nates that the uti­liza­tion of par­al­lel muf­fler con­nec­tion helps to decrease the effi­cien­cyшумоглушенияin almost all fre­quen­cy ranges, as long as the num­ber of bound­ed mod­ules increas­es. This can be explained by pro­por­tion­al growth of the inlet of the exam­ined cham­ber with an aug­ment in a sec­tion­al area of the built-up muf­fler con­struc­tion. Fur­ther­more, the sequen­tial con­nec­tions of the muf­fler parts are increase the effi­cien­cy of noise sup­pres­sion by grow­ing the num­ber of linked mod­ules. To sum up, the effi­cien­cy of using of the stud­ied muf­flers are obvious.

    K e y w o r d s: the noise pro­tec­tion, fixed muf­flers, sound-absorb­ing coat­ing, muf­fler mod­u­lar ele­ment, flow struc­ture opti­miza­tion.


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    3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

    15 Vasi­lyev V.V., Khos­sei­ni S.Z. Influ­ence of den­si­ty par­ti­cle board on the qual­i­ty of their surface.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Increas­ing den­si­ty of par­ti­cle boards in the range from 500 to 750 kg/m3 leads to a slow­ing process of absorp­tion of liq­uids by plate sur­face. Chang­ing absorp­tion speed is caused by the increase of den­si­ty of the sur­face lay­er of plates, but it has a mag­ni­tude below aver­age den­si­ty. Pro­file dia­grams of den­si­ty dis­tri­b­u­tion from par­ti­cle board thick­ness showed that plates with an aver­age den­si­ty of 500 kg/m3 have den­si­ty sur­face 390 kg/m3. On increas­ing den­si­ty of par­ti­cle boards to 750 kg/m3, the den­si­ty of sur­face lay­er is increased to 595 kg/m3. The nature of absorp­tion of toluene and water are dif­fer­ent. Length of toluene route, which char­ac­ter­izes its absorben­cy by the bed, is increased in pro­por­tion to the den­si­ty of the par­ti­cle boards. The most sig­nif­i­cant decrease of water absorp­tion is observed on increase in den­si­ty of par­ti­cle boards from 650 to 750 kg/m3. The dif­fer­ences are explained by the var­i­ous lev­els of polar­i­ty of liq­uids, dielec­tric per­mit­tiv­i­ty (ε) at 25 °С of water is 78.3 and of toluene is 2.378. Liq­uid absorp­tion by par­ti­cle board sur­face with an aver­age den­si­ty less than 650 kg/m3 takes place through the wood shav­ings spaces and cap­il­lar­ies of the wood and par­ti­cle board with a den­si­ty of more than 650 kg/m3, main­ly through the cap­il­lar­ies of the wood. Water, as very polar liq­uid, in cir­cu­la­tion through the cap­il­lar­ies caus­es wood swelling accom­pa­nied by nar­row­ing of cap­il­lar­ies and decrease of the absorp­tion speed. Thus, in order to effec­tive­ly reduce the absorp­tion of liq­uids, the den­si­ty of the sur­face lay­ers of the par­ti­cle board has to be more than 500 kg/m3. With the growth of the out­er lay­er den­si­ty, the angle of wet­ting solu­tion of ure­aformalde­hyde resin is increased, but the sur­face acid­i­ty is not changed practically.

    K e y w o r d s: par­ti­cle­boards, qual­i­ty of sur­face, den­si­ty of edge zone, the bsorba­bil­i­ty of liq­uids, рН of sur­face, sur­face wet­ting angle, strength. 


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    16 Ilyushchenko A.V., Chu­bin­skiy A.N. The jus­ti­fi­ca­tion two-stage grad­ing sys­tem of sawn timber.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In world prac­tice, to deter­mine the qual­i­ty of lum­ber is wide­ly used non-destruc­tive test­ing meth­ods. The paper ana­lyzes the advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages of the most com­mon meth­ods. It is con­clud­ed that the most appro­pri­ate in today’s pro­duc­tion is the pho­to­met­ric method, as it has sev­er­al advan­tages: easy to use, easy to inte­grate in the process, does not require large invest­ments. It is not­ed that this method is most effec­tive in com­bi­na­tion with the pow­er sort­ing in enter­pris­es pro­duc­ing tim­ber for con­struc­tion­al pur­pos­es. Sort­ing by the pro­posed scheme is car­ried out in two stages: the first detect­ed by pho­tom­e­try obvi­ous­ly unfit for heavy loads tim­ber, the sec­ond stage can improve the accu­ra­cy of eval­u­a­tion of the prop­er­ties of sawn tim­ber for struc­tur­al con­struc­tions. There have been prob­lems that may arise in the imple­men­ta­tion of such a scheme and the pos­si­ble solu­tions. It indi­cates a lack of ade­quate infor­ma­tion base in elec­tron­ic form on the influ­ence of defects on the strength of the wood, espe­cial­ly in a clus­ter of defects of one type or the impo­si­tion of dif­fer­ent types in one area of the sawn tim­ber. Pro­vides links to research, accord­ing to which the rules of admis­sion of the major vices installed with­out prop­er jus­ti­fi­ca­tion. The con­clu­sion is that the vari­ety does not pro­vide reli­able infor­ma­tion about the struc­tur­al strength of mate­ri­als, while for oth­er sawn tim­ber are impor­tant con­sumer pref­er­ences, visu­al char­ac­ter­is­tics of the pro­duc­tion of sawn tim­ber, such as the num­ber, size, qual­i­ty and loca­tion of the defects. It is pro­posed to enter the lim­its of applic­a­bil­i­ty of var­i­ous lum­ber sort­ing meth­ods (visu­al, pow­er, com­put­er tomography

    and oth­ers). Are giv­en a group of fea­tures required for recog­ni­tion of defects: mor­pho­me­t­ric, col­or, tex­ture. Two com­mon types of defects (knots and cracks) are demon­strat­ed the pos­si­bil­i­ty of recog­ni­tion of their by sys­tem of «machine vision» for.

    The tab­u­lar form is sub­mit­ted the list of the grounds on which recog­ni­tion was shown.

    K e y w o r d s: defec­toscopy, pho­tom­e­try, sort­ing of sawn tim­ber, wood defects.


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    17 Isaev S.P., Shevchyuk K.A. Influ­ence of microwave pro­cess­ing on frame of films glues on an aque­ous basis.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Mod­ern devel­op­ment of wood­work­ing branch­es is accom­pa­nied by essen­tial growth of vol­umes of the fin­ished goods man­u­fac­tured on the basis of glued wood. Qual­i­ty of let out glued pro­duc­tion in many respects is defined by prop­er­ties of applied glues. Influ­ence of an elec­tro­mag­net­ic field of a microwave range on frame of the glues applied to coag­glu­ti­na­tion of wood is exper­i­men­tal­ly inves­ti­gat­ed. It is posi­tioned that microwave pro­cess­ing makes essen­tial impact on a microstruc­ture of polyvinyl acetate glue Dorus 072. The frame of the adhe­sive film treat­ed by microwave radi­a­tion, has high­er dis­per­si­ty in com­par­i­son with ini­tial poly­mer which is expressed on the aver­age reduc­tion of glob­ules in 1,4 times. Research of phase con­trast of a film of the treat­ed polyvinyl acetate glue by microwave radi­a­tion has allowed to posi­tion that after pro­cess­ing phase het­ero­gene­ity of an adhe­sive film decreas­es and the exca­va­tion of dis­per­si­ty of glob­ules of the poly­mer, lead­ing to aug­men­ta­tion of degree of its pack­ag­ing, form­ing an uni­modal film on frame takes place. Exper­i­men­tal research­es of films of amino-formalde­hyde glue Dorus FU 406, sub­ject­ed to microwave pro­cess­ing, have shown that Frames of sam­ples of films both treat­ed, and untreat­ed glue do not dif­fer sig­nif­i­cant changes. Research of phase alter­ation on a sur­face of the sam­ple of a film of amino-formalde­hyde glue reflects allo­ca­tion of prop­er­ties of a stuff and shows that glue microwave pro­cess­ing pro­motes for­ma­tion of the qua­si-homo­ge­neous frame which for­ma­tion proves to be true reduc­tion of dis­tinc­tions in bor­ders of phase changes of microstruc­tures hard­ning poly­mer. On the basis of the made exper­i­ments on research of frame of films of the glues applied to coag­glu­ti­na­tion of wood it is posi­tioned that as a result of influ­ence of an elec­tro­mag­net­ic field of the microwave oven of a range on gluti­nous solu­tions not ther­mal mod­i­fi­ca­tion accom­pa­nied by reduc­tion of the dimen­sions of macro­mol­e­cules of poly­mer and for­ma­tion of dense­ly packed frame of a film is car­ried out. The received results allow to draw a con­clu­sion on expe­di­en­cy of the fur­ther research­es on mod­i­fi­ca­tion of glues by microwave processing.

    K e y w o r d s: glue, elec­tro­mag­net­ic pro­cess­ing, mod­i­fi­ca­tion, film, frame.


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    18 Korolev A.S., Shara­pov E.S., Staroverov R. Effect of wood ther­mal modification

    on cut­ting pow­er con­sump­tion dur­ing cir­cu­lar sawing.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle con­cerned with the pow­er require­ments of lon­gi­tu­di­nal and trans­verse round saw­ing process of ther­mal­ly mod­i­fied pine (Pinus Sylvestris), birch (Bétu­la Pén­du­la) and Oak (Quér­cus Róbur). The short review of mate­ri­als in the field of wood

    saw­ing process and effect of some fac­tors on cir­cu­lar saw­ing are pre­sent­ed. Input fac­tors of the exper­i­ment were: depth and width of saw­ing (mm), feed­ing speed (m/min) and mass loss of the spec­i­mens after ther­mal mod­i­fi­ca­tion (%). An exper­i­men­tal lab­o­ra­to­ry set­up and mea­sur­ing loop on the basis of DAQ‑X «Nation­al Instru­ments USB-6008» were devel­oped. Regres­sion mod­els of cor­re­la­tion between input fac­tors and pow­er require­ments of lon­gi­tu­di­nal and trans­verse round saw­ing of ther­mal­ly mod­i­fied tim­ber (TMT) were received. There is a sig­nif­i­cant reduc­tion of pow­er con­sump­tion of TMT round saw­ing with increas­ing the inten­si­ty of ther­mal mod­i­fi­ca­tion for all wood species. For lon­gi­tu­di­nal TMT saw­ing and 4 and 8% of mass loss in com pari­son with untreat­ed wood aver­aged decreas­ing of pow­er require­ments were 14.6 and 25.6% for pine, 13.3 and 33.2% for birch, 9.5 and 21.8% for oak. For trans­verse TMT saw­ing and 4 and 8% of mass loss in com­par­i­son with untreat­ed wood aver­aged decreas­ing of pow­er require­ments were 17 and 27% for pine, 26 and 46% for birch, 10 and 17% for oak.

    K e y w o r d s: tim­ber, ther­mal mod­i­fi­ca­tion, cir­cu­lar saw­ing, data acqui­si­tion device.


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    4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

    19 Tranchuk N.V., Roshchin V.I. Monomer­ic phe­no­lic com­pounds in the Siber­ian larch needles.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The results of inves­ti­ga­tion of phe­no­lic acids group com­po­si­tion in Lar­ix sibir­i­ca nee­dles are pre­sent­ed in this research. The group was derived from iso­propyl extract by diethyl ether. Phe­no­lic acids group was divid­ed into frac­tion using the method of col­umn chro­matog­ra­phy. It is shown that the researched group of sub­stances con­sists of flavonols for 6.78%, aro­mat­ic acids for 6.21%, phe­no­lic ketones and phe­no­lic alde­hy­des for 0.40 and 0.34% respec­tive­ly. 4‑Hydroxybenzoic and vanil­ic acids dom­i­nate in its class, their con­tent reach­es 3.67 and 1.49% of phe­no­lic acids group mass. 4‑Hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillin are detect­ed. Three flavonols are obtained and iden­ti­fied: kaempfer­ol, isorham­netin, myric­itin. Kaempfer­ol is the main flavonol, its con­tent is 3.9%. Con­tents of isorham­netin and myric­itin are 2.08 and 0.78% respec­tive­ly. It is the first time it is report­ed about detec­tion in nee­dles of Lar­ix sibir­i­ca 4‑hydroxybenzoic, dihy­drocin­nam­ic, cis- and trans-cin­nam­ic acids, 4-(4 hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone (rheosmin), 4-(4‑hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone (zingerone). It is deter­mined that phe­no­lic acids group con­tains resin and high­est fat­ty acids, which share does­n’t exceed 1 and 6% respec­tive­ly. It is sig­nif­i­cant that high con­tent of suc­cinic and mal­ic acids present, because such acids are irre­place­able for a live organ­ism since they take part in Kreb­s’s cycle.

    K e y w o r d s: Lar­ix sibir­i­ca (Ledeb.), nee­dles, phe­no­lic com­pounds, phe­no­lic acids, phe­no­lic alde­hy­des, phe­no­lic ketones, flavonols, resin acids, high­er fat­ty acids.


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    20 Fedo­to­va N.N., Elkin V.A. Inter­nal-drainage tech­nolo­gies in hydrolyt­ic alco­hol production.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The main objec­tives of hydrol­y­sis pro­duc­tion, along with the increased qual­i­ty indi­ca­tors of the obtained prod­ucts are also the devel­op­ment of new prod­ucts, the devel­op­ment of ratio­nal raw wood pro­cess­ing schemes on the prin­ci­ple of its com­plex use, the envi­ron­men­tal harm­ful impact reduc­tion as a result of devel­op­ing closed water con­sump­tion cycles, waste­water treat­ment and gas emis­sions into the atmos­phere, as well as by-prod­uct recy­cling and effi­cient use. The pur­pose of the research is to sub­stan­ti­ate, to devel­op exper­i­men­tal­ly and to test in prac­tice the inter­nal-drainage tech­nolo­gies in hydrolyt­ic alco­hol pro­duc­tion. The dynam­ics of the organ­ic and inor­gan­ic com­pound accu­mu­la­tions in a closed water cir­cuit has been eval­u­at­ed on the exper­i­men­tal data basis. It is found out that the accu­mu­la­tion of indi­vid­ual com­po­nents in a closed sys­tem depends large­ly on the ini­tial sub­stance con­cen­tra­tion (С0). There­fore, spe­cial atten­tion should be paid to the qual­i­ty of waste­water in intro­duc­ing closed water cir­cuits. Thus, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing of closed water con­sump­tion cycles shows that the sta­ble oper­a­tion of an inter­nal drainage tech­nol­o­gy plant using waste water as a pri­ma­ry water sup­ply source is pos­si­ble if the vinasse impu­ri­ty con­cen­tra­tion does not exceed a cer­tain val­ue. For exam­ple, this val­ue for nitro­gen com­pounds should not be more than 61.5 mg / l. Based on the math­e­mat­i­cal cal­cu­la­tion results, it can be con­clud­ed that it is pos­si­ble to use waste water in hydrolyt­ic alco­hol pro­duc­tion as the main water sup­ply source in prin­ci­ple. The pro­posed flow­sheet of hydrolyt­ic alco­hol pro­duc­tion with cir­cu­lat­ing water sup­ply sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduces fresh water con­sump­tion for tech­no­log­i­cal pur­pos­es cut­ting waste­water dis­charge and envi­ron­men­tal pol­lu­tion, thus result­ing in high social and eco­nom­ic impact.

    Key words: undrained tech­nol­o­gy, closed cycles, cir­cu­lat­ing water sup­ply, waste­water, biotech sys­tem, accu­mu­la­tion dynamics.

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    5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING

    AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

    21 Zay­ats A.M., Logachev A.A. The infor­ma­tion sys­tem of mon­i­tor­ing forests and wild­fires using the wire­less sen­sor networks.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Mon­i­tor­ing of the state of forests and wild­fires is com­mon to use a vari­ety of tech­ni­cal ground, air and space assets. How­ev­er, using these funds is often ham­pered by lack of access to sources of elec­tric­i­ty sup­ply and infor­ma­tion net­works. The only tech­nol­o­gy solu­tion of the prob­lem of mon­i­tor­ing forests and wild­fires, which pro­vides long-term use of the sys­tem with­out hav­ing to change its device due to lack of ener­gy and main­te­nance direct­ly in the field of net­work deploy­ment is a wire­less sen­sor net­works. Wire­less sen­sor net­work – a set of minia­ture inde­pen­dent dis­trib­uted com­put­ing devices, which are equipped with sen­sors and trans­ceivers oper­at­ing in the radio range and form­ing a self-orga­niz­ing sys­tem of col­lect­ing, pro­cess­ing and trans­mit­ting infor­ma­tion. Applic­a­ble to the mon­i­tor­ing of forests the most appro­pri­ate topol­o­gy of wire­less sen­sor net­work is a mesh topol­o­gy in which all sen­sors have rout­ing func­tions. Rout­ing pro­vides the pos­si­bil­i­ty of self-heal­ing net­work in case of fail­ure of some sen­sors in case of wild­fires or oth­er neg­a­tive influ­ences that allows one to quick­ly rebuild the net­work with the new con­fig­u­ra­tion. The infor­ma­tion col­lect­ed by the net­work is trans­mit­ted to the gate­way, which per­forms coor­di­nat­ing func­tions relat­ed to the orga­ni­za­tion of a wire­less sen­sor net­work and is con­nect­ed to the cor­po­rate net­work via a wired or wire­less con­nec­tion. The abil­i­ty of nodes to relay mes­sages pro­vides sig­nif­i­cant area cov­er­age area, even at low pow­er trans­mit­ters, because the infor­ma­tion is trans­ferred from one sen­sor to anoth­er, and final­ly com­ing to a gate­way sen­sor and dump all accu­mu­lat­ed infor­ma­tion. We sug­gest­ed to use GIS tech­nol­o­gy to ensure the devel­op­ment of spe­cial­ized solu­tions for the visu­al­iza­tion and analy­sis of data, allow­ing the user to per­form real-time mon­i­tor­ing of for­est areas and to pre­dict haz­ards. The infor­ma­tion sys­tem of for­est and wild­fires mon­i­tor­ing with the use of wire­less sen­sor net­works effi­cient­ly and at low cost pro­vides a solu­tion to con­trol tasks for inac­ces­si­ble for­est areas and can be resis­tant to fail­ure of indi­vid­ual nodes, for var­i­ous rea­sons, so it can be used to oper­ate the net­work in for­est areas with dif­fer­ent land­scape, bio­met­ri­cal and anthro­pogenic parameters.

    K e y w o r d s: wire­less sen­sor net­works, for­est man­age­ment, mon­i­tor­ing, pre­dic­tion, wildfires.

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    22 Utkin L.V., Zhuk Y.A. A robust mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the K‑means method for clus­ter­ing under inter­val-val­ued data.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    A robust mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the K‑means method for solv­ing a clus­ter­ing prob­lem under inter­val-val­ued train­ing data is pro­posed. The exist­ing meth­ods of clus­ter­ing are main­ly based on the replace­ment of inter­val-val­ued data with their point-val­ued rep­re­sen­ta­tions, for exam­ple, with cen­ters of inter­vals, or they use some spe­cial dis­tance met­rics between hyper-rec­tan­gles (mul­ti-dimen­sion­al inter­vals) or between points and hyper-rec­tan­gles, for exam­ple, the Haus­dorff dis­tance. In con­trast to the exist­ing meth­ods, the first idea under­ly­ing the pro­posed algo­rithm is trans­fer­ring of inter­val uncer­tain­ty to sets of exam­ple weights and to an exten­sion of the train­ing set. At that, new ele­ments of the train­ing set, being points approx­i­mat­ing inter­vals, have impre­cise weights assigned such that they do not change an ini­tial struc­ture of train­ing data and do not intro­duce addi­tion­al unjus­ti­fied infor­ma­tion. The sec­ond idea is to use the min­i­max strat­e­gy for pro­vid­ing the robust­ness. It is shown in the paper that the new

    algo­rithm dif­fers from the stan­dard K‑means algo­rithm by a step of solv­ing a sim­ple lin­ear pro­gram­ming prob­lem. It is also shown in the paper that in the sim­plest case when all ele­ments of the train­ing set have iden­ti­cal weights, the pro­posed algo­rithm is reduced to the choice of a point inside hyper-rec­tan­gles, which are locat­ed on the largest dis­tance from the cen­ter of a clus­ter. The obtained results can be con­sid­ered also in the frame­work of Dempster–Shafer the­o­ry. The pro­posed algo­rithm is use­ful when the inter­vals of data are rather large and when the train­ing set is small.

    K e y w o r d s: clus­ter­ing, machine learn­ing, K‑means method, inter­val, robustness.

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    23 Khabarov S.P. Orga­ni­za­tion of het­ero­ge­neous LAN with ter­mi­nal access between its nodes.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    This arti­cle pro­pos­es an approach to the con­struc­tion of het­ero­ge­neous vir­tu­al LAN on the basis of phys­i­cal­ly homo­ge­neous LAN. To do this on each node phys­i­cal LAN installs the vir­tu­al­iza­tion envi­ron­ment and the serv­er are down­loaded files of vir­tu­al machines with guest oper­at­ing sys­tems that are required to work as part of the LAN. In

    addi­tion, we show the abil­i­ty to work with remote desk­top in Ubuntu–Windows and Ubuntu–Ubuntu sys­tems. It is not­ed that a desk­top of Win­dows is blocked for work­ing when the oth­er user con­nects to his remote desk­top. Unlike Win­dows, LAN node with OS Ubun­tu can work simul­ta­ne­ous­ly as a main desk­top, so mul­ti­ple remote desk­tops. The use of the RDP pro­to­col in LAN allows Ubuntu–Windows sys­tems remote­ly con­fig­ure and cus­tomize the set of LAN nodes, at the same time OS Ubun­tu Serv­er 14.04 allows to orga­nize simul­ta­ne­ous access mul­ti­ple users to a sin­gle serv­er, using for each of them the own remote desk­top. This allows the com­put­er class based on

    Win­dows, use for orga­niz­ing the work in an envi­ron­ment OS Ubuntu.

    K e y w o r d s:Het­ero­ge­neous LAN, vir­tu­al­iza­tion, ter­mi­nal access, remote desk­top.

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  • Issue 215
  • Name of article 

    Page

    Arti­cle

    1. FORESTRY

    1

    Alek­seev A.S., Niki­forov A.A., Mikhailo­va A.A., Vagi­zov M.R. New method for tree stands para­me­ters deter­mi­na­tion using high res­o­lu­tion images done by unmanned aer­i­al vehicle.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Every time there is a demand for new inno­v­a­tive meth­ods of for­est resources esti­ma­tion based on last achieve­ments in the­o­ret­i­cal sci­ence, remote sens­ing meth­ods, infor­ma­tion and GIS-tech­nolo­gies. In the paper are pre­sent­ed a new method and the results of its appli­ca­tion to for­est stands grow­ing stock, mean height and diam­e­ter deter­mi­na­tion. The method is based on rule 3/2 and sim­i­lar Reineke and Hilmy rules, on one hand and high res­o­lu­tion image made by unmanned aer­i­al vehi­cle, which used for deter­mi­na­tion of num­ber of trees per area unit, on oth­er. The above rules are well known in quan­ti­ta­tive biol­o­gy as an allo­met­ric and wide­ly used for descrip­tion of dif­fer­ent kind of rela­tions in bio­log­i­cal sys­tems of var­i­ous scale: from organ­isms to ecosys­tems. Para­me­ters of above allo­met­ric rela­tion­ships between grow­ing stock, mean height and diam­e­ter and stems den­si­ty per area unit was deter­mine on the base of full stock growth and yield tables for main tree species and after used for exper­i­men­tal cal­cu­la­tions. The num­ber of trees per area unit was deter­mined after spe­cial treat­ment of high res­o­lu­tion image made by unmanned fly­ing machine. The grow­ing stock, mean height and diam­e­ter deter­mined by sug­gest­ed method was com­pared with the data of reg­u­lar for­est inven­to­ry. Com­par­i­son gives pos­i­tive result and method may be rec­om­mend­ed for fur­ther development.

    Key­words:self-thin­ning rule 3/2, Reineke rule, Hilmy rule, grow­ing stock, mean height, mean diam­e­ter, unmanned fly­ing machine, high res­o­lu­tion image, num­ber of trees per area unit.

    7

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    2

    Gol­ube­va L.V., Nakvasi­na E.N., Minin N.S. Pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and wood qual­i­ty of scots pine (Pínus sylvestris L.) in posta­gro­genic forests.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the state of the plant­i­ngs on posta­gro­genic deposits of Kar­gopol Dis­trict of the Arkhangel­sk region in which about 200 th. ha of fer­tile land were exclud­ed from agri­cul­tur­al use. Soils dif­fer from the back­ground pod­zolic soils of the mid­dle taiga sub­zone, and they are char­ac­ter­ized as sod-pod­zolic resid­ual-cal­care­ous, well-drained rich in humus, mobile phos­pho­rus and potas­si­um fixed by agro­chem­i­cal tech­niques dur­ing an active agri­cul­tur­al use – plow­ing. In the Kar­gopol Dis­trict posta­gro­genic deposits are formed of dif­fer­ent breeds tree plan­ta­tions as eco­nom­i­cal­ly valu­able (spruce, pine) and soft­wood (alder, aspen, birch). Refor­esta­tion process­es occur­ring in such con­di­tions are sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent from those occur­ring on native lands. Posta­gro­genic plan­ta­tions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), formed on the deposits derived from active agri­cul­tur­al use (plow­ing) over 40 years ago were stud­ied. Under these cir­cum­stances, even-aged pine pure stand I–III qual­i­ty cat­e­go­ry, with sparse stands of trees, low-den­si­ty, but reserves exceed native plant­i­ngs on 20…68% grow. The high growth rate of pine may lead to a change in macrostruc­ture wood and, as a con­se­quence, a change in the den­si­ty of the wood. It was found that the width of tree rings of pine trees on fal­low lands at a young age (I–II age class­es), is almost 2 times more in com­par­i­son with the con­trol vari­ant (pine zone on pod­zolic soils), but in 45–65 years the dif­fer­ences are smoothed out. Basic wood den­si­ty is 10% below than the stan­dard indi­ca­tors, but in IIIIV age class it is lev­eled and becomes stan­dard. Exclu­sion from the use of agri­cul­tur­al land, espe­cial­ly arable land, has a high poten­tial for for­est grow­ing, they can grow high-yield­ing crops with qual­i­ty pine wood, close to the standard.

    Key­words>: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, qual­i­ty of wood, posta­gro­genic deposits.

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    3

    Gusev D.V. Nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of pine after ground fires on the ter­ri­to­ry of the Leningrad region.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion is an impor­tant fac­tor in the for­ma­tion of plan­ta­tions, espe­cial­ly the main for­est-form­ing species. Plant com­mu­ni­ty becomes viable, pro­vid­ed the abil­i­ty to recov­er pop­u­la­tions, replace­ment of lost copies new. Find out how much hap­pens in a nat­ur­al pine regen­er­a­tion in burned areas com­pared to adja­cent areas not affect­ed by fires, are tak­en as a con­trol. The study area belongs to the sub­zone of south­ern taiga on the ter­ri­to­ry of Leningrad region, the Kirov and Luga dis­tricts. The object of research became pine plan­ta­tions where the work was car­ried out in year peri­od from 2013 to 2015. Just picked up 36 sta­tions (includ­ing the con­trol) no larg­er than 0.3 hectares. account­ing for the under­growth was con­duct­ed on index sites. Each user plat­form was laid with a pole length of 178.5 cm the area of the cir­cu­lar pads was 10 m², they are locat­ed suc­ces­sive­ly one after anoth­er with a direct con­nec­tion. At each site con­duct­ed the trans­la­tion of the under­growth and it was divid­ed in height into three cat­e­gories of size: small up to 0.5 m, aver­age 0.6 to 1.5 meters and large – more than 1.5 meters. And nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion on plots divid­ed by the den­si­ty for three cat­e­gories: rare – up to 2 thou­sand, medi­um den­si­ty – 2 to 8 thou­sand, thick – more than 8 thou­sand plants per 1 ha; on the dis­tri­b­u­tion of the area – into three cat­e­gories depend­ing on the occur­rence. Analy­sis of post-fire regen­er­a­tion in pine forests showed that the sam­ple areas there is a great renew­al of under­growth of pine and the abun­dance on the square, all this is due to the destruc­tion of for­est lit­ter, increas­ing salin­i­ty of the soil which, ulti­mate­ly, has a pos­i­tive effect on nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, as evi­denced by the appear­ance of seedlings, as well as bet­ter hydro­log­i­cal regime of the soil. Which a good recov­ery. The num­ber of reli­able under­growth is from 3.5 to 11.9 thou­sand PCs/ha, enough for nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of seedlings after the fire. Con­firmed the depen­dence of the num­ber of self-seed­ing and thick­ness of for­est lit­ter. After the fire-warmed, min­er­al-rich soil is favor­able for emer­gence and self-seed­ing of woody plants.

    Key­words: for­est sur­face fires, regrowth, nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, vital­i­ty, pine, plot, control.


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    4

    Danche­va A.V., Zalesov S.V. The use of com­pre­hen­sive eval­u­a­tion index for assess­ing the con­di­tion of pine stands glrp «Semey Ormany»

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the result of con­duct­ed researchers stud­ied of state of pine for­est stands nat­ur­al and arti­fi­cial ori­gin which grown in dry for­est con­di­tions (for­est type C2) in belt pine forests of the Pri­ir­tyshye based on using of com­plex esti­ma­tive indi­ca­tor (CEI). Object of research are high-den­si­ty mid­dle-aged pine forests which grow in dry for­est con­di­tions (for­est type C2) in the state for­est nat­ur­al fenced reserve «Semey ormany». Stud­ies were con­duct­ed on 8 plots which plant­ed for study the impact of dif­fer­ent inten­si­ties of sil­vi­cul­tur­al oper­a­tion on the bio­log­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty, fire resis­tance and recre­ation­al appeal of pine forests of the East Kaza­khstan region (belt pine forests of the Pri­ir­tyshye). The stud­ies found that the vital sta­tus of the pine for­est stands is rat­ed as «weak­ened». Analy­sis of dam­age of pine for­est stands con­duct­ed. It was found that on index dam­age of stands (Dv), nat­ur­al pine forests are char­ac­ter­ized as «healthy», arti­fi­cial pine forests ‒ as «dam­aged». On the basis of the con­duct­ed research­es it is proved that for a more accu­rate diag­no­sis of the state of pine for­est stands and con­duct the forestry activ­i­ties can be used index dam­age of stands. Analy­sis of state of pine for­est stands through the use of com­plex esti­ma­tive indi­ca­tor or the coef­fi­cient of growth of ten­sion (CEI) con­duct­ed. The change of com­plex esti­ma­tive indi­ca­tor (CEI) was eval­u­at­ed depend­ing on the cat­e­gories fine­ness and cat­e­gories of vital sta­tus of the trees. The results of research­es have shown that in the high-den­si­ty for­est stands of pine of nat­ur­al and arti­fi­cial ori­gin the low­est val­ue of com­plex of the esti­mat­ed indi­ca­tors (CEI) char­ac­ter­ized trees of cat­e­gories of vital sta­tus «healthy». It was found that with decreas­ing of cat­e­gories of fine­ness of the trees increase the val­ue of the com­plex of the esti­mat­ed indi­ca­tors (CEI). It is found that the rela­tion­ship of com­plex esti­ma­tive indi­ca­tor (CEI) with fine­ness of trees and vital sta­tus of pine forests approx­i­mat­ed by the lin­ear func­tions. It is estab­lished that com­plex esti­ma­tive indi­ca­tor (CEI) is a reli­able indi­ca­tor of the state and the bio­log­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty of the for­est stand and can be used as one of the main cri­te­ri­on of neces­si­ty to con­duct for­est sil­vi­cul­tur­al oper­a­tion (thin­ning) in the stud­ied pine forests.

    Key­words: mid­dle-aged pine for­est stands, dry for­est con­di­tions, vital sta­tus, cat­e­gories of fine­ness, com­plex esti­ma­tive indi­ca­tor, bio­log­i­cal stability.

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    5

    Dobro­vol­sky A.A. The fea­tures of design­ing on for­est lands in Russ­ian Federation.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle present results of analy­sis of cur­rent sit­u­a­tion with the design­ing on for­est lands.

    The paper ana­lyzed the cur­rent sit­u­a­tion with the design on for­est land trans­ferred for use under dif­fer­ent objectives.

    Cur­rent forestry leg­is­la­tion of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion pro­vides a list of pos­si­ble uses of forests, many of which are not relat­ed to for­est man­age­ment. At the same time there is a lim­it­ed list of con­tracts under which for­est land may be leased out.

    Based on the inter­pre­ta­tion of exist­ing leg­is­la­tion, the use of forests should be man­aged in accor­dance with for­est plans of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion, for­est man­age­ment reg­u­la­tions of for­est dis­tricts (or parks), as well as on the basis of con­tracts under which for­est areas are used.

    Analy­sis of the legal acts as well as cur­rent prac­tices revealed prob­lems with the prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tion of a num­ber of doc­u­ments reg­u­lat­ing the devel­op­ment of pro­ject­ing and plan­ning in for­est sector.

    Accord­ing to the results of the analy­sis sug­gest­ed a num­ber of changes in the reg­u­la­to­ry legal acts of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion gov­ern­ing the use of forests. The pro­posed changes relate pri­mar­i­ly to the use of forests on the base of con­tracts of gra­tu­itous use and con­tracts of per­ma­nent (per­pet­u­al) use.

    Also we ana­lyze the fea­tures of the devel­op­ment of design doc­u­men­ta­tion for the for­est areas to be used for pur­pos­es not relat­ed to tim­ber har­vest­ing and for­est man­age­ment. As a result it is pro­posed to amend the nor­ma­tive acts gov­ern­ing the fea­tures of cre­ation of for­est infra­struc­ture objects, and espe­cial­ly the cre­ation of objects not relat­ed to for­est infra­struc­ture on for­est lands.

    Key­words: legal acts in forestry, per­ma­nent (open-end­ed) con­tract, for­est site, for­est infra­struc­ture, objects are not relat­ed to for­est infrastructure.

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    6

    Skupchenko V.B. Inclu­sion dou­ble light refrac­tion the apoplast in shoots devel­op­ment struc­ture the Picea obo­va­ta and p. abies (Pinaceae).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Inclu­sion dou­ble light refrac­tion the apoplast (VADS) are dis­cov­ered in parenchy­ma cor­tex­es short­cut stem mature bud. The research of these inclu­sion in elec­tron­ic micro­scope has shown that they con­tain the elec­tron­trans­par­ent com­po­nents, which are shipped in osmiofil elec­tron­denci­ty ambi­ence. Dou­ble light refrac­tion inclu­sion cell walls hutch­es pos­sess­es lipid com­po­nent in crys­talline form form­ing their most part.

     In devel­op­ment shoot VADS appear the ear­ly spring­time in pri­mordi­um needls. Then VADS are accu­mu­lat­ed in meris­tem cor­tex­es parenchy­ma short­cut stem new ter­mi­nal bud. In the fol­low­ing VADS are post­poned in parenchy­ma cor­tex­es stem needls part of the young shoot, which is here­with includ­ed in active lon­gi­tu­dal grow­ing. VADS, come up for zone of the active grow­ing fab­ric, remain long-last­ing time in them. In mes­o­phyll pine-nee­dles VADS are sit­u­at­ed on the walls of cells, basi­cal­ly turned to inter­cel­lu­lar spaces.

    Prob­a­bly, at the begin­ning ini­tial­ly its appear­ances VADS form cer­tain fund a metaboli­ties, par­tic­i­pat­ing in main­te­nance active grow­ing process­es meris­tems, locat­ed under cov­er of the bud. Here­inafter, they can present itself place of the depo­si­tion metaboli­ties, tak­en out from metab­o­lism. The Sig­nif­i­cant accu­mu­la­tion VADS, hav­ing lipophyl encir­clement, can cause the brak­ing an tran­spi­ra­tion to pine-nee­dles and gas exchange of the cells mes­o­phyll. Pos­si­ble, accu­mu­la­tion VADS presents itself one of the fac­tor of the age­ing to pine-nee­dles and parenchym tis­sues of the shoot cortex.

    Key­words: inclu­sion dou­ble light refrac­tion the apoplast, cell walls, meris­tems, cor­tex parenchy­ma, mes­o­phyll, shoot, nee­dles, bud, spruce.

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    7

    Fedo­tov A.N., Zhi­gunov A.V. The effect of the day length on the for­ma­tion of api­cal buds in one-year-old con­tainer­ized seedlings of Scots pine and Nor­way spruce.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The mul­ti-rota­tion growth scheme is wide­ly used for grow­ing con­tainer­ized seedlings of pine and spruce. Sow­ing is per­formed both in ear­ly spring and late sum­mer. In this con­nec­tion, resis­tance of seedlings to adverse envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors dur­ing win­ter stor­age of plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al becomes of prac­ti­cal significance.

    The pur­pose of the research is to study the fea­tures of api­cal bud for­ma­tion in pine and spruce seedlings sown in sum­mer and late-sum­mer peri­ods from April 18 to Sep­tem­ber 21. With this object in view, obser­va­tions on tem­per­a­ture con­di­tions and the peri­ods of api­cal bud for­ma­tion were made and bio­met­ric para­me­ters and mass of seedlings were determined.

    Tem­per­a­ture con­di­tions in the green­house until mid-Sep­tem­ber were sta­ble; they did not affect the mor­pho­gen­e­sis of pine and spruce seedlings sown in dif­fer­ent peri­ods. Buds of pine and spruce seedlings of the 1st rota­tion sown in April are formed in late July at the crit­i­cal day length (15 hours). In seedlings of the 2nd rota­tion sown in June, bud for­ma­tion starts lat­er. In spruce seedlings of the 3rd rota­tion sown in ear­ly August, bud for­ma­tion starts only at the end of Sep­tem­ber, where­as pine seedlings do not form buds, though the growth of the seedlings took place when the length of the day was reduc­ing from the crit­i­cal 15 hours to 10 hours. Pine and spruce seedlings sown in Sep­tem­ber did not form buds even at the end of Octo­ber, when the day length was no less than 10 hours. Con­tainer­ized pine and spruce seedlings of the 1st rota­tion reach stan­dard para­me­ters by the end of the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od and they have eumor­phic api­cal buds. Seedlings of the 2nd rota­tion need to be kept in an out­door field for fur­ther growth in the sec­ond veg­e­ta­tion sea­son. Seedlings of the 3rd rota­tion can­not reach the required stan­dards unless the cul­ti­va­tion tech­nol­o­gy is changed.

    Key­words: con­tainer­ized seedling, rota­tion, day length, photoperiod.

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    8

    Khetagurov Kh.M. Fea­tures seed the resump­tion of alpine maple.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The maple stands of the North Cau­ca­sus – a spe­cial type of for­est for­ma­tions. The pecu­liar­i­ty is man­i­fest­ed not only in the struc­ture of phy­to­coenoses, but also in the ways of self-renew­ing. Object of research – pure and mixed maple stands in some areas of North Osse­tia-Ala­nia. The prop­er­ties are locat­ed in var­i­ous moun­tain­ous ter­rain and at dif­fer­ent heights above sea lev­el from 1100 to 1900 m. The aim of the study is to estab­lish the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the seed the resump­tion of the maple stands grow­ing in the upper belt of forests spread in the North­ern Caucasus.

    To achieve this goal set­ting time of flow­er­ing and ripen­ing of seeds on ver­ti­cal zones dis­tri­b­u­tion dom­i­nat­ed. The abun­dance of flow­er­ing and the aver­age score of fruit­ing was estab­lished by V.G. Cap­per. Bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of the seeds was deter­mined by the tracts in three repli­cates. Account­ing for the under­growth was car­ried out on a cir­cu­lar exper­i­men­tal plots at 10 m2, in accor­dance with the method of A.V. Grashkin.

    It is estab­lished that the flow­er­ing maple Trautvet­ter begins may 10–14 and ends in the third week of may. Seeds begin to ripen by late August – ear­ly Sep­tem­ber. The tim­ing of sub­si­dence of the stretched seed. Some of the seeds falls to the ground before the leaves, so they are trapped under the lit­ter. These seeds quick­ly lose their ger­mi­na­tion, vyp­i­vaet. The oth­er part falls along with the leaves. The third cat­e­go­ry of seeds (the light) stay on the trees until Decem­ber and even till spring.

    Nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of maple seeds under the canopy of par­ent stand is very dif­fi­cult due to the strong grass cov­er. In for­est stands with dense canopy, pro­por­tion of flow­er­ing and fruit-bear­ing trees is 2–3%, and the aver­age score of fruit­ing is 1.3. The illu­mi­na­tion on the sur­face of the soil does not exceed 100 Lux, i. e. 0.2–0.3% of the light in the open, at a height of 1.3 m (on grass) the light­ing is slight­ly high­er, from 1.2 to 1.6 thou­sand Suite.

    Under the canopy of the for­est the under­growth is dom­i­nat­ed by veg­e­ta­tive ori­gin. At the upper bound­ary of the maple for­est, saplings of seed ori­gin occurs in Win­dows, clear­ings and open places in the num­ber 430–630 ind./ha. In height dom­i­nat­ed by large under­growth of 50–60%, the share of small – 10–20%.

    Key­words: The North­ern Cau­ca­sus, Alpine maple, maple Trautvet­ter, under­brush, illumination.

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    2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

    9

    Alek­san­drov A.V., Alek­san­drov V.A., Gasy­mov G.S. Vibroload­ing oper­a­tors of feller-pack­ag­ing cars in a mode of trans­fer­ring of a tree cut­ting-off device.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Devel­oped a dynam­ic mod­el of the sys­tem: «Oper­a­tor — feller-bunch­er – the sub­ject of work – a tree». Math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is made in the form of the Lagrange equa­tions of the 2nd kind. The sys­tem of equa­tions is solved with respect to the elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion dri­ver’s seat by the Runge-Kut­ta method, using a pro­gram­ming envi­ron­ment Math­CAD. Test­ing of the mod­el imple­ment­ed by the exam­ple of com­mer­cial­ly avail­able feller bunch­er LP-19A.

    Key­words: fall­er bencher, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, shake, buf­fet­ing, vibra­tion, seat, operator.

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    10

    Alek­san­drov V.А., Vu Hoa Ky. II. Vibroload­ing the oper­a­tor skid­ding trac­tor in accel­er­a­tion process.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In arti­cle the dynam­ic mod­el of sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor – skid­ding trac­tor tree bunch». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the egua­tion of Lagrazha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the egua­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion seats. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exem­ple of seri­al­ly skid­ding trac­tor TB‑1.

    Key­words: dynam­ic mod­el, vibra­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion, seat.

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    11

    Bukhto­yarov D.L., Grig­oriev I.V., Kunit­sk­ja O.A., Lukin A.E., Kunit­skya D.E. Cal­cu­la­tion of debark­ing drum in the Mat­lab environment.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Wood is pro­duced about 20 thou­sand kinds of prod­ucts, with about 95% prod­ucts of the chem­i­cal and mechano-chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing of wood. Most of these indus­tries as raw mate­r­i­al con­sumes wood chips, which are require­ments for the pres­ence of bark, rot and min­er­al inclusions.

    Most labor and ener­gy inten­sive oper­a­tion of the tech­no­log­i­cal process for the man­u­fac­tur­ing of wood chips is the debark­ing of pulp­wood, which in the vast major­i­ty of cas­es, pro­duced by a group of debark­ing in debark­ing drums of var­i­ous designs.

    The arti­cle presents a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the process of group debark­ing wood in debark­ing drums allows one to assess one of the key para­me­ter group of debark­ing wood – pro­cess­ing times, which will be min­i­mized wood loss­es with­out reduc­ing the qual­i­ty of the debark­ing, tak­ing into account the struc­tur­al ele­ments of the drum, the bal­ance para­me­ters, their prop­er­ties and tem­per­a­ture. Account the prob­a­bilis­tic nature of such indi­ca­tors as: debark­ing, phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of bark and wood, the dis­tri­b­u­tion of lay­ers of crust at depth, which neces­si­tat­ed the use of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els based on the prin­ci­ples of sit­u­a­tion­al sim­u­la­tion of the tran­si­tion branch from one state to another.

    Cal­cu­la­tion method and basic para­me­ters of the process allows us to devel­op orga­ni­za­tion­al, tech­no­log­i­cal and tech­ni­cal mea­sures ensur­ing the sta­bil­i­ty of qual­i­ty indi­ca­tors of group debark­ing wood in debark­ing drums. Also, the mod­el pre­sent­ed in the form of func­tion­al block dia­grams based on the graph­i­cal user inter­face of Mat­lab with Simulink appli­ca­tion. Using the Simulink block sets of charge con­stants, vari­ables, func­tions, and com­pute the orga­nized process of cal­cu­lat­ing the basic para­me­ters of the object-ori­ent­ed method.

    Key­words: group bark­ing, debark­ing drums, mod­el­ing, Simulink

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    12

    Mil­jaev A.S. Dynam­ics of the lay­ered earth­en cloth tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for dynam­ic strength cal­cu­la­tion of designs tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads to a lay­ered earth­en cloth is sub­mit­ted with the pur­pose of increase of reli­a­bil­i­ty and durability.

    Dynam­ic reac­tion of an earth­en cloth is defined at action on the rigid stamp locat­ed on a sur­face of a cloth, the mov­ing load­ing sim­u­lat­ing mov­ing of trans­port. Cal­cu­la­tions are car­ried out by a finite ele­ments method.

    Appli­ca­tion of a finite ele­ments method for cal­cu­la­tion of tran­si­tive dynam­ic process­es in a lay­ered earth­en cloth is proved.

    The design pro­ce­dure is con­struct­ed on a con­crete exam­ple of a lay­ered earth­en cloth.

    A line of deci­sions of a dynam­ic prob­lems is under con­struc­tion at chang­ing speed of move­ment of load­ing on a stamp. Rela­tions of the ver­ti­cal dynam­ic and sta­t­ic dis­place­ments, mak­ing mov­ings of a stamp, give fac­tors of dynamism of an earth­en cloth depend­ing on speed of move­ment of loading.

    Key­words: tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads, lay­ered earth basis, finite-ele­ments method, dynam­ic coefficients.

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    13

    Mya­sishchev D.G., Putincev S.A. Opti­miza­tion of design para­me­ters of «body work – moto­shas­si» for grind­ing of soil vegetation

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the prob­lem of opti­miz­ing the for­mu­la­tion of the design para­me­ters of the active rotary work­ing body for the chop­per ground veg­e­ta­tion, for exam­ple in the gar­dens, the for­est park farms and lawns areas.

    Espe­cial­ly this trend rel­e­vant in the con­text of small busi­ness­es and farms. In these struc­tures, indus­tri­al work­ers have an inter­est to oper­ate as lit­tle as pos­si­ble the basic chas­sis with trans­port and ener­gy func­tions, and at the same time as much as pos­si­ble of tech­no­log­i­cal machines based on them.

    This very, the base chas­sis itself is to be cre­ative in the broad­est sense. That is, have the capac­i­ty, char­ac­ter­ized by will­ing­ness to imple­ment a fun­da­men­tal­ly new tech­ni­cal idea.

    These approach­es should dif­fer from tra­di­tion­al or accept­ed think­ing schemes, and includ­ed in the mechan­i­cal struc­ture of the sys­tem as an inde­pen­dent fac­tor, as well as the abil­i­ty to fur­ther diversifying.

    What is impor­tant in this case and the fac­tor attract­ing young operatives.

    Giv­en the marked approach­es as the test unit chas­sis, offered sam­ples of mod­ern motor­cy­cles (2–1, 2–2).

    Cov­er is treat­ed as bio­mass, which con­sists of var­i­ous com­po­nents, first of all fall­en leaves and plant stalks, small branch­es grow­ing, fine veg­etable pieces of top­soil. The process involves zero tillage.

    Pre­sent­ed in the arti­cle infor­ma­tion is illus­trat­ed by spe­cif­ic tech­ni­cal solu­tion, which is in the stage of prac­ti­cal implementation.

    Key­words: motor vehi­cles, out­door knife chop­per, bio­mass, opti­miza­tion.

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    14

    Platonov A.A., Platono­va M.A. The math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the inter­ac­tion of the rotary of the work­ing body with trees and shrubs, and stumps

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    At present, the Russ­ian rail­way net­work con­tin­ues to be the actu­al prob­lem of remov­ing unwant­ed trees and shrubs from the strip with­draw­al. The unde­ni­able neg­a­tive con­se­quences the pres­ence of unwant­ed veg­e­ta­tion on the objects of the rail­way infra­struc­ture is the need for mea­sures to pre­vent and erad­i­cate the appear­ance of high­er plants in order to ensure for unin­ter­rupt­ible and secure of the trans­porta­tion process as a whole. With this in mind, in 2014 in a study of kine­mat­ics and dynam­ics few detailed mech­a­nisms of for­est machines mod­eled the inter­ac­tion of the work­ing body of the rotor con­trolled manip­u­la­tor, with unwant­ed trees and shrubs, and stumps. The work shows that at math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing the manip­u­la­tor con­sid­ered by as a com­pli­cat­ed sys­tem with a large num­ber of para­me­ters and at the same time immersed in an envi­ron­ment with a whole set of para­me­ters that are not part of the devel­oped sys­tem. Based on the analy­sis the work­flow remov­ing unwant­ed trees and shrubs have been iden­ti­fied kine­mat­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of promis­ing schemes of manip­u­la­tors, in par­tic­u­lar ana­lyt­i­cal depen­dences of the max­i­mum and min­i­mum radii of the work­ing area from a num­ber of input para­me­ters, and obtained a num­ber of graph­ic depen­dences. In com­pil­ing the gen­er­al­ized dynam­ic inter­ac­tion mod­el rotary work­ing body with shoots and the stumps installed ana­lyt­i­cal depen­dence of the devi­a­tion of the con­tact point shoots under the influ­ence of the cut­ter in the direc­tion of rotor rota­tion from a num­ber of input para­me­ters. The con­clu­sion is made about the prospects of con­duct­ed ana­lyt­i­cal stud­ies to obtain a num­ber of impor­tant prac­ti­cal guid­ance not only for the con­sid­er­a­tion of the rotary arm and the work­ing body, but also for the whole sys­tem of machines that have cer­tain com­mon properties.

    Key­words: unwant­ed veg­e­ta­tion, a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, the manip­u­la­tor, the work­ing body.

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    15

    Posy­panov S.V. Invest­ga­tion of the geo­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of a float­ing bilevel pack­aged raft­ing unit.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Tech­nolo­gies of form­ing ofbilevel pack­aged raft­ing units are per­spec­tive for arrange­ment of trans­porta­tion of for­est prod­ucts along the small and medi­um-scale rivers.Those tech­nolo­gies are poten­tial­ly use­ful for small-scale log­gers, who are not capa­ble to pur­chase spe­cial­ized equip­ment for rafts form­ing. The geo­met­ric and strength prop­er­ties of the raft­ing units are nec­es­sary for imple­men­ta­tion of rel­e­vant tech­no­log­i­cal and strength­en­ing estimations.

    In order to obtain required infor­ma­tion, the elas­tic­i­ty the­o­ry was applied. The log pack­ages were con­sid­ered as flex­i­ble shell struc­tures filled up with gran­u­lar mate­r­i­al, effect­ed by grav­i­ty and Archimedes forces. The low­er pack­ages strap­pings were deemed as non-inflec­tive sec­ond order elas­tic­i­ty, the upper ones – as com­bi­na­tions of frag­ments of under­wa­ter andover­wa­ter elas­tic­i­ties. The cir­cuit sys­tem of equa­tions was devel­oped to describe depen­dence of geo­met­ric ele­ments on the elas­tic­i­ties para­me­ters, mod­u­lar angles and ele­va­tions, prac­ti­cal meter­ing of which is problematic.The sys­tem con­tains the ellip­ti­cal inte­grals, so the closed form solu­tion was found impos­si­ble. The author’s algo­rithm of a numer­i­cal solu­tion of the sys­tem is pro­posed and instru­ment­ed. Com­pu­ta­tions were car­ried out­with­in the prac­ti­cal data span in adi­men­sion­less form.

    Based on the results of the pre­vi­ous stud­ies, the para­me­ters of a raft­ing unit was asso­ci­at­ed with the lat­ter of log pack­ages for afloat and ashore posi­tions. The approx­i­mat­ing depen­den­cies for the­o­ret­i­cal inves­ti­ga­tions and prac­ti­cal activ­i­ties were devel­oped. The reli­a­bil­i­ty of esti­mates was proved via the phys­i­cal mod­els experiments.

    Key­words: wood, tim­ber raft­ing, raft­ing unit, pack­age, geo­met­ric para­me­ters, gran­u­lar medi­um, strap­ping, elastics.

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    16

    Shernin Yu.A., Shernin A.Yu. Analy­sis of schemes of skid­ding of tim­ber to ensure the resump­tion of pines on scorched forest

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Matched com­pet­ing machines sys­tem to ensure con­di­tions of nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of pine trees in the affect­ed ground firevos­toy­ah nucle­us. Elab­o­rat­ed ratio­nal scheme on tim­ber­tion of vast ter­ri­to­ries. The eval­u­a­tion of each of the machine sys­tem. Described radio-oper­a­tor process­es tim­ber machine sys­tems that meet the require­ments of nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of pine. Make-but the com­par­i­son of tech­no­log­i­cal schemes and sys­tems of machines dur­ing har­vest­ing in the affect­ed fire stands. A math­e­mat­i­cal tool for assess­ing the sus­tain­abil­i­ty of the pro­posed areas of plan­ning options, restrict­ed quar­ter­ly cut­tings or roads. Ran­dom den envi­ron­men­tal fac­tor cal­cu­la­tion, which showed the per­cent­age ratio of the co-trails to the total area of the quar­ter. To min­i­mize the area of the devel­oped area of the impact of tech­nol­o­gy the tech­nol­o­gy of the com­bined log­ging, which with­out lay­ing skid trails pro­vide log­ging and preser­va­tion of large ASW-show mer­cy for nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of pine. Unlike machine-cook­ing for felling and limb­ing saws in the cut­ting area secu Chivau­ni­form dis­tri­b­u­tion of the cir­cum­ci­sion crowns and, con­se­quent­ly, their viable seeds on the treat­ed area. For removal, Zago-tovlen­noy on the affect­ed fire areas, wood is advis­able to use exist­ing roads and clearings.

    Key­words: scorched for­est, meth­ods of refor­esta­tion, machin­ery sys­tems, tech­nol­o­gy devel­op­ment of scorched for­est, plan­ning for­est com­part­ment, for­est strip.

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    3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING
    INDUSTRY

    17

    Bakhshie­va M.A., Chu­bin­sky A.N. Analy­sis of juve­nile wood struc­ture and prop­er­ties influ­ence upon lum­ber quality.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the research an analy­sis of struc­ture and prop­er­ties of juve­nile wood and its influ­ence upon lum­ber phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties was car­ried out in order to devel­op a method of juve­nile and mature wood demar­ca­tion. Since con­struc­tion lum­ber must com­ply with rigid demands and has a high price on the mar­ket, the sub­ject of the research is par­tic­u­lar­ly impor­tant for lum­ber pro­duc­tion industry.

    The research was car­ried out on pine and spruce wood har­vest­ed in the Leningrad region. For devel­op­ing of juve­nile and mature wood demar­ca­tion method such char­ac­ter­is­tics as annu­al rings thick­ness and late wood per­cent­age were mea­sured by means of com­put­ed tomog­ra­phy. Results of the mea­sure­ments revealed that annu­al rings thick­ness was increas­ing in juve­nile wood, decreas­ing toward mature wood and then sta­bi­lized. Late­wood per­cent­age was ris­ing in juve­nile wood, falling down in mature wood and sta­bi­lized after all.

    To prove the neces­si­ty of juve­nile wood elim­i­na­tion out of con­struc­tion lum­ber, shrink­age along radi­al, tan­gen­tial and lon­gi­tu­di­nal dimen­sions of the wood was mea­sured. It was fig­ured out that radi­al and tan­gen­tial shrink­age of juve­nile wood was low­er than ones of mature wood. It was becom­ing big­ger from the pith toward mature wood, and after that it sta­bi­lized. Con­trary, lon­gi­tu­di­nal shrink­age was decreas­ing out­ward juve­nile wood and sta­bi­lized with­in mature wood. This proved that dur­ing lum­ber dry­ing inter­nal stress­es can take place in tran­si­tion area, which cause warp­ing and cracks. That is why the juve­nile wood must be elim­i­nat­ed in the course of con­struc­tion lum­ber production.

    The results of the research revealed that com­put­ed tomog­ra­phy of the two para­me­ters could be used for juve­nile wood identification.

    ­­Key­words: juve­nile wood, phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, con­struc­tion mate­ri­als, com­put­ed tomography.

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    18

    Vasi­lyev V.V., Khos­sei­ni S.Z. Expert eval­u­a­tion of sur­face prop­er­ties of wood-based panels.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    A sur­vey of spe­cial­ists was car­ried out to iden­ti­fy rel­e­vant indi­ca­tors of wood-based pan­els, affect the qual­i­ty of their fin­ish. The ques­tion­naire was answered by 26 peo­ple. Experts have exten­sive expe­ri­ence, their aver­age work expe­ri­ence in indus­try is 25.4 years. 23 mea­sure of par­ti­cle board and 21 indi­ca­tor of MDF were inves­ti­gat­ed. Ana­lyzed indi­ca­tors were dis­trib­uted into groups: high­ly rel­e­vant (7 indi­ca­tors of par­ti­cle board and 6 ones of MDF), increased rel­e­vance (9 and 8) and aver­age rel­e­vant (7 and 7). The bulk of the inves­ti­gat­ed indices has been nor­mal­ized by plate stan­dards, meth­ods of analy­sis, devices, tech­no­log­i­cal process­es and equip­ment. How­ev­er, experts have deter­mined that cur­rent­ly high actu­al indi­ca­tors are «Sur­face lay­er den­si­ty plate», «Flu­id absorp­tion sur­face lay­er plates» and «Length of excerpt­ed plates before the fin­ish», which is not reflect­ed in the regulations.

    Den­si­ty of out­er lay­ers of plates is high­er than the den­si­ty of inner lay­er, but den­si­ty max­i­mums are locat­ed not on the sur­face of the plates, but deep­er in the out­er lay­ers. This is due to the change of the plas­tic­i­ty of shav­ings-gluti­nous mass dur­ing the ini­tial peri­od of hot press­ing. For­ma­tion of fri­able zones on the sur­face of the bed facil­i­tates active absorp­tion of liq­uid mate­ri­als. After the hot press­ing addi­tion­al cur­ing binder occurs in plates, as well as the cool­ing plates and lev­el­ing the mois­ture on their thick­ness. When stor­ing the plates in close packs these process­es go in dif­fer­ent ways in out­er  and inner spheres of pack.

    Expert eval­u­a­tion also revealed that among the indi­ca­tors of the increased rel­e­vance of the wall­board is not nor­mal­ized three ones: «Sur­face lay­er swell», «pH of out­er lay­er» and «Press­ing plate in the lam­i­na­tion process». It is advis­able to under­take spe­cial stud­ies that require rationing indi­ca­tors point­ed to specialists.

    Key­words: par­ti­cle­boards, medi­um den­si­ty fibre­boards, qual­i­ty fin­ish­es, rel­e­vant indi­ca­tors, soci­o­log­i­cal sur­vey, expert esti­ma­tion, sur­face qual­i­ty, den­si­ty sur­face lay­er, liq­uid absorp­tion, dura­tion of the excerpts of the plates.

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    19

    Sergee­vichev V.V., Sergee­vichev A.V.,Mikhailova A.E. The analy­sis of an intense and defor­ma­tion con­di­tion of shav­ing and glue mix in a rolling zone.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    When shav­ing and glue mix pass­ing through a tape press and its for­ma­tions to prod­uct under rollers there is a con­tin­u­ous change of prop­er­ties of mate­r­i­al. From inco­her­ent loose com­po­si­tion mate­r­i­al as a result of a pye­zoterm pro­cess­ing has to be trans­formed to a mono­lith­ic shaped prod­uct. Pow­er and tem­per­a­ture influ­ences in pro­cess­ing cause in mate­r­i­al, and then and in a fin­ished prod­uct a vari­able ten­sion which sub­stan­tial­ly defines integri­ty and final mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of fin­ished goods. In the present arti­cle intense states in the most dan­ger­ous place of a press – under the main roller are inves­ti­gat­ed. The main objec­tive of research con­sists in attempt to explain emer­gence of defects of a prod­uct and to plan con­struc­tive and tech­no­log­i­cal actions for their elim­i­na­tion or at least to mit­i­ga­tion. When car­ry­ing out pre­lim­i­nary exper­i­ments on pro­duc­tion wood­en mate­ri­als from shav­ing and glue mix has been found a num­ber of the main short­com­ings. The major­i­ty of defects is con­nect­ed with process of pro­fil­ing and arise under a main drum. Obvi­ous­ly, extreme con­di­tions of defor­ma­tion of mate­r­i­al under a drum and dis­crep­an­cy of a ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal con­di­tion of the processed mate­r­i­al to nature of defor­ma­tion are the rea­son of all not­ed defects. On the basis of the con­duct­ed research­es it is pos­si­ble to draw the main con­clu­sions: the lon­gi­tu­di­nal bend when rolling prod­ucts of shav­ing and glue mix con­sti­tutes essen­tial dan­ger and can be the cause of strat­i­fi­ca­tion of prod­ucts on width; reduc­tion of an adverse effect of a lon­gi­tu­di­nal bend on width of a prod­uct can be reached at the expense of its inten­sive warm­ing up and restric­tion of cur­ing bind­ing under rollers; diam­e­ters of main drums need to be done max­i­mum for con­struc­tive rea­sons; an opti­mal vari­ant is pro­fil­ing on straight sec­tions where radius is equal to infin­i­ty; it is nec­es­sary to pro­vide rigid syn­chro­niza­tion of line speeds on all con­tact points of a prod­uct with oper­at­ing parts of the press equip­ment. Such con­di­tions it is auto­mat­i­cal­ly sat­is­fied in a truck press that in addi­tion char­ac­ter­izes its advantages.

    Key­words: equip­ment of the con­tin­u­ous action, defor­ma­tions of rollers and wood, buckling.

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    20

    Tsoy Yu. In the sta­bil­i­ty of paints and var­nish­es for pro­tec­tive and dec­o­ra­tive wood finish.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The prob­lem of obtain­ing a homo­ge­neous com­po­si­tion of the coat­ings is reduced to the prop­er selec­tion of film-form­ing agents, and dilu­ent and, if appro­pri­ate, dilu­ents and addi­tives. On the basis of the the­o­ry of sol­u­bil­i­ty, we have car­ried out the assess­ment of the com­pat­i­bil­i­ty of the com­po­nents and sta­bil­i­ty of such sys­tems. The eval­u­a­tion cri­te­ria were adopt­ed the para­me­ters of the sol­u­bil­i­ty and ther­mo­dy­nam­ic inter­ac­tion.  Researched the com­pat­i­bil­i­ty with alkyd var­nish­es amino­formalde­hyde resin in butanol, and the results of these stud­ies are pre­sent­ed in the tri­an­gu­lar phase dia­gram. To eval­u­ate the com­pat­i­bil­i­ty of the resins accord­ing to the results of cal­cu­la­tion of ther­mo­dy­nam­ic para­me­ters of inter­ac­tion were built spin­odal for ternary sys­tems. As the analy­sis of the results of the stud­ies, even when the dif­fer­ence Δǽ|ǽ12 – ǽ13| = 0,2 there is a small area of incom­pat­i­bil­i­ty. With the decrease of the dif­fer­ence Δ ǽ region incom­pat­i­bil­i­ty nar­rows. When ǽ23> ǽс region incom­pat­i­bil­i­ty extends to Δǽ = 0,2, and for Δǽ = 0.1 and Δǽ = 0. Thus, for such sys­tems, com­pat­i­bil­i­ty of com­po­nents, pri­mar­i­ly, affects their inter­ac­tion with each oth­er – the fur­ther away it is, the bet­ter they are com­pat­i­ble.  Stud­ies have shown that the par­tial sol­u­bil­i­ty para­me­ters, which take into account the nature of cohe­sive forces, more objec­tive­ly char­ac­ter­ize the sol­u­bil­i­ty of film-form­ing resins in organ­ic sol­vents than their total sol­u­bil­i­ty para­me­ter. The sol­u­bil­i­ty and film-form­ing amino­formalde­hyde ester­i­fied alkyd resins in organ­ic sol­vents due to ther­mo­dy­nam­ic inter­ac­tion of mol­e­c­u­lar forces of dif­fer­ent nature. Тhe sta­bil­i­ty of the mix­ture and amino­formalde­hyde ester­i­fied alkyd resin in butanol is gen­er­at­ed large­ly by ther­mo­dy­nam­ic forces of mol­e­c­u­lar inter­ac­tion; the degree of butanolate melamine-formalde­hyde resin has the great­est effect on the sta­bil­i­ty of the sys­tem. Con­duct­ed research on the sta­bil­i­ty of the paint mix­tures of var­i­ous film-form­ing resins on the basis of the eval­u­a­tion cri­te­ria can be used to improve the tech­nol­o­gy of pro­tec­tive and dec­o­ra­tive wood finish.

    Key­words: coat­ing mate­ri­als, sol­u­bil­i­ty, sol­u­bil­i­ty para­me­ter, ther­mo­dy­nam­ic interaction

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    21

    Chu­bin­sky M. A., Chau­zov K.V. Study of the prop­er­ties larch and larch wood con­struc­tion materials.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    Despite vast reserves, larch wood so far in small vol­umes used in the con­struc­tion indus­try and oth­er sec­tors of the econ­o­my, which is con­nect­ed as the tech­no­log­i­cal dif­fi­cul­ties of its treat­ment, as well as insuf­fi­cient knowl­edge of its prop­er­ties. One of the unique prop­er­ties of the wood of Siber­ian larch (Lar­ix sibir­i­ca) is its increased nat­ur­al bio­log­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty (decay resis­tant), along with the high­est among the domes­tic soft­wood strength.

    Resis­tance Larch (Lar­ix sibir­i­ca) to the effects of wood-destroy­ing fun­gi Conio­fo­ra puteana is much high­er than pine. The aver­age weight loss of Siber­ian larch heart­wood exposed wood-destroy­ing fun­gi Conio­pho­ra puteana is 14.84%, decreas­ing with increas­ing age of the tree, and con­trol sam­ples of heart­wood pine at age 90 had a weight loss of 57.8%. Age of a tree is one of the most sig­nif­i­cant fac­tors affect­ing the degree of bio­log­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty of wood. With the increase it sig­nif­i­cant­ly increas­es the sta­bil­i­ty of the destruc­tive effects of wood-destroy­ing fun­gi and Conio­pho­ra puteana.

    The posi­tion of the sam­ple in tree also affects the degree of bio­log­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty of wood, but this depen­dence is poor­ly devel­oped in com­par­i­son with the influ­ence of age and wood density.

    Stud­ies of the kinet­ics of decom­po­si­tion of Siber­ian larch wood and the role of extrac­tives in the devel­op­ment of wood-destroy­ing fun­gi sug­gest a link, and the decay resis­tant of the con­tent in the wood extractives.

    For the man­u­fac­ture of larch glued lam­i­nat­ed beam pro­posed adhe­sive com­po­si­tion com­pris­ing urea and melamine-formalde­hyde glue and urea-formalde­hyde resins, mod­i­fied shun­gites. Its use allows to obtain the bonds are not infe­ri­or in strength at shear­ing sol­id wood as dry sam­ple, and after soak­ing. Thus, glued lam­i­nat­ed beam from Siber­ian larch wood is char­ac­ter­ized by high decay resis­tant, strength and water resistance.

    Key­words: siber­ian larch (Lar­ix sibir­i­ca), bio­log­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty, lam­i­nat­ed veneer lum­ber, adhe­sive strength, com­pos­ite adhe­sive shungit.

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    4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

    22

    Shkol’nikov E.V. The Influ­ence of the Poly­mor­phism and Dis­per­si­ty of Tita­ni­um Diox­ide on the Sol­u­bil­i­ty in Acid and Alka­line Media.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

    The ther­mo­dy­nam­ic char­ac­ter­is­tic of true sol­u­bil­i­ty at 25 °C for amor­phous and crys­talline nano­sized mod­i­fi­ca­tions of TiO2, depend­ing on the pH of an aque­ous medi­um in the range of 0–14.7 and allow­ing for the for­ma­tion of Ti(IV) hydroxo com­plex­es and the dis­per­si­ty of the sol­id phase, was pre­sent­ed. The aver­age effec­tive radius of sol­id par­ti­cles (r ≤25 nm for TiO2) must be con­sid­ered as a ther­mo­dy­nam­ic para­me­ter when deter­min­ing the sol­u­bil­i­ty of tita­ni­um diox­ide in the nanostate.

    The sol­u­bil­i­ty of poly­mor­phic TiO2 mod­i­fi­ca­tions in aque­ous weak­ly acid and weak­ly basic media with no flu­o­ride ions is rather low (10−9–10−5 mol/L) and is deter­mined by the strong­ly neu­tral Ti(OH)4 com­plex­es that pre­dom­i­nate at pH 3–10. Sol­u­bil­i­ty in aque­ous media depends sub­stan­tial­ly on the struc­ture of the crys­tals (rutile < brookite < anatase), grows con­sid­er­ably as the par­ti­cle size of crys­talline nanopow­ders shrinks, and becomes stronger (by approx­i­mate­ly three orders of mag­ni­tude) upon mov­ing from sta­ble crys­talline rutile γ‑TiO2 (r > 100 nm) to the amor­phous modification.

    In a strong­ly acid medium(1M HClO4), the sol­u­bil­i­ty of diox­ide TiO2 mod­i­fi­ca­tions is 4–5 orders of mag­ni­tude high­er than in water and is deter­mined main­ly by the Ti(OH)22+ com­plex. In a strong­ly alka­line medi­um (1M NaOH), the sol­u­bil­i­ty is 2–3 orders of mag­ni­tude greater than in water, and is deter­mined by the Ti(OH)5 complex.

    Key­words: sol­u­bil­i­ty and ampho­ter­ism, ther­mo­dy­nam­ic cal­cu­la­tion, amor­phous and nanocrys­talline TiO2 mod­ifdi­ca­tions, dis­per­si­ty, acid and alka­line media.

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  • Issue 214
  • Name of article 

    Page

    Arti­cle

    1. FORESTRY

    1

    Berezin V.I., Chernikhovsky D.M., Arkhipov V.I. The method­ol­o­gy of exe­cu­tion of the State for­est inven­to­ry in the objects with pres­ence of inac­ces­si­ble territories.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In the arti­cle is pro­posed a method of work by exe­cu­tion of the State for­est inven­to­ry in the objects with pres­ence of inac­ces­si­ble ter­ri­to­ries. The main stages of the method were imple­ment­ed suc­cess­ful­ly for dif­fer­ent nature and geo­graph­i­cal con­di­tions of Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion in the Euro­pean and Asian parts of the coun­try. The infor­ma­tion pos­si­bil­i­ties of satel­lite stereo images with ultra-high spa­tial res­o­lu­tion for con­tour, ana­lyt­i­cal and mea­sure­ment for­est inter­pre­ta­tion of for­est stra­tums and for­est com­part­ments were evaluated.

    Key­words: stereo inter­pre­ta­tion, soft­ware, hard­ware, State for­est inven­to­ry, remote sens­ing data

    6

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    2

    Byalt V.V., Potokin A.F., Orlo­va L.V. Type spec­i­mens of taxa of Birch fam­i­ly (Betu­laceae) in the col­lec­tion of the Herbar­i­um. I.P. Borodin, SPBGTU (KFTA) in St. Peters­burg (Rus­sia).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    This arti­cle con­tin­ues a series of pub­li­ca­tions, devot­ed to the his­tor­i­cal col­lec­tions and the col­lec­tion of type herbar­i­um spec­i­mens, stored in I.P. Borodin Herbar­i­um of St. Peters­burg state forestry Uni­ver­si­ty (SPb­S­F­TU) (KFTA). The arti­cle gives a brief his­to­ry of the herbar­i­um of the KFTA, pro­vides data on the type col­lec­tion. In a result of crit­i­cal study of the fam­i­ly Betu­laceae in the Herbar­i­um KFTA 38 authen­tic spec­i­mens, which belong to 30 taxa from two gen­era Alnus and Betu­la are found. The col­lec­tion includes the types (holo­type, syn­types and iso­types) of taxa of dif­fer­ent rank. Among them the most rep­re­sent­ed species and vari­eties described by V. Sukachev of Siberia (6 taxa), P.S. Pal­las, V.L. Komarov, E.R. von Trautvet­ter and K.A. Mey­er (2) of East­ern Siberia and the Far East, and T. H. A. Cal­li­er from Europe (3).

    Key­words: tax­on­o­my, type spec­i­mens, SPb­S­F­TU, Herbar­i­um KFTA, Alnus, Betu­la, Betu­laceae.

    27

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    3

    Vino­grad­off A.Yu. To the issue of max­i­mum water runoff rate cal­cu­la­tion for deter­min­ing the size of road drainage.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The ques­tion of equiv­o­ca­tion of the results of using the exist­ing meth­ods of max­i­mum runoffs cal­cu­la­tions is posed. The accu­ra­cy of such cal­cu­la­tions plays a great role for engi­neer­ing prac­tice. Nonethe­less, even the meth­ods rec­om­mend­ed by the Set of Rules can give the results with errors of hun­dred per­cent. The com­par­a­tive analy­sis of the results of max­i­mum riv­er runoff cal­cu­la­tions is car­ried out for the esti­ma­tion of the para­me­ters of the trans­verse drainage sys­tems con­duct­ed by dif­fer­ent meth­ods. It is con­clud­ed that the pro­ce­dure of land­scape stra­tum cal­cu­la­tions is prac­ti­cal­ly suitable.

    Key­words: for­est road cul­verts, small for­est water­sheds, max­i­mum runoffs of the giv­en prob­a­bil­i­ty, sta­tis­ti­cal approaches.

    42

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    4

    Gri­azkin A.V., Monastyrska­ja M.E., Shkano­va E.G. Inte­grat­ed engi­neer­ing and urban devel­op­ment assess­ment­the ter­ri­to­ry of the for­est park «Tarhov­ka».

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Com­pre­hen­sive assess­ment of the ter­ri­to­ry of land­scape plan­ning or oth­er town plan­ning forms is an expert pro­ce­dure: deployed differentiated/complex analy­sis and dif­fer­en­tial quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics, reflect­ing the essen­tial char­ac­ter­is­tics of the object. Inte­grat­ed assess­ment as a pre-project expert research stage, is the instru­ment account­ing, analy­sis of the cur­rent state of the object urban plan­ning, plan­ning and fore­cast­ing pos­si­ble, the most prob­a­ble devel­op­ment, and also the basis for the selec­tion of the dom­i­nant vec­tor con­ver­sion territory.

    The pur­pose of this work was to assess the state of the Park and car­ry­ing out of com­plex engi­neer­ing qual­i­ta­tive-quan­ti­ta­tive assess­ment of the ter­ri­to­ry of the Park «TARHOVKA» Kurort­ny admin­is­tra­tive dis­trict of Saint Petersburg.

    The object of the study and exam­i­na­tion is a land plot of the for­est Park «Tarhov­ka», includ­ed in the state cadas­tre of the real estate cadas­tral num­ber 78:38:11229Г:52 area of 1 993 813 m2, locat­ed in the bor­ders of Kurort­ny admin­is­tra­tive dis­trict of Saint-Peters­burg and the city of Ses­troret­sk, on the East­ern shore of the Gulf of Fin­land, to the West of the sea­side highway.

    Based on the results of com­plex engi­neer­ing assess­ment of the ter­ri­to­ry of the for­est Park «Tarhov­ka» devel­oped tar­get­ed rec­om­men­da­tions aimed at its land­scape plan­ning recon­struc­tion as a basic part of the eco­log­i­cal and urban trans­for­ma­tion of the entire coastal zone, which stretch­es from the ring road on the South to the Crest of the chan­nel to the North. Rank for­est Park areas of inter­ven­tion in the nat­ur­al-cul­tur­al con­text on a four-lev­el scheme: high degree of envi­ron­men­tal inter­ven­tion; the aver­age degree of envi­ron­men­tal inter­ven­tion; low lev­el of envi­ron­men­tal inter­ven­tion; the min­i­mum degree of envi­ron­men­tal intervention.

    In addi­tion, pre-formed mod­els of land­scape-eco­log­i­cal zon­ing, func­tion­al-plan­ning, spa­tial and envi­ron­men­tal and com­mu­ni­ca­tions orga­ni­za­tion, taunty­po­log­i­cal struc­ture of the future city Park «TARHOVSKI».

    Key­words: land­scapes, for­est Park «TARHOVKA», Gulf of Fin­s­ki, anthro­pogenic effect, Park phy­to­cenoses, wood, trees, under­growth, underbrush.

    52

     

     

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    5

    Ivanov A.M., Sergien­ko V.G., Antonov O.I., Vlasov R.V. The impact of selec­tive log­ging on the for­ma­tion of detri­tus and bio­di­ver­si­ty con­ser­va­tion in the conif­er­ous stands.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The prob­lems are con­sid­ered of aver­age annu­al tree mor­tal­i­ty and dis­tri­b­u­tion of coarse woody debris (CWD) by decom­po­si­tion class­es and cat­e­gories in uneven-aged spruce stands after selec­tive cut­tings of dif­fer­ent inten­si­ties. The char­ac­ter­is­tic of the species diver­si­ty of the ground veg­e­ta­tion cov­er in areas of cut­tings is giv­en. Eval­u­a­tion of the struc­ture and con­di­tion of the CWD for bio­di­ver­si­ty con­ser­va­tion in conif­er­ous stands of Leningrad region showed a close rela­tion­ship between CWD and bio­di­ver­si­ty. CWD is impor­tant for con­ser­va­tion of the species diver­si­ty of flo­ra and fau­na in for­est ecosys­tems, for for­est man­age­ment plan­ning aimed at sus­tain­able devel­op­ment and use of for­est resources.

    Key­words: coarse woody debris, dead wood, bio­di­ver­si­ty, conif­er­ous stands, selec­tive cut­tings, Leningrad region.

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    6

    Smirnov A.P., Smirnov A.A., Truong V.V. The dynam­ic of recov­ery in dif­fer­ent pine plan­ta­tions of drained, passed by felling.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Expe­ri­enced com­plex cut­tings in dif­fer­ent plan­ta­tions on drained olig­otroph­ic peat­bog through 17 years after the device chan­nels. Com­plete­ly elder select part of stand, young con­duct­edthe felling of care. At most of the options for stock gains expe­ri­ence over 30 years of obser­va­tions exceed­ing appro­pri­ate reg­u­la­to­ry lev­el. The great­est gain on stock (11 m3/ha per year) was record­ed at the site where the entire stand was removed simul­ta­ne­ous­ly with dry­ing. On objects of drainage of the past cen­tu­ry quite jus­ti­fied inte­grat­ed log­ging in com­ing years.

    Key­words: pine plan­ta­tions on drained bogs, com­plete logs, the dynam­ics of tax­a­tion of forests.

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    7

    Sokolov A.I., Kharitonov V.A. Harm­ful­ness of for­est rodents in the Kare­lian birch plantations.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The chal­lenge of pro­mot­ing the sur­vival rate in plan­ta­tions of the Kare­lian birch, which resources in Kare­lia are severe­ly deplet­ed, is con­sid­ered. The focus is on the dam­age caused to Kare­lian birch plan­ta­tions by mouse-like rodents and hares in felled sites and aban­doned farm­land. In years with high abun­dance, mouse-like rodents are known to be able to seri­ous­ly dam­age the plan­ta­tions not only in win­ter, but also in the sum­mer sea­son. Dam­age by hares has less effect on the sur­vival rate of Kare­lian birch plan­ta­tions com­pared to that by mouse-like rodents. One of the rea­sons for selec­tive rodent dam­age to Kare­lian birch is the ele­vat­ed con­tent of sug­ars in the plants, which enhances their dietary val­ue. It is rec­om­mend­ed to avoid plant­i­ng Kare­lian birch in felled sites and aban­doned farm­land in years with mouse-like rodent abun­dances on a sig­nif­i­cant rise.

    Key­words: for­est plan­ta­tions, Kare­lian birch, felled sites, aban­doned farm­land, mouse-like rodents, hares.

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    8

    Tyukav­ina O.N., Kun­nikov F.A., Koshel­e­va A.E. Influ­ence of rot on the dis­tri­b­u­tion of the min­er­al ele­ments in poplar wood.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Bal­sam poplar has wet­wood. Wet­wood has fun­gal hyphae. Long-term coex­is­tence tree with fun­gus leads to the for­ma­tion of the mutu­al adap­ta­tion sys­tem. Bal­ance of the mutu­al adap­ta­tion sys­tem is deter­mined by the ratio of macro and micronu­tri­ents. Fun­gal infec­tion wood is an accu­mu­la­tion of macronu­tri­ents. The low­est con­tent of the micronu­tri­ents in wet­wood. In the sap­wood zone marked the high­est con­tent of phos­pho­rus and sodi­um. The sil­i­con con­tent of the wood more than 0.1 % may indi­cate the pres­ence and activ­i­ty of the fungus.

    Key­words: bal­sam poplar, min­er­al ele­ments, heart rot, wetwood.

    105

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    9

    Tyurin D.S., Danilov D.A., Danilov Y.I. Fit­o­mass and den­si­ty of spruce in 40 years of plan­ta­tion crops.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Are con­sid­ered indi­ca­tors of bio­mass of 40-year old spruce plan­ta­tion crops, depend­ing on the plant­i­ng den­si­ty and the impact of with­drawals on the den­si­ty of stem wood.

    Key­words: plan­ta­tion crops spruce, basic den­si­ty, den­si­ty vari­a­tion in the height of the trunk, above-ground phytomass.

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    10

    Fedo­tov I.V., Tret­jakov S.V., Ilintcev A.S. The hydraulic impact of land recla­ma­tion on the qual­i­ty of pine wood.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In this article, the authors discuss the determination of density of pine timber grown on drained forests. The object of research was the forest stands on permanent sample plots located between the dryers hydro network in the middle taiga subzone of the Arkhangelsk region. To determine the density of wood based on forest inventory and forestry the methodology of determination of wood density empirically using the method developed by O.I. Poluboyarinova and Express method of determination of density for G.A. Chibisov. According to the results of the study determined the differences in wood density before drainage and after the hydro-technical meliorations, as well as a comparison of wood density in two ways to determine. After research found that drying of excessively-moist forest land does not lead to a decrease in the quality of the emerging pine wood.

    Key­words: hydrotech­ni­cal melio­ra­tion, drainage, den­si­ty of wood, ear­ly wood, late wood.

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    11

    Fedoro­va T.N., Ush­nit­sky A.A. Grig­oriev M.F. Cre­at­ing a map of veg­e­ta­tion accord­ing to for­est types Tat­tin­sky dis­trict of Repub­lic of Sakha (Yaku­tia) by mate­ri­als earth remote sensing.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In this work were sub­mit­ted the results of the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of for­est veg­e­ta­tion by for­est type using the remote sens­ing data of veg­e­ta­tion. Designed for­est types map with a scale of 1:100000 in the ter­ri­to­ry of Tat­tin­sky Ulu­us Repub­lic of Sakha (Yaku­tia); reveal pine forests, sparse larch forests, larch forests, larch and pine forests, larch and birch forests, birch forests and wil­low, shrub­by veg­e­ta­tion, grassy marsh­es. These results will be use­ful in plan­ning for sus­tain­able for­est man­age­ment in the region.

    Key­words: for­est types, map of for­est veg­e­ta­tion, the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of forests, remote sens­ing of forests.

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    2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

    12

    Alek­san­drov V.A., Gasy­mov G.S., Alek­san­drov A.V. The arti­cle dis­cuss­es vibroload­ing oper­a­tor felle-trans­port dur­ing load­ing trees (whips).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The study was con­duct­ed on a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of a dynam­i­cal sys­tem «feller-trans­port – oper­a­tor – the sub­ject of work – the tree». Math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is made in the form of Lagrange equa­tions of the 2nd kind. Oper­a­tor mod­el is pre­sent­ed in the form of sec­ond-mass. The cal­cu­la­tions were per­formed with the orig­i­nal data felle-trans­port ЛП-17A.

    Key­words: fall­er trans­port, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, vibra­tion, seat.

    147

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    13

    Bra­gin N.A., Tihonov, I.I. Kalim­be­tov M.V. Exper­i­men­tal stud­ies of cut­ting-buck­ing trunks.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle draws a com­par­i­son between actu­al out­come of cut­ting and buck­ing, car­ried out by «Pon­seEr­go» and ООО «KirishiLe­sprom», and pos­si­ble results of pro­ce­dures alike yet imple­ment­ed accord­ing to the meth­ods elab­o­rat­ed by the authors of the article.

    Key­words: cut­ting and buck­ing, tree trunks, assort­ments, com­mer­cial products.

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    3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING
    INDUSTRY

    14

    Bacherikov I.V., Lok­sh­tanov B.M. Deter­mi­na­tion of the angle of repose of the bulk materials.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle presents infor­ma­tion on meth­ods of find­ing the angle of repose of the bulk mate­r­i­al. Meth­ods and appa­ra­tus for deter­min­ing the dynam­ic angle of repose are reviewed. Data by var­i­ous authors about the angles of repose of chopped wood mate­ri­als is ana­lyzed. The results of exper­i­ments on deter­mi­na­tion of angle of repose for the pine and oak saw­dust and com­par­i­son of the meth­ods for deter­min­ing the angle of repose are shown.

    ­­Key­words: angle of repose, bulk mate­ri­als, bins and silos, wood chips

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    15

    Kamenev B.B., Kush­nerev V.O. Increase of firm­ness of the tool rotor machines on the basis of the analy­sis of errors of pro­cess­ing of logs.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Accu­ra­cy of oper­a­tion of the posi­tion rotor machine is defined by geo­met­ri­cal errors of the machine which to some extent have impact on qual­i­ty of the processed sur­face. The main char­ac­ter­is­tic cas­es of for­ma­tion of casu­al and sys­tem­at­ic errors at roundup of logs are giv­en in rotor machines of posi­tion type. The analy­sis of wear and a blunt­ing of knives in the con­di­tions of roundup of logs is made. The main cri­te­ria of wear and a blunt­ing of knives at roundup of logs are giv­en. Rec­om­men­da­tions about sharp­en­ing of the cut­ting ele­ment are made.

    Key­words: errors of pro­cess­ing of logs, accu­ra­cy of work rotor of machines, firm­ness of the tool.

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    16

    Sergee­vichev A.V., Arte­menkov A.M. The ana­lyt­i­cal jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of wear resis­tance of sand­ing belts for the pur­pose of increase of their work­ing capacity.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In arti­cle meth­ods of increase of wear resis­tance of abra­sive mate­r­i­al when pro­cess­ing wood and wood mate­ri­als are con­sid­ered and proved. On mod­ern rep­re­sen­ta­tions, the main rea­son for decrease in work­ing capac­i­ty and wear resis­tance of grind­ing skins when pro­cess­ing wood is the balling. One of ways of increase in wear resis­tance of sand­ing belts is their punch­ing by a notch of open­ings. When punch­ing sand­ing belts addi­tion­al vol­ume for place­ment of remote mate­r­i­al is cre­at­ed and the quan­ti­ty of the par­ti­cles of shav­ing which got stuck in inter­grain space decreas­es that sig­nif­i­cant­ly increas­es oper­abil­i­ty of the abra­sive tool.

    Key­words: grind­ing of wood and wood mate­ri­als, increase of wear resis­tance of the abra­sive tool, punching.

    190

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    17

    Sergee­vichev V.V., Mikhailo­va A.E. The analy­sis of inter­ac­tion of rolls with wood in the pres­sakh of con­tin­u­ous action.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    At wood sup­ply their rel­a­tive slip­ping hap­pens smooth met­al rollers. Slip­page hap­pens not only when giv­ing resis­tance forces on absolute val­ue exceed effort of clutch of a valets with wood (tech­no­log­i­cal slip­page) but also when forces of use­ful resis­tance in gen­er­al are absent (kine­mat­ic slip­page. In arti­cle depen­dences of coef­fi­cients of slip­page on defor­ma­tions of wood and a valets, radius of rollers, forces of resis­tance to giv­ing, efforts of a clip of rollers are removed.

    Key­words: equip­ment of the con­tin­u­ous action, defor­ma­tions of rollers and wood, size of defor­ma­tion of the plane and cylinder.

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    18

    Serdyukov V.N. Rigid­i­ty of a tape saw with the watch­ing cut­ting forces.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The hypoth­e­sis of the watch­ing char­ac­ter of forces of cut­ting is entered. The deci­sion of a task on sta­bil­i­ty of a tape saw is passed with the force of cut­ting watch­ing a trans­verse sec­tion with lag. It is shown that at increase in force of cut­ting the saw tape pass­es from an unsta­ble state into the steady. At decrease of force of cut­ting the inverse tran­si­tion from a sta­ble state to the unsta­ble is pos­si­ble. If to con­struct the lim­it­ing curve and the sched­ule of the mode of a load­ing, it is pos­si­ble to deter­mine the size of crit­i­cal force of cutting.

    Key­words: sta­bil­i­ty, the watch­ing cut­ting forces, lag para­me­ter, the load­ing mode.

    217

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    19

    Hos­sei­ni S.Z.,  Vasi­lyev V.V. Par­ti­cle­boards sur­face qual­i­ty mod­i­fied depend­ing on the tem­per­a­ture of their pressing.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The influ­ence of tem­per­a­ture of press­ing on prop­er­ties of par­ti­cle­boards for fin­ish­ing was stud­ied. Tem­per­a­ture range was from 180 to 240 °С. It was found that increase of press­ing tem­per­a­ture led to decreas­ing in den­si­ty of the edge zones of the out­er lay­ers of plates. This is the rea­son for decrease of the strength of out­er lay­ers and increase in absorba­bil­i­ty of liq­uids by the sur­face of plates. At high press­ing tem­per­a­ture the chem­i­cal trans­for­ma­tions of wood sub­stances and binder occur, which reduces the acid­i­ty of sur­face and wet­ta­bil­i­ty of plates with aque­ous solu­tion of urea-formalde­hyde oligomer.

    Key­words: par­ti­cle­boards, tem­per­a­ture of press­ing, qual­i­ty of sur­face, den­si­ty of edge zone, the absorb­ability of liq­uids, рН of sur­face, strength.

    224

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    20

    Khrabro­va O.Yu. The study of trans­verse warpage of lum­ber pro­duced when cut­ting par­al­lel to taper and tra­di­tion­al way.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle is devot­ed to the top­i­cal prob­lem of warpage of the lum­ber. The aim of the study trans­verse warp­ing of lum­ber in the tra­di­tion­al saw­ing and cut­ting par­al­lel to taper. The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the dif­fer­ent posi­tions of the boards when cut­ting par­al­lel to taper and in the tra­di­tion­al way and com­pares warpage, thick­ness vari­a­tion and the allowance for machin­ing. Ques­tion warpage of lum­ber sawn par­al­lel to the gen­er­a­trix of any­one not pre­vi­ous­ly stud­ied and is of great sci­en­tif­ic and prac­ti­cal interest.

    Key­words: lum­ber, saw­ing, buck­ling, thick­ness variation.

    233

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    21

    Chu­bin­sky A.N., Tam­bi A.A., Khitrov E.G., Chau­zov K.V., Shvets V.L., Bahshie­va M.A., Bykov D.J. Jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of out­put struc­tur­al pine and spruce sawn tim­ber from logs.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The main fac­tors affect­ing the strength of struc­tur­al wood-based mate­ri­als are its den­si­ty and mois­ture, width of annu­al ring, type of wood (sap­wood and heartwood)

    Sawn tim­ber con­struc­tion­al pur­pos­es, used for the man­u­fac­ture of glued lam­i­nat­ed beams, make spe­cial demands. Their den­si­ty at equi­lib­ri­um mois­ture con­tent should not be less than 500 kg/m3, in accor­dance with applic­a­ble Russ­ian regulations.

    It is known that the den­si­ty of the wood varies in dif­fer­ent parts of the tree trunk, and the uneven dis­tri­b­u­tion of mois­ture in it. This effect neg­a­tive­ly influ­ence on not only the mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the sawn tim­ber but also on the qual­i­ty of its pro­cess­ing, pri­mar­i­ly drying.

    To deter­mine the den­si­ty and mois­ture con­tent of pine and spruce wood har­vest­ed in the Leningrad region, stan­dard weight method was used. Mois­ture dis­tri­b­u­tion was deter­mined in green wood. Den­si­ty dis­tri­b­u­tion was stud­ied in green and absolute­ly dry wood. Den­si­ty at 12 % mois­ture con­tent was deter­mined by cal­cu­la­tion. Assess­ment of the inter­nal state of saw logs was per­formed by mag­net­ic res­o­nance imag­ing and com­put­ed tomography.

    Research results show that pine and spruce have a sim­i­lar char­ac­ter of dis­tri­b­u­tion mois­ture on the tree trunk. Wood with a mois­ture con­tent less than 40 % con­cen­trat­ed pre­dom­i­nate­ly in the butt log. Den­si­ty of fresh­ly cut spruce varies over a wider range com­pared to pine.

    Den­si­ty of spruce wood in a com­plete­ly dry state is much low­er com­pared with a pine. Both wood den­si­ty in dif­fer­ent parts of saw logs depend on the age of the tree with the incre­ment trend from the cen­ter towards the periphery.

    For the sawn tim­ber man­u­fac­tur­ers, it is of the inter­est the wood den­si­ty at equi­lib­ri­um mois­ture con­tent. Depend­ing on the loca­tion of sawn tim­ber in the trunk its’ den­si­ty at 12 % mois­ture con­tent may be dif­fer­ent. Spruce sawn tim­ber can have a den­si­ty from 350 to 500, pines from 400 to 600 kg/m3. Con­se­quent­ly, in order to pro­duce struc­tur­al sawn tim­ber, one should first­ly deter­mine which part of a saw log holds the required density.

    Pine sawn tim­ber required for glued lam­i­nat­ed beam, can be obtained from the butt log at not more than 35 %.

    Qual­i­ta­tive assess­ment of the dis­tri­b­u­tion of den­si­ty and mois­ture saw logs can be giv­en through the use of com­put­ed tomography.

    Key­words: pine, spruce, den­si­ty dis­tri­b­u­tion, mois­ture con­tent (MC), tomography.

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    4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

    22

    Rakovskaya E.G., Zanko N.G., Kudryasho­va O.A., Yaguno­va L.K. Research of pos­si­bil­i­ty of replace­ment of tox­ic cyan­ic elec­trolytes of galvanizing.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Zinc coat­ing steel is one of the reli­able coat­ing for cor­ro­sion pro­tec­tion. Poten­tial of zinc is more neg­a­tive than the poten­tial of the iron, so the pair of zinc–iron, and it is the anode will dis­solve while pro­tect­ing iron. Qual­i­ty-porous zinc coat­ings obtained from cyanide elec­trolytes gal­va­niz­ing. How­ev­er, these elec­trolytes are extreme­ly poi­so­nous, so the task is to obtain reli­able zinc coat­ings from elec­trolytes con­tain­ing no cyanide. These elec­trolytes are sul­fu­ric acid and hlo­ris­toam­moniynye. In order to improve the coat­ing qual­i­ty, non-tox­ic organ­ic additives.

    Key­words: zinc coat­ings, cor­ro­sion pro­tec­tion, elec­trolytes, acid medi­um, alka­line, the tox­i­c­i­ty of cyanide elec­trolytes hlo­ris­toam­monievye elec­trolytes, organ­ic additives.

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    2015:
  • Issue 213
  • Name of article 

    Page

    Arti­cle

    1. FORESTRY

    1

    Debkov N.M., Gri­az’kin A.V., Kovalev N.V., Noviko­va M.A. Рar­tic­u­lar qual­i­ties of form­ing for­est stands from regrowth pri­or generations.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle presents the results of the study for­est stands formed of preser­va­tion of under­growth and for­est thin­ners on the ter­ri­to­ry of the Kaltaysko­go dis­trict of the Tom­sk region of Rus­sia. It was estab­lished that the species com­po­si­tion of the under­growth repeat­ing the struc­ture of the par­ents for­est stand. Nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion in dif­fer­ent for­est types usu­al­ly is not dif­fer­ent. Analy­sis of the dis­tri­b­u­tion of the younger gen­er­a­tion by cat­e­gories height showed that in the resump­tion of often dom­i­nat­ed the young trees, the aver­age height of it is low­er 1 meter. Found is a pos­i­tive rela­tions of the age of young trees and for­est den­si­ty of the stand of trees. It was found that the dete­ri­o­ra­tion of site con­di­tions is give the uni­form dis­tri­b­u­tion of young trees pop­u­la­tion increas­es. The num­ber of young growth is direct­ly depen­dent on the age of the felling, as evi­denced by the accu­mu­la­tion of under­growth under the canopy.

    Key­words: nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, pre­lim­i­nary regen­er­a­tion, preser­va­tion of under­growth, the for­ma­tion of the stand, fir (abies), cedar.

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    2

    Zavodovskii P.G. Fea­tures of the bio­ta aphyl­lophoroid (decay­for­est) of fun­gi in for­est ecosys­tems of the bio­geo­graph­i­cal province of Kare­lia pudo­gen­sis (Kp).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In for­est ecosys­tems of the bio­geo­graph­i­cal province of Kare­lia pudo­gen­sis (Kp) for the first time in the ter­ri­to­ry of East Fennoscan­dia the spe­cif­ic struc­ture the aphyl­lophoroid of fun­gi is stud­ied. Red Book and rel­ic species the aphyl­lophoroid (decay­for­est) of fun­gi in con­ti­nen­tal and island for­est ecosys­tems are stud­ied. Data on a pri­urochen­nost the aphyl­lophoroid of fun­gi are pro­vid­ed to wood sub­stra­ta. For com­par­i­son of spe­cif­ic struc­ture the aphyl­lophoroid of fun­gi is used Jacquard’s coef­fi­cient. Con­clu­sions are drawn on reg­u­lar­i­ties of sim­i­lar­i­ty and dis­tinc­tion in a bio­ta the aphyl­lophoroid of fun­gi in con­ti­nen­tal and island for­est ecosystems.

    Key­words: bio­ta, aphyl­lophoroid (decay­for­est) of fun­gi, Red Book species, for­est ecosys­tems, the bio­geo­graph­i­cal province of Kare­lia pudo­gen­sis (Kp), East Fennoscan­dia, type decayed.

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    3

    Ilin V.P., Ivanov A.M., Pod­shiv­aev E.E. Recon­struc­tion of the small-leaved young stands with employ­ment of chem­i­cal method in order to form a conif­er­ous stands.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In this arti­cle were ana­lyzed fea­tures of the for­ma­tion of for­est stands arti­fi­cial ori­gin, cre­at­ed by the tech­nol­o­gy of recon­struc­tion of small-leaved young stands with employ­ment of chem­i­cal method. In this arti­cle presents the results of using of her­bi­cides (sil­vi­cides) in the recon­struc­tion of small-leaved young stands. Has been stud­ied the growth of plan­ta­tion forests (for­est cul­tures) estab­lished in the areas of recon­struc­tion of unvalu­able decid­u­ous for­est stands by plant­i­ng pine and spruce with open and closed root sys­tem. In this arti­cle was con­clud­ed that the appli­ca­tion of chem­i­cal meth­ods in the recon­struc­tion of unvalu­able small-leaved for­est stands allows to suc­cess­ful­ly form­ing conif­er­ous stands.

    Key­words: refor­esta­tion, recon­struc­tion, chem­i­cal care, her­bi­cide, arbo­ri­cide, efficiency.

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    4

    Ilincev A.S., Tret­jakov S.V., Ershov R.A., Fedo­tov I.V. The qual­i­ty of wood pine in for­est stands passed of thin­ning cut­ting in the north-taiga district.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle presents an overview of the research on the impact of thin­ning cut­ting on sum­mer wood con­tent and qual­i­ty of wood. The aver­age per­cent­age of late wood exceeds the aver­age per­cent­age of late wood in the high-pro­duc­tive pine forests ver­sus the taiga zone of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion. The den­si­ty of pine wood exceeds the aver­age den­si­ties of mid­dle-aged pine in the Arkhangel­sk region.

    Key­words: thin­ning cut­ting, selec­tion sys­tem, cur­rent incre­ment, qual­i­ty of wood.

    40

     

     

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    5

    Kerdyashkin A.V., Medvedev A.N. Pecu­liar­i­ties of seed­ing of Schrenk spruce on the Zailiysky Alatau high mountains.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    For­ma­tion of the Schrenk spruce seeds (Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey.) depends on the geno­typ­ic and phe­no­typ­ic struc­ture of the pop­u­la­tions, cli­mat­ic and weath­er con­di­tions, which change on the moun­tains with increas­ing alti­tude. The begin­ning of the grow­ing sea­son of the Schrenk spruce on the Zailiyskiy Alatau high moun­tains reduces 2–3 times; the sum of active aver­age dai­ly tem­per­a­tures (over 10°) reduces to 2000°. Spruce blos­soms with the amount of pos­i­tive aver­age dai­ly tem­per­a­tures is 225…235°. The dura­tion of flow­er­ing is 16–24 days, the amount of aver­age dai­ly tem­per­a­tures is 229…302°, active pol­li­na­tion is 9–16 days, that on 1–8 days longer than the effec­tive fer­til­iza­tion of female inflo­res­cences. Pollen fer­til­i­ty of the spruce in high moun­tains is only 42 %. All this deter­mines low qual­i­ty of seed: the mass of 1000 seeds is about 5 grams, the lab­o­ra­to­ry ger­mi­na­tion is 6 %, the emp­ty and under­de­vel­oped seeds are 70 %.

    Key­words: the Schrenk spruce, cli­mate and weath­er char­ac­ter­is­tics, pollen fer­til­i­ty, sow­ing qual­i­ties of seeds, seed radiography.

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    6

    Krivono­go­va A.S., Arkhipo­va T.I.  Issues of preser­va­tion and devel­op­ment of the Park Estate Kello.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Inspec­tion of the ter­ri­to­ry of the Kel­lo Park Estate, part of nation­al his­tor­i­cal and cul­tur­al her­itage, locat­ed on the bank of the Merevskoye Lake, Luzh­sky Dis­trict, Leningrad Oblast. We have per­formed a his­tor­i­cal overview of archi­tec­tur­al and plan­ning and con­struc­tion solu­tions applied to the Estate ter­ri­to­ry through­out a long peri­od of time. We have also dis­cov­ered the his­to­ry of own­ing and using the Estate and assessed the con­tri­bu­tion its own­ers made to the Estate devel­op­ment. Final­ly, we have inves­ti­gat­ed into the issues relat­ed to improve­ment, man­age­ment and main­te­nance of the Estate land plots.

    Key­words: land­scape art Russ­ian noble estates; noble estate com­plex­es; preser­va­tion, restora­tion of land­ed estates; land­scap­ing noble estate, estates of the Leningrad region.

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    7

    Polyako­va V.V.  The for­ma­tion of soil qual­i­ties on dif­fer­ent parts of the klint.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle pro­vides the mor­pho­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­i­za­tion, par­ti­cle size dis­tri­b­u­tion and agro­chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of soils of the park of Saint-Peters­burg For­est Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty. Objec­tives of the Study – to iden­ti­fy the par­tic­u­lar qual­i­ties of soil on iffer­ent parts of the klint. The pro­ce­dure of the mor­pho­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­i­za­tion was car­ried out accord­ing the method­ol­o­gy for urban soils. Par­ti­cle size dis­tri­b­u­tion and agro­chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of soil were iden­ti­fied by using a stan­dard method­ol­o­gy. The data were ana­lyzed in three groups: the upper part, the low­er part and the slope.

    Key­words: klint, Park of forestry Uni­ver­si­ty, qual­i­ties of soil.

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    8

    Pre­o­brazhen­skaya K.M. Influ­ence of mois­ture habi­tats on the num­ber and species com­po­si­tion of earth­worms (Oligochaeta, Lum­b­ri­ci­dae) in St. Petersburg.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The influ­ence of the habi­tats mois­ture on species com­po­si­tion and abun­dance of earth­worms on the banks of stag­nant water bod­ies in the Admi­ral­teiskiy and Pet­ro­grad­sky dis­tricts of St. Peters­burg, Rus­sia, was stud­ied. The total num­ber of record­ed species is 7. The reveal­ing of such species as A. lon­ga and E. bal­a­ton­i­ca was unex­pect­ed since these species are typ­i­cal for oth­er envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions. The fol­low­ing species of earth­worms were record­ed: in the Admi­ral­teiskiy dis­trict – Allolobopho­ra lon­ga, Allolobopho­ra calig­i­nosa, Apor­rec­todea rosea, Lum­bri­cus ter­restris, Lum­bri­cus rubel­lus, Lum­bri­cus cas­ta­neus, and Eise­nia bal­a­ton­i­ca; in Pet­ro­grad­skiy dis­trict – Allolobopho­ra calig­i­nosa, Allolobopho­ra lon­ga, Lum­bri­cus ter­restris, and Lum­bri­cus rubel­lus. The soil of the Pet­ro­grad­skiy dis­trict which has more mois­ture capac­i­ty is inhab­it­ed by almost twice less num­ber of species of earth­worms (4 species) than the dri­er soil of the Admi­ral­teiskiy dis­trict (7 species). Its con­clud­ed that the pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of earth­worms at dif­fer­ent dis­tances from the coast-line is deter­mined by soil mois­ture; the degree of hydra­tion of the habi­tat affects main­ly the species com­po­si­tion of amphibi­ot­ic, endo­ge­ic, and epige­ic and epige­ic earthworms.

    Key­words: earth­worms, mon­i­tor­ing, swamp, soil sam­ples, bio­log­i­cal diver­si­ty.

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    9

    Turchi­na T.A., Rodin S.A. Esti­ma­tion of asso­ciate species role in black alder mixed stands

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Fea­tures inven­to­ry and san­i­tary struc­ture of pure and mixed stands are stud­ied. Influ­ence lev­el of accom­pa­ny­ing tree species was esti­mat­ed on dis­tinc­tion (in com­par­i­son with pure stands) bio­met­ric indi­ca­tors, stand den­si­ty, grow­ing stock, den­si­ty vari­a­tion and share of dead trees. In flood­plain eco­type tree species pro­mot­ing improve­ment of stands have not been iden­ti­fied. Neu­tral effect have white poplar (under 20 % of total), white wil­low (under 5 %), under­growth of ash-leaved maple (to 1,5 pcs,/ha), neg­a­tive one same species with high­er shares. In sandy ter­race eco­type com­mon oak with share of 20 % pro­motes 15 % aver­age diam­e­ter, stand den­si­ty by 19 % and grow­ing stock by 20 %. Neu­tral effect have birch (to 30 %), aspen (to 50 %t), neg­a­tive one birch (from 35 %), ash-leaved maple (from 10 per cent). For each eco­type the opti­mum com­po­si­tion of stands is proved.

    Key­words: black alder, pure and mixed stands, bio­met­ric indi­ca­tors, san­i­tary struc­ture, effect esti­ma­tion, opti­mum composition.

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    10

    Chernikhovsky D.M., Lubi­mov А.V., Belov V.A. Eval­u­a­tion of the pos­si­bil­i­ties of auto­mat­ic inter­pre­ta­tion of stra­tums of State For­est Inven­to­ry of the Russ­ian Federation.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In the arti­cle are eval­u­at­ed the pos­si­bil­i­ties of auto­mat­ic inter­pre­ta­tion of stra­tums of State For­est Inven­to­ry of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion as a prospec­tive direc­tion for improv­ing of method of State For­est Inven­to­ry. The overview of pub­li­ca­tions about auto­mat­ic inter­pre­ta­tion of the for­est char­ac­ter­is­tics and crit­i­cism of method of State For­est Inven­to­ry was car­ried out. On exam­ple of cho­sen for­est dis­trict on base Landsat‑8 were obtained the con­fu­sion matriсes of inter­pre­ta­tion with use dif­fer­ent meth­ods and were eval­u­at­ed the results. The direc­tions for future inves­ti­ga­tion and improv­ing of auto­mat­ic inter­pre­ta­tion of stra­tums of State For­est Inven­to­ry are shown.

    Key­words: state for­est inven­to­ry, for­est strat­i­fi­ca­tion, remote sens­ing data, auto­mat­ic inter­pre­ta­tion, сonfu­sion matrix.

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    2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

    11

    Alek­san­drov V.А., Vu Hoa Ky. Vibroload­ing the oper­a­tor skid­ding trac­tor in accel­er­a­tion process

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In arti­cle the dynam­ic mod­el of sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor – skid­ding trac­tor tree bunch». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagrazha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion seats. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly skid­ding trac­tor TB‑1.

    Key­words: dynam­ic mod­el, vibra­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion, seat.

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    12

    Vlasov E.N., Mihy­ilov O.A., Dur­manov M.Ya., Epi­fano­va A.Yi. Vlasov E.N., Mihy­ilov O.A., Dur­manov M.Ya., Epi­fano­va A.Yi. Expen­di­tures of ener­gy for the real­iza­tion of the tan­gen­tial force of trac­tor LHT-100 in the trans­port mode

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Are exam­ined expen­di­tures of ener­gy for the real­iza­tion of the tan­gen­tial force of machine-trac­tor unit (MTU) on the base of trac­tor LHT-100 in the trans­port mode with the dynam­ic behav­iors of load. Is estab­lished the influ­ence of the dynam­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of dri­ve and sys­tem of the cush­ion­ing of mass MTU on the ener­gy loss­es in the imple­men­ta­tion of tan­gen­tial force. Are pro­posed the ways of increas­ing in the trac­tion-speed char­ac­ter­is­tics MTU and the reduc­tion in the spent energy.

    Key­words: spent ener­gy, tan­gen­tial force, speed of motion, trans­fer func­tions, effi­cien­cy of machine-trac­tor unit.

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    13

    Kulikov A.A., Duko­va I.N., Ivano­va I.V. The change of entropy in non­equi­lib­ri­um ther­mo­dy­nam­ic process dur­ing the trans­fer of ener­gy in the form of heat.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The gen­er­al case of non-equi­lib­ri­um ther­mo­dy­nam­ic process of ener­gy trans­fer in the form of heat at finite tem­per­a­ture dif­fer­ence from one sys­tem to anoth­er when you change not only the tem­per­a­ture, but the pres­sure and spe­cif­ic vol­ume of the sys­tem. On the basis of the first law of ther­mo­dy­nam­ics for the case of an ide­al gas is rig­or­ous­ly proven that the total entropy of an iso­lat­ed sys­tem, if it spec­i­fied process­es increas­es. No addi­tion­al prin­ci­ples, in par­tic­u­lar, relat­ed for­mu­la­tions of the sec­ond law of ther­mo­dy­nam­ics, for the evi­dence was not involved. Thus find­ing should be con­sid­ered the result fol­lows from the first law of thermodynamics.

    Key­words: non-equi­lib­ri­um process­es, the increase of entropy, heat trans­fer, finite tem­per­a­ture difference.

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    14

    Mil­jaev A.S. Auto­mat­ed strength cal­cu­la­tion fer­ro­con­crete wheel track plates of tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads on the lay­ered earth basis.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The tech­nique auto­mat­ed cal­cu­la­tion of strength the fer­ro­con­crete wheel track plates of tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads on the lay­ered earth basis is sub­mit­ted. The prob­lem is result­ed in cal­cu­la­tion of a beam on the elas­tic basis. For def­i­n­i­tion of fac­tor of bed the finite – ele­ment deci­sion of a prob­lem on defor­ma­tion of the lay­ered basis by a rigid stamp is used. Geo­met­ri­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of sec­tions of a fer­ro­con­crete plate are result­ed in a homo­ge­neous mate­r­i­al − to con­crete. For def­i­n­i­tion of deflec­tions and the bend­ing moments in a plate the dis­crete finite – ele­ment-mod­el track plates on the elas­tic basis is used. The tech­nique is stat­ed on a spe­cif­ic example.

    Key­words: tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads, fer­ro­con­crete wheel track plates, lay­ered earth basis, auto­mat­ed cal­cu­la­tion of strength.

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    15

    Khe­gai, V.K., Savich, V.L., Mikhi­tarov A.R. About the choice of opti­mal para­me­ters vibra­tional­ly machine.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In the arti­cle it is con­sid­ered the method of choice of opti­mal para­me­ters of fre­quen­cy for the safe and effec­tive destruc­tion of the soil-root sys­tem when using ibra­tional­ly on wood works. This tech­nol­o­gy will allow us to avoid the tra­di­tion­al brush­ing stumps, which should be car­ried out after har­vest­ing. The appli­ca­tion of this tech­nol­o­gy requires a com­pre­hen­sive study of the dynam­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the entire sys­tem «machine – wood – soil-root sys­tem. One of such char­ac­ter­is­tics is the fre­quen­cy of oscil­la­tion by tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment in the tree, which there is effec­tive destruc­tion of the soil-root sys­tem with­out con­se­quences on both wood and machine.

    Key­words: vibra­tional­ly machine, vibra­tion, opti­miza­tion, fre­quen­cy char­ac­ter­is­tics, equip­ment, wood, soil-root system.

    173

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    16

    Tsy­pouk A.M., Sokolov A.I., Rodi­onov A.V., Egip­ti A.E., Haritonov V.A. Results of test­ing of pneu­mat­ic seed­er for uni­ver­sal machine for refor­esta­tion on clearcut­ted plots.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Results of field test­ing of pneu­mat­ic seed­er for uni­ver­sal machine for refor­esta­tion based on dynam­ic hole­mak­er L‑2U are pre­sent­ed. Rec­om­men­da­tions for fur­ther improve­ment of the machine are out­lined on the basis of testing.

    Key­words: refor­esta­tion, pneu­mat­ic seed­er, field testing.

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    3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING
    INDUSTRY

    17

    Kuznetsov A.А., Sokolo­va V.A. Research of phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of

    alder wood with a view to its ratio­nal use.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle presents the research results of phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of alder wood. The fol­low­ing indi­ca­tors of the prop­er­ties of wood: the com­plete swelling, the speed of sound, the com­pres­sion along the grain, the strength of the wood in sta­t­ic bend­ing, cut­ting wood across the grain, mod­u­lus of elas­tic­i­ty on analy­sis of the speed of sound, sta­t­ic hard­ness, impact strength were stud­ied. The result of this research was to obtain val­ues of phys­i­cal – mechan­i­cal indi­ca­tors that can be used in cal­cu­la­tions in wood­work­ing. The use of alder wood in the build­ing con­struc­tion, fin­ish­ing works, con­struc­tion of bridges, Coop­er man­u­fac­tur­ing and many oth­ers are proposed.

    ­­Key­words: wood sci­ence, wood con­struc­tion, ratio­nal use of wood.

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    18

    Мelekhov V.I., Byzov V.E. The expan­sion of resources for load-bear­ing build­ing structures.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle describes the dimen­sion­al char­ac­ter­is­tics of the load-bear­ing ele­ments of build­ing struc­tures from wood. Used in the design ele­ments have a height of not less than 175 mm. They are made from the lum­ber of Board sizes. The dete­ri­o­ra­tion of the dimen­sion­al and qual­i­ta­tive com­po­si­tion of lum­ber neces­si­tates use in load-bear­ing build­ing struc­tures of stacked ele­ments obtained from a round small diam­e­ter tim­ber. The stacked ele­ments with cross-sec­tion­al dimen­sions of 100×100, 125×125 and 100  × 150 mm, due to the insuf­fi­cient sta­bil­i­ty when incor­po­rat­ed in the project lengths, a greater reliance on the car­ry­ing capac­i­ty of its cross-sec­tion, than wood­en ele­ments. The use of the boards pro­duced of lum­ber from small diam­e­ter, will expand the resources of wood for the man­u­fac­ture of load-bear­ing build­ing structures.

    Key­words: load-bear­ing build­ing struc­tures, tim­ber wood, the stacked ele­ments, flex­ur­al strength, resources of wood.

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    19

    Sergee­vichev A.V., Semen­ov A.V., Ovcharo­va E.O. The analy­sis of research­es of process of cut­ting when grind­ing wood and wood mate­ri­als from a posi­tion of the fis­sile grains.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Cut­ting of wood and wood mate­ri­als when grind­ing is car­ried out by abra­sive grains. In a form abra­sive grains can be iso­mer­ic, lamel­lar and xiphoid. Wood grind­ing process research by the abra­sive grains of an abra­sive paper com­ing into con­tact with wood (GK) results in need of divi­sion of sep­a­rate grains into the grains which are car­ry­ing out scratch­ing by for­ma­tion of shav­ing – remov­ing wood (active GA) and on the grains leav­ing a trace (scratch) with­out for­ma­tion of shav­ing – not influ­enc­ing wood removal – con­tact­ing. The analy­sis of process of cut­ting when grind­ing wood and wood mate­ri­als shows that at a new abra­sive paper in the course of work, the most act­ing con­tact grains will have larg­er load­ing, and pos­si­bil­i­ty of their chunk-out, and, there­fore, is not exclud­ed at the sub­se­quent stages of work of an abra­sive paper the num­ber of con­tact grains will change in the increas­ing order.

    Key­words: grind­ing of wood and wood mate­ri­als, abra­sive grains, con­tact grains, the fis­sile grains, process of a shaping.

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    20

    Sergee­vichev V.V., Mikhailo­va A.E. The analy­sis of defor­ma­tions of rollers and wood in the press of the con­tin­u­ous action.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Research objec­tive is deter­mi­na­tion of sizes of defor­ma­tions as the roller man­u­fac­tured of wood lam­i­nat­ed plas­tic or a com­preg­nat­ed wood, and the giv­en wood at their con­tact. When using as the giv­ing bod­ies of rollers from wood-fiber plas­tic and wood lam­i­nat­ed plas­tic and a com­preg­nat­ed wood which elas­tic mod­uli slight­ly dif­fer from a wood elas­tic mod­u­lus, inter­ac­tion of the roller and wood at their con­tact will be char­ac­ter­ized by the rel­a­tive defor­ma­tion. In case of appli­ca­tion of smooth hold-back rolls from wood lam­i­nat­ed plas­tics and a com­preg­nat­ed wood which elas­tic mod­uli are close to an elas­tic mod­u­lus of the wood giv­en by rollers, defor­ma­tions of the roller and wood can be deter­mined by the giv­en for­mu­las. Defor­ma­tions are arc­wise con­nect­ed with load­ings and grad­u­al­ly increase with their increase. The received expres­sions of works of elas­tic defor­ma­tions allow deter­min­ing the pow­er spent for deformation.

    Key­words: equip­ment of the con­tin­u­ous action, defor­ma­tions of rollers and wood, size of defor­ma­tion of the plane and cylinder.

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    21

    Shishk­i­na E.E., Gorokhovsky A.G. Opti­miza­tion of the struc­ture and size of the para-meters modes of con­vec­tive dry­ing lum­ber in terms of effi­cien­cy and quality.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The ques­tions relat­ing to the impact of the dry­ing effi­cien­cy and qual­i­ty of dried wood. The opti­miza­tion of dry­ing con­di­tions on the qual­i­ty of the desired cat­e­go­ry and the cost of ener­gy for drying.

    Key­words: wood dry­ing, dry­ing mode, opti­miza­tion, qual­i­ty and ener­gy efficiency.

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    4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

    22

    Bahti­yaro­va A.V., Elkin V.A., Spit­syn A.A., Roschin V.I. Prepa­ra­tion of

    car­bona­ceous mate­ri­als and adsor­bents of tsel­lolign­i­na obtained from pulp­ing xylitol.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The prin­ci­pal pos­si­bil­i­ty of com­plex use of low-grade birch wood and wood waste to pro­duce food xyl­i­tol, extrac­tives of bio­log­i­cal­ly active sub­stances, active coal and pel­lets and oth­er. The gran­u­lar acti­vat­ed car­bons derived from tsel­lolignin with­out a binder are high­ly inner sur­face and can be used as adsor­bents for var­i­ous pur­pos­es. The pro­posed tech­nol­o­gy of com­plex pro­cess­ing of wood bio­mass is envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly and vir­tu­al­ly waste-free.

    Key­words: hydrol­y­sis, tsel­lolignin, xyl­i­tol, cel­lu­lose, pyrol­y­sis, gran­u­lar acti­vat­ed car­bon (GAC), non-con­dens­able gas­es, bio­mass wood, sorbents.

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    23

    Semeny­che­va L.L., Smirnov V.Ph., Vale­to­va N.B., Il’ichev I.S., Kuznetso­va J.L.,

    Taranko­va O.A., Novoselov A.S., Gerask­i­na E.V. Appli­ca­tion of -ter­pi­ne­ol and pine oil

    for the iso­la­tion and con­ser­va­tion of collagen.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Aque­ous solu­tions of -ter­pi­ne­ol and pine oil in com­bi­na­tion with acetic acid were test­ed as an effec­tive extrac­tants for allo­cat­ing col­la­gen from skins of fish­es. It was shown that its mol­e­c­u­lar weight char­ac­ter­is­tics and these para­me­ters for col­la­gen extract­ed by solu­tion of acetic acid are iden­ti­cal. a‑terpineol and pine oil sup­press smell of col­lage­nous sub­stance dur­ing the extrac­tion as well as at intro­duc­tion into fin­ish col­la­gen prod­uct. Due to their bio­ci­dal activ­i­ty they as acetic acid pre­vent micro­bial degra­da­tion of the col­lage­nous sub­stance under stor­age conditions.

    Key­words: fish col­la­gen, -ter­pi­ne­ol, pine oil, extrac­tion, smell, bio­ci­dal properties.

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    5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING
    AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

    24

    Utkin L.V., Utk­i­na I.L. A fast algo­rithm of a case-con­trol genome-wide asso­ci­a­tion study.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    A fast and com­pu­ta­tion­al­ly sim­ple algo­rithm of genome-wide asso­ci­a­tion study is pro­posed. It is based on an intu­itive assump­tion that the changes of alle­les,  cor­re­spond­ing to impor­tant sin­gle nucleotide poly­mor­phisms, in pairs of indi­vid­u­als,  lead to chang­ing the phe­no­type val­ues of these indi­vid­u­als. A main advan­tage of the pro­posed algo­rithm is that it weak­ly depends on the num­ber of sin­gle nucleotide poly­mor­phisms in the geno­type matrix, but depends main­ly on the num­ber of indi­vid­u­als whose num­ber is usu­al­ly small in com­par­i­son with the num­ber of polymorphisms.

    Key­words: genome-wide asso­ci­a­tion study, sin­gle nucleotide poly­mor­phisms, epis­ta­sis, Las­so, Ham­ming dis­tance, phe­no­type, geno­type, bagging.

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    SCIENTIFIC LIFE

    24

    Fedorov I.A., Donin A.Ya. Prob­lems socio­cul­tur­al and polit­i­cal mod­ern­iza­tion of the soci­ety (on results of the con­fer­ences orga­nized in SPbFTU).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    All-round mod­ern­iza­tion of a soci­ety rep­re­sents a sci­en­tif­ic and prac­ti­cal prob­lem, extreme­ly actu­al both for the world as a whole, and for mod­ern Rus­sia. The arti­cle is writ­ten on the basis of the­o­ret­i­cal devel­op­ments of the group of the authors formed dur­ing last years in St. Peters­burg. FTU in the course of hold­ing con­fer­ences on the prob­lems of mod­ern­iza­tion. In the arti­cle key aspects of the prob­lem of mod­ern­iza­tion of a soci­ety are pre­sent­ed, var­i­ous points of view on this prob­lem­at­ics are stated.

    Key­words: mod­ern­iza­tion of a soci­ety, social trans­for­ma­tion, democ­ra­cy, the social com­mu­ni­ca­tions, cul­ture, education.

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  • Issue 212
  • Name of article 

    Page

    Arti­cle

     

    60 Years of For­est-Mechan­i­cal Faculty

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    1. FORESTRY

    1

    Vetrov L.S. Struc­ture of sub­ur­ban fir groves of St. Petersburg

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Results of research of sub­ur­ban fir groves Sank-Peters­burg are pre­sent­ed in arti­cle. The struc­ture of plant­i­ngs of II and III class­es of site class of cher­nich­nikovy type of the wood is revealed. On struc­ture of plant­i­ng are pre­sent­ed by pure and four types of the mixed for­est stands. The share conif­er­ous increas­es at the expense of increase in a fir-tree in struc­ture. The ten­den­cy change of a stock cor­re­sponds to well-known growth functions.

    Key­words: sub­ur­ban plant­i­ngs, for­est stands of a fir-tree, loud­speak­er of tax­a­tion indicators.

    9

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    2

    Danilov D.A., Smirnov A.P., Smirnov A.A. Influ­ence of inten­si­ty of felling for the den­si­ty of the wood of mature spruce of for­est oxali­do­sum type

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The den­si­ty of the wood of spruce stands for­est oxali­do­sum type formed accord­ing to diam­e­ter stands con­sid­ered as reg­u­lar feed­back thin­ning of dif­fer­ent inten­si­ty. With increas­ing inten­si­ty of log­ging, there is a ten­den­cy to reduce the den­si­ty of the wood. In gen­er­al, there is a nat­ur­al decrease in wood den­si­ty with increas­ing diam­e­ter of the trunk. The den­si­ty of spruce wood in all vari­ants of expe­ri­enced objects high­er than aver­age indi­ca­tors for the region of the study.

    Key­words: the den­si­ty of wood, ripe spruce for­est oxali­do­sum type, inten­si­ty thin­ning, the thick­ness of the stage stand.

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    3

    Lavren­tyev N.V., Firsov G.A. White oak (Quer­cus alba L., Fagaceae) in Saint-Petersburg.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    White oak (Quer­cus alba L.) has been known in Saint-Peters­burg since 1833 and was first­ly test­ed by Direc­tor of Impe­r­i­al Saint-Peters­burg Botan­ic Gar­den F.B. Fis­ch­er. It is rep­re­sent­ed con­stant­ly since 1886. For a long time it was in veg­e­ta­tive state. The flow­er­ing was observed in 1991. In con­di­tions of favourable bio­cli­mat­ic sit­u­a­tion, aris­ing of sum­mer tem­per­a­tures and of pro­lon­ga­tion of veg­e­ta­tive sea­son the acons of local repro­duc­tion were received for the first time in Octo­ber 2002, and the sec­ond gen­er­a­tion from local seeds was obtained in spring 2003. The fruit­ing for the sec­ond time was observed in 2013. In con­di­tions of the warm­ing of the cli­mate the white oak is hap­pened to be the promis­ing tree species for the city plant­i­ng at Saint-Petersburg.

    Key­words: white oak (Quer­cus alba L.), arbori­cul­ture, Saint-Peters­burg, peri­carp, seed skin, anato­my of plants.

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    4

    Murza­kulov S.S. Eco­log­i­cal and sil­vi­cul­tur­al bases of con­ser­va­tion and sus­tain­able devel­op­ment of juniper forests of south­ern Kyrgyzstan.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    This arti­cle describes the sequence of com­plex forestry and envi­ron­men­tal prob­lem of juniperin south­ern Kyr­gyzs­tan and to pro­posed mea­sures for the con­ser­va­tion, restora­tion and enhance­ment of their sus­tain­abil­i­ty. The arti­cle pro­vides a com­pre­hen­sive assess­ment of for­est con­di­tions as a region­al, and make deci­sions on refor­esta­tion, which will ful­ly take into account the changes in envi­ron­men­tal conditions.

    Recent changes of forestry and envi­ron­men­tal para­me­ters of juniper are shown by, tak­ing into account the changed cli­mate con­di­tions (warm­ing), change of anthro­pogenic load, and changed con­di­tions for for­est man­age­ment to enable the orga­ni­za­tion to offer com­plex forestry oper­a­tions, for­est plant­i­ng and envi­ron­men­tal activ­i­ties in the juniper forests and wood­lands of south­ern Kyrgyzstan.

    Key­words: juniper forests, recov­er for­est, exot­ic species.

    42

     

     

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    5

    Fedo­tov I.V., Tret­jakov S.V., Ilintcev A.S. Study of radi­al growth drained forests.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The ques­tion of the effec­tive­ness of lesoosusheniya is very impor­tant for forestry. Large areas were cov­ered by gidrole­some­lio­rat­sii in the Euro­pean North. The pur­pose of these for­est man­age­ment activ­i­ties was to increase the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of plan­ta­tions in the Euro­pean North of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion. Increas­ing pro­duc­tiv­i­ty is the most impor­tant and urgent task for forestry. The aim of this research work described in the arti­cle is the study of radi­al growth of pine before and after for­est recla­ma­tion. In the arti­cle the analy­sis of the width of the annu­al ring of wood at dif­fer­ent dis­tance from the dri­ers. The con­clu­sion is made about the pos­i­tive impact of hydrotech­ni­cal melio­ra­tion on the amount of radi­al growth. The proven effect of chang­ing the dis­tance from the dry­er the amount of radi­al growth.

    Key­words: drainage, annu­al incre­ment, the width of the annu­al ring.

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    6

    Khabaro­va E.P., Pas­tukho­va N.O., Fek­lis­tov P.A., Petrik V.V. Rela­tion of the assim­i­la­to­ry device on the resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of scotch pine.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Arti­cle is devot­ed to study­ing of influ­ence of the assim­i­la­to­ry device on a resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of a pine Scotch. Research­es were con­duct­ed in a dwarf shrub-sphag­num type of pine for­est with drainage, and in a dwarf shrub-sphag­num type of pine for­est with­out drainage. There are dates para­me­ters of the assim­i­la­to­ry device and length of flow resin in two stud­ied for­est types. There are the cor­re­la­tion and regres­sion analy­sis of the obtained data. There are dates changes of length of flow resin depend­ing on oper­a­tion of the dry­ing chan­nel in a dwarf shrub-sphag­num type of pine for­est with drainage.

    Key­words: assim­i­la­to­ry device, resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of a pine Scotch, dwarf shrub-sphag­num type of pine for­est with drainage, degree of drainage, area of nee­dles, mass of nee­dles, diam­e­ter of crown, vol­ume of crown.

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    2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

    7

    Alek­san­drov V.A., Luzano­va L.N., Alek­san­drov A.V. Vibroload­ing of the oper­a­tor feller bunch­er mode lift the tree by an arrow.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle dis­cuss­es vibroload­ing of the oper­a­tor feller bunch­er mode lift the tree by an arrow. The study was con­duct­ed on a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of bio­dy­nam­ic sys­tem «oper­a­tor – Feller Bunch­er – tree». Math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is made in the form of Lagrange equa­tions of the sec­ond kind. Mod­el of the oper­a­tor is pre­sent­ed in the form of one-mass. Dur­ing the study var­ied: accel­er­a­tion accel­er­a­tion arrows in the range of 0.1…0.4 rad/s2. Cal­cu­la­tions are made to the source data in rela­tion to the feller bunch­ers LP-19A. Pro­posed a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el to deter­mine the vibra­tion effects on the body of the oper­a­tor of the OFB in the devel­op­ment stage of the design documentation.

    Key­words: fall­er bencher, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, shake, buf­fet­ing, vibra­tion, seat, operator.

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    8

    Alek­san­drov V.А., Vu Hoa Ky. The prob­lem of skid­ding trac­tor load in accel­er­a­tion process.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of «skid­ding trac­tor – tree bunch» dynam­ic sys­tem and the results of skid­dinh trac­tor start­ing process inves­ti­ga­tions are dis­cussed in the arti­cle. The esti­mat­ed mod­el scheme is pre­sent­ed as three-mass. High lev­el of dynam­ic load­ing in elas­tic sys­tem links (on the trac­tor) was dis­cov­ered as a result of the investigations.

    Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, chake, dynam­ic load.

    85

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    9

    Bagaut­di­nov I.N., Bog­danov E.N., Zhelonkin A.A., Zhilin S.S. Load reduc­tion of the feller bunch­er lp-19v swing mech­a­nism by means of dynam­ic counterweight.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In this arti­cle, the solu­tions of increase of pow­er effi­cien­cy of the val­ochno-pack­ag­ing car real­ized by the improve­ment of a design allow­ing use of an active coun­ter­bal­ance on the exam­ple of the log­ging LP-19V car are pro­posed. Jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of effi­cien­cy of use of an active coun­ter­bal­ance is car­ried out by means of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing. In the pre­sent­ed math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tion – pulling up of the cut tree, in con­nec­tion with essen­tial influ­ence on this tech­no­log­i­cal process of action of an active coun­ter­bal­ance is con­sid­ered by the manipulator.

    Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing, har­vester machine, manip­u­la­tor, sup­port-rotat­ing device, counterweight.

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    10

    Vlasov E.N., Mihy­ilov O.A., Dur­manov M.Ya., Epi­fano­va A.Yi. Deter­mi­na­tion of a quan­ti­ty of ener­gy, spent on the real­iza­tion of the tan­gen­tial force of trac­tor LHT-100 in the arable mode.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Are exam­ined expen­di­tures of ener­gy for the real­iza­tion of the tan­gen­tial force of machine-trac­tor unit (MTU) on the base of trac­tor LHT-100 in the arable mode tak­ing into account dynam­ic loads. Is estab­lished the depen­dence of expen­di­tures of ener­gy on the dynam­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of dri­ve and sus­pen­sion sys­tem of MTU. Are pro­posed the ways of a decrease pow­er con­sump­tion for the dynam­ic loads and on increas­es in the tan­gen­tial thrusts.

    Key­words: spent ener­gy, tan­gen­tial force, speed of motion, trans­fer functions.

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    11

    Gor­bache­va T.I., Epi­fano­va A.U., Kislicin A.D. Issle­dovanie proces­sa razrusheni­ia pri nepod­vigh­nom sochli­nenii detalei v uzle mashin lesno­go kompleksa.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The main tasks that must be addressed to each con­struc­tor, when ana­lyz­ing the endurance and the means of pre­vent­ing struc­tur­al fail­ure, are estab­lish­ing the most prob­a­ble of the var­i­ous types of mechan­i­cal dam­age occur­ring in engi­neer­ing prac­tice, and to assess the pos­si­bil­i­ty of struc­tur­al fail­ure dur­ing its oper­a­tion. Resource work of respon­si­ble nodes are often lim­it­ed to pre­ma­ture wear or destruc­tion of the con­tact­ing parts,as a result of devel­op­ment of a spe­cial kind of sur­face dam­age – fret­ting occur­ring at the con­tact­ing met­al sur­faces in rel­a­tive oscil­la­to­ry move­ment. Rel­a­tive dis­place­ment of the sur­faces may be very small, how­ev­er, it is suf­fi­cient for the occur­rence of fret­ting corrosion.

    Key­words: wear, move­ment with small devi­a­tion, fret­ting corrosion.

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    12

    Gryazin V.A. Method of cal­cu­lat­ing the ener­gy costs for­est har­vest­ing machines manip­u­la­tor type in mod­el­ing wood harvesting.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Method of cal­cu­lat­ing the ener­gy costs for­est har­vest­ing machines manip­u­la­tor type in mod­el­ing wood har­vest­ing are present. The sim­u­la­tion is made on the basis of pseu­do-ran­dom data gen­er­at­ing source and the sub­se­quent pro­cess­ing depend­ing on the speci­fici­ty of design machines.

    Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing, sim­u­la­tion mod­el­ing, ener­gy costs, for­est har­vest­ing machines, wood harvesting.

    123

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    13

    Kulikov A.A., Dyuko­va I.N., Ivano­va I.V. Fea­tures direct range process­es in an ide­al gas.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    A strict proof of prin­ci­ple that can­not be imple­ment­ed in the ide­al gas straight cir­cu­lar process in which heat to gas only is sup­plied. In the proof con­sid­ers all pos­si­ble cas­es of a cir­cu­lar process: ful­ly bal­anced, ful­ly non-equi­lib­ri­um, as well as their com­bi­na­tions. The proof is based on the first law of ther­mo­dy­nam­ics. A com­par­i­son of the spec­i­fied posi­tion with the sec­ond law of ther­mo­dy­nam­ics in the for­mu­la­tion of M. Planck: «It is Impos­si­ble to build a peri­od­i­cal­ly oper­at­ing the machine, all of which would be to raise the load and a cor­re­spond­ing cool­ing of the heat reser­voir». Estab­lished the anal­o­gy between proven posi­tion and that word­ing, if applied to a machine in which the work­ing flu­id is an ide­al gas. Accord­ing­ly, for this case, the sec­ond law of ther­mo­dy­nam­ics is a direct con­se­quence aris­ing from the first beginning.

    Key­words: the sec­ond law of ther­mo­dy­nam­ics, ide­al gas, cir­cu­lar process­es, the exhaust heat.

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    14

    Lok­sh­tanov B.M., Orlov V.V., Bacherikov I.V., Pashkov A.V. Pro­duc­tion tech­nol­o­gy from log­ging residues chips and ways of improv­ing its ener­gy indices.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle deals with the prop­er­ties of wood chips, chopped from log­ging residues, deter­mined by its frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion, clog­ging min­er­al inclu­sions and humid­i­ty. Describes a process for remov­ing free water from the cap­il­lar­ies of wood (wood chips) to reduce the wood mois­ture and increase its calorif­ic val­ue. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of a sin­gle cap­il­lary drainage lay­er of wood and wood chips in the field of cen­trifu­gal forces dur­ing cen­trifu­ga­tion. The data on the time of dehy­dra­tion chips from birch and pine wood of dif­fer­ent ini­tial mois­ture con­tent, when the sep­a­ra­tion fac­tor 350 G, 700 G, 1050 G. It is not­ed that the removal of free water from birch chips is more intense than that of pine chips, due to the dif­fer­ent struc­ture of these species of wood.

    Key­words: wood chips, mois­ture con­tent, dehy­dra­tion, cen­trifu­ga­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, chips sorting

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    15

    Mil­jaev A.S. Rigid­i­ty of lay­ered earth bases tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The design pro­ce­dure of rigid­i­ty of the lay­ered earth bases tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads is sub­mit­ted by a method of finite ele­ments. Bal­ance of the lay­ered elas­tic par­al­lelepiped which has been cut out from a lay­ered semi-infi­nite space, under action on a small part of its sur­face (a load­ing plat­form) in reg­u­lar inter­vals dis­trib­uted load­ing, per­pen­dic­u­lar to a sur­face is con­sid­ered. The sizes of edges of a par­al­lelepiped are appoint­ed such that dis­place­ments on its sides made a small share from dis­place­ments under a load­ing plat­form. Thus the height of a par­al­lelepiped is accept­ed to the equal depth of active com­pressed thick­ness of a ground deter­mined under rec­om­men­da­tions of build­ing norms. For cal­cu­la­tion the deposit of a sur­face of the bases is used the for­mu­la deduced by the author. Exam­ples of cal­cu­la­tions of rigid­i­ty of the lay­ered earth bases are resulted.

    Key­words: tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads, lay­ered earth basis, finite-ele­ments method, coef­fi­cient of a bed.

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    16

    Trofi­mov A.V., Gor­bache­va T.I. About plauce of ther­mal pro­cess­ing and chem­i­cal and ther­mal pro­cess­ing in the tech­no­log­i­cal process of man­u­fac­tur­ing for­est machines components.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Dia­grams of state changes of the object of labour in the man­u­fac­ture of com­po­nents for­est machines were exam­ined. Goals and meth­ods were for­mu­lat­ed. The rec­om­men­da­tions for man­age­ment of options physic-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the mate­r­i­al with meth­ods of ther­mal pro­cess­ing and chem­i­cal and ther­mal pro­cess­ing were presented.

    Key­words: tech­no­log­i­cal process, ther­mal pro­cess­ing, chem­i­cal and ther­mal pro­cess­ing, detail.

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    3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING
    INDUSTRY

    17

    Bir­man A.R., Belono­go­va N.A., Sokolo­va V.A. Neu­tron pro­tec­tive wood materials.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle con­sid­ers the issues of cre­ation of new neu­tron pro­tec­tive mate­ri­als from ion­iz­ing radi­a­tion. Research­es of the changes of ion­iz­ing radi­a­tion neu­tron flux­es, when meet­ing with the pro­tec­tion of wood, as a nat­ur­al (whole or chopped) and a mod­i­fied seal and (or) impreg­na­tion are giv­en. It is estab­lished that pro­tects the abil­i­ty of wood blocks under the influ­ence of the fast neu­tron flux by only 6 and 12 % below the pro­tect­ing abil­i­ty of pro­tec­tion from poly­eth­yl­ene and paraf­fin, respec­tive­ly. Borat­ed wood, as a pro­tec­tive mate­r­i­al, pro­vides the basic func­tion of pro­tec­tion – the effec­tive slow flow low, inter­me­di­ate and fast neu­trons. The ways of deep­er com­pres­sion of wood pulp and improv­ing it neu­tron pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties are inves­ti­gat­ed. The tech­ni­cal solu­tion of use of whole and crushed borat­ed wood for pro­tec­tion against neu­tron flux­es of small and medi­um ener­gies is given.

    ­­Key­words: com­pres­sion wood, ion­iz­ing radi­a­tion, neu­tron pro­tec­tive mate­r­i­al.

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    18

    Gusev V.G. About Meth­ods of an esti­ma­tion of humid­i­ty of wood com­bustible mate­ri­als depend­ing on weath­er conditions.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Exist­ing indi­ca­tors of fire dan­ger in woods on weath­er con­di­tions are con­sid­ered and analysed. Along with oper­at­ing com­plex indi­ca­tor of Gidromet­sluzh­by (V.G. Nes­terov’s indi­ca­tor) are result­ed devel­oped in St. Peters­burg Forestry Research Insti­tute humid­i­ty indi­ca­tors ground­field lay­er groun­da cov­er (ПВ‑1) and lay­ing (ПВ‑2), dif­fer­ent by the account of lev­el-by-lev­el struc­ture wood напочвенного a cov­er and the dif­fer­en­ti­at­ed account of drop­ping out deposits. Meth­ods of cal­cu­la­tion of these indi­ca­tors are giv­en. It is estab­lished that entered into V.G. Nes­terov’s indi­ca­tor of the amend­ment don’t elim­i­nate its basic lack, name­ly a ker­nel of the indi­ca­tor which is not reflect­ing phys­i­cal process­es, caus­ing mois­ture move­ment in field lay­er a cov­er and a lay­ing. They don’t con­sid­er influ­ence on process­es of dry­ing and humid­i­fy­ing of height of dis­trict above sea lev­el, bed cur­tains of a for­est stand, a wind and solar radi­a­tion. The new phys­i­cal and math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for an esti­ma­tion of a mois­ture con­tent of hygro­scop­ic wood com­bustible mate­ri­als in field lay­er a cov­er and a lay­ing, and also a new scale of fire dan­ger in the wood, based on a mois­ture con­tent of the basic con­duc­tors of burn­ing in field lay­er a cov­er is offered.

    Key­words: wild­fire, for­est com­bustible mate­ri­als, fire haz­ard, humid­i­ty indicators.

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    19

    Fedyaev A.A., Chu­bin­sky A.N., Fedyaev A.A., Fedyae­va N.Yu. Analy­sis of ener­gy effi­cien­cy ele­ments of translu­cent walling.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

     In arti­cle ana­lyzes the trans­mis­sion heat loss­es through the var­i­ous translu­cent walling. As a result of stud­ies, it was found that the loss­es of ther­mal ener­gy can be more than 2 times high­er cur­rent require­ments depend­ing on the dif­fer­ent thick­ness of win­dow sash­es. Analy­sis of the ther­mo­grams and of the results of cal­cu­la­tions of trans­mis­sion heat loss­es deter­mine the neces­si­ty of jus­ti­fi­ca­tion-ori­ent­ed approach in select­ing the ele­ments of translu­cent walling, mate­ri­als and exe­cu­tion of these ele­ments depend­ing on the geo­log­i­cal and cli­mat­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the region of operation.

    Key­words: ther­mal ener­gy loss, translu­cent walling, ther­mal imaging.

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    4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

    20

    Bay­dakov D.L. Elec­tri­cal prop­er­ties and the local atom­ic envi­ron­ment in the cop­per-con­tain­ing halco­genide films obtained by chem­i­cal deposition.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    By chem­i­cal depo­si­tion from solu­tions of chalco­genide glass­es in n‑butylamine obtained chalco­genide films CuI–AsI3–As20Se3, CuI–SbI3–As2Se3, stud­ied the elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty of the films. It was found that the elec­tri­cal prop­er­ties of chalco­genide glass­es and films based on them with­in the exper­i­men­tal error no dif­fer­ent. Möss­bauer spec­troscopy (NGR) on iso­topes 129I and 121Sb stud­ied the local envi­ron­ment of atoms in the films CuI–PbI2–As2Se3, CuI–SbI3–PbI2–As2Se3. Anti­mo­ny atoms are able to Sb(III) and sele­ni­um atoms are sur­round­ed by three. Cop­per atoms are in the state of Cu(I) and sur­round­ed by an iodine atom. The local envi­ron­ment of cop­per atoms, anti­mo­ny and iodine chem­i­cal­ly deposit­ed chalco­genide films sim­i­lar to the local envi­ron­ment of the atom in the ini­tial chalco­genide glasses.

    Key­words: Chalco­genide films, chem­i­cal depo­si­tion from an organ­ic solu­tions, elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty of the chalco­genide films, Möss­bauer spec­troscopy (NGR), the local envi­ron­ment of the atoms in the chalco­genide films a sim­i­lar to the local envi­ron­ment of the atom in the ini­tial chalco­genide glass­es.

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    21

    Kise­lev I.Ia. Elec­tron con­duc­tiv­i­ty of methyl alcohol.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Exper­i­men­tal­ly and the­o­ret­i­cal­ly proved an elec­tron­ic con­duc­tiv­i­ty for methanol alco­hol dur­ing the action of applied elec­tric field. An allowed which occu­pied by H atoms with elec­tric charge and low con­tin­u­ous elec­tron den­si­ty rep­re­sents the zone of con­duc­tiv­i­ty in methanol alco­hol. Under action of applied elec­tric field an elec­tron trans­fer occurs among H atoms in methanol alco­hol result­ing in actu­al elec­tron conductivity.

    Key­words: injec­tion of elec­trons, elec­tron trans­fer, elec­tron con­duc­tiv­i­ty, con­duc­tiv­i­ty zone.

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    22

    Kislit­sy­na O.V., Ves­nin R.L., Sintsov K.N., Ala­lykin A.A. Assess­ment of bio­ci­dal activ­i­ty of new means of «NORWOOD» for pro­tec­tive pro­cess­ing of wood

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Received a new pro­tec­tive agent «NORWOOD ECO» for wood in the form of an aque­ous solu­tion, has anti­sep­tic prop­er­ties using waste poly­eth­yl­ene tereph­tha­late tech­nol­o­gy avail­able for the scheme. A sig­nif­i­cant inhibito­ry effect of agents on the growth of fun­gi, such as Aspergillus niger, Pae­cy­lomyces var­i­ot­ti, Peni­cil­li­um pur­puro­genum. Oligomer­ic prod­ucts of chem­i­cal destruc­tion of poly­eth­yl­ene tereph­tha­late mod­i­fied with boric acid deriv­a­tives to form with the cel­lu­lose and lignin suf­fi­cient­ly sta­ble com­plex­es, allow­ing sig­nif­i­cant­ly increase the fix­a­tion to the fibers of the wood preservative.

    Key­words: wood, anti­sep­tic, poly­eth­yl­ene tereph­tha­late, oligomers of boric acid deriv­a­tives, mold fun­gi, fungi­cides.

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    5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING
    AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

    23

    Zatenko S.I., Tara­ban M.V. Com­par­a­tive analy­sis of inter­val Bayesian mod­el of reli­a­bil­i­ty soft­ware with known prob­a­bilis­tic mod­el of reliability.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle present sacar­ried out com­par­a­tive analy­sis of inter­val Bayesian beta-geo­met­ri­cal mod­el of soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty and Jelin­s­ki-Moran­da mod­el. This com­par­a­tive analy­sis shows that newre­li­a­bil­i­ty mod­els­based on the use of inter­val reli­a­bil­i­ty indi­ca­tors make it pos­si­ble to obtain a more accu­rate fore­cast. Con­se­quent­ly, the yare a good alter­na­tivet o clas­si­cal mod­els, espe­cial­ly in case of insuf­fi­cient amount of sta­tis­ti­cal information.

    Key­words: reli­a­bil­i­ty soft­ware, inter­val Bayesian mod­el of reli­a­bil­i­ty, coef­fi­cient of pes­simism, para­me­ter cau­tion.

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    6. ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

    24

    Tretyakov A.G. The prac­ti­cal imple­men­ta­tion of for­est plan for exam­ple of the Arkhangel­sk region.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The most impor­tant tool of the for­est pol­i­cy is plan­ning. The basic doc­u­ment of plan­ning is a for­est plan of the con­stituent enti­ty of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion. How­ev­er, plan­ning in forestry does not pro­vide sus­tain­able for­est man­age­ment in some regions due to the exis­tence of a cer­tain range of prob­lems. In this arti­cle the analy­sis of the imple­men­ta­tion of the For­est Plan was made using the exam­ple of the Arkhangel­sk region hav­ing been car­ry­ing it out for 6 years. The main rea­sons for dis­crep­an­cies between planned and actu­al per­for­mance were iden­ti­fied. Mea­sures to improve the region­al for­est plans have been pro­posed, includ­ing the use of such a plan­ning tool as the assess­ment of the eco­nom­ic acces­si­bil­i­ty of for­est resources.

    Key­words: for­est plan, indi­ca­tors of the plan, eco­nom­ic acces­si­bil­i­ty of for­est resources.

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    25

    Smirno­va A.I., Le Chung Hieu, Levchenko I.A. Impact of trans­port infra­struc­ture to the cost price of tim­ber harvesting.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle ana­lyzes the cost struc­ture of tim­ber har­vest­ing and deter­mine the lev­el of impact of trans­port on the prof­itabil­i­ty of log­ging on the exam­ple of the five tim­ber com­pa­nies Leningrad and Volog­da regions.

    Key­words: trans­port net­work, tim­ber haul­ing, for­est trans­port ser­vices, main­te­nance of log­ging roads, cost price of round­wood.

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  • Issue 211
  • Name of article 

    Page

    Arti­cle

    I. ECOLOGY OF FOREST DENDROPHILOUS INSECTS

    1

    Volod­chenko A.N. Ear­ly col­o­niza­tion of oaks by xylo­bi­ot­ic bee­tles in flood­plain forests of Sara­tov region, Russia.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The assess­ment of ear­ly col­o­niza­tion of oaks by xylo­bi­ot­ic bee­tles in flood­plain forests of east­ern part of Sara­tov region (Rus­sia) was per­formed in 2011–2013. Sam­ples were col­lect­ed in one-month inter­vals from May to August by three meth­ods: win­dow flight traps, attrac­tion traps (bait­ed with white wine), and man­u­al search­ing. Dur­ing the study we col­lect­ed 1861 spec­i­mens of 45 xylo­bi­ot­ic species belong­ing to 6 fam­i­lies of Coleoptera. The most abun­dant xylo­bi­ot­ic groups were Cer­am­by­ci­dae (27 species, 922 spec­i­mens, 49.5 % of the total of col­lect­ed insects) and Bupresti­dae (8 species, 443 spec­i­mens, 23.8 % of the total of col­lect­ed insects). The core of the com­mu­ni­ty of xylo­bi­ot­ic bee­tles com­prise of 13 species, among which the most abun­dant are Scoly­tus intri­ca­tus and Xyle­bor­i­nus sax­e­senii. Weak­ened trees first col­o­nized by Agrilus angus­tu­lus, A. bigut­ta­tus,and Chrysoboth­ris affi­nis. These results can become a start­ing point for fur­ther analy­sis of the bio­di­ver­si­ty struc­ture of xylo­bi­ot­ic bee­tles in flood­plain forests of Sara­tov region.

     

    Key­words: saprox­ylic bee­tles, Quer­cus robur, flood­plain for­est, habi­tat pref­er­ence, Sara­tov region (Rus­sia).

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    2

    Gri­bust I.R. Diver­si­ty and spa­tial dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion of leaf-min­ing insects in the pro­tec­tive afforestation.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In the past years, find­ings of the dam­age by min­ers in the foliage of the pro­tec­tive forests were sin­gu­lar. Recent research has shown that in pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion trees’ crowns num­ber of mines reach­es the lev­el of 188 mines per 100 leaves. Var­i­ous pat­terns of tree species mix­ing, cer­tain species per­cent­age with­in a stand, and width and posi­tion of trees in the rows of a stand deter­mine the com­po­si­tion of local leaf-min­er com­plex­es, mine abun­dance in tree crowns as well as insect dis­tri­b­u­tion pat­tern with­in a pro­tec­tive for­est belt. Gen­er­al species diver­si­ty of leaf-min­ers inhab­it­ing for­est stands increas­es by the species of gen­era Eri­ocra­nia, Fenusa, Phyl­lono­ryc­ter, Stig­mel­la. In the major­i­ty of local groups, the most pro­nounced dam­age was done by insects of the genus Phyl­lono­ryc­ter.

     

    Key­words: leaf-min­ing insects, species diver­si­ty, pro­tec­tive for­est belts, species com­po­si­tion of trees, rows, dis­tri­b­u­tion across the pro­tec­tive for­est belts.

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    3

    Kriv­ets S.A., Kerchev I.A., Bisiro­va E.M., Demid­ko D.A., Pet’ko V.M., Baranchikov Yu.N. Dis­tri­b­u­tion of four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf. (Coleoptera, Cur­culion­idae: Scolyti­nae) in Siberia.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Data on the cur­rent dis­tri­b­u­tion area of Poly­gra­phus prox­imus,a dan­ger­ous inva­sive pest of fir forests in Siberia were sum­ma­rized. It was found that four-eyed fir bark bee­tle in Siberia occu­pies an area locat­ed between 51º33’N and 58º22’N in lon­gi­tu­di­nal and from 83º04’E to 92º44’E in lat­i­tu­di­nal direc­tions. The data on the P. prox­imus dis­tri­b­u­tion in admin­is­tra­tive dis­tricts and fore­stries in the regions of inva­sion in 7 admin­is­tra­tive sub­jects of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion (Tom­sk, Novosi­birsk, Kemero­vo Oblast’s, the Altai and Kras­no­yarsk Krais, Republics of Khaka­sia and Altai) are given.

     

    Key­words: four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf., dis­tri­b­u­tion, inva­sion, Siber­ian fir forests, Siberia.

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    4

    Lyamt­sev N.I. Risk of gyp­sy moth out­break occur­rence and its spread in Russ­ian forests.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Risk of gyp­sy moth Lyman­tria dis­par (L.) mass out­breaks was eval­u­at­ed by its out­break reg­u­lar­i­ty and occur­rence based on its inven­to­ry data in 52 Russ­ian regions since 1977 (in some regions since 1954) until 2013. Aver­age reg­u­lar­i­ty of out­breaks is about 11 years, occur­rence – 2.8–100 % with out­breaks over obser­va­tion peri­od. Zones of low, mean and severe mass out­break risks were iden­ti­fied. Time space dynam­ics and asyn­chrony of focus area fluc­tu­a­tion of out­break occur­rence were ana­lyzed over 60-year peri­od. Out­break occur­rence decrease trend over 3 last decades as well as out­break spread area reduc­tion in Euro­pean Rus­sia (out­breaks stopped in 9 regions) were found.

     

    Key­words: gyp­sy moth, mass out­breaks, time space analy­sis, Out­break occur­rence risk (poten­tial).

    46

     

     

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    5

    Meshko­va V.L., Zinchenko O.V., Skryl­nyk Yu.E, Aris­to­va A.I. Time­line (or time­frame) of devel­op­ment of pine stem pests in the Left-bank Ukraine.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The study con­sist­ed of clas­si­fi­ca­tion of data on the dates of swarm­ing and tree col­o­niza­tion by the most com­mon stem pests of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the stands of For­est zone, Left-bank For­est Steppe and Steppe of the Left-bank Ukraine in the peri­od of 2005–2014. Prox­im­i­ty of the date of the begin­ning of swarm­ing in Tomi­cus piniper­da to the date of sta­ble tran­si­tion of air tem­per­a­ture over 5 ºC, and in Tomi­cus minor, Acan­thoci­nus aedilis, and the first gen­er­a­tion of Ips sex­den­ta­tus and Ips acumi­na­tus to the date of sta­ble tran­si­tion of air tem­per­a­ture over 10 ºC was sta­tis­ti­cal­ly proved. The lat­est dates of tim­ber removal after win­ter felling were deter­mined as March 12 for Steppe zone, March 15 for Left-bank For­est Steppe and March 22 for For­est zone. The ear­li­est dates of felling in autumn with­out risk of col­o­niza­tion by stem pests were deter­mined as Sep­tem­ber 29 for Steppe zone, Sep­tem­ber 26 for Left-bank For­est Steppe and Sep­tem­ber 16 for For­est zone.

     

    Key­words: Scots pine, stem pests, dates of swarm­ing, dates of wood col­o­niza­tion, dates of sta­ble tran­si­tion of air tem­per­a­ture over and below cer­tain limits.

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    6

    Petrov A.V., Dostaval­ov E.A. Change in aggres­sive­ness of the bark bee­tles (Coleoptera: Cur­culion­idae: Scolyti­nae) asso­ci­at­ed with path­o­gen­ic microorganisms.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Change in behav­ior of bark bee­tles dur­ing col­o­niza­tion of viable trees at the time of infec­tion with vas­cu­lar bac­te­r­i­al and Dutch elm dis­eases is dis­cussed. Eco­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors of Scoly­tus mul­ti­s­tria­tus (Mar­sham), S. kirschii Skalitzky and S. jaroschewskii Schevirew on trees with dif­fer­ent extent of eas­ing are described. For­ma­tion of sym­bi­ot­ic asso­ci­a­tions of some species of Scoly­tus with path­o­gen­ic organ­isms leads to change in behav­ior of bark bee­tles aimed to over­come resis­tance of reversibly weak­ened trees. In such case, trees that are not suit­able for repro­duc­tion of bark bee­tles are col­o­nized. The first stage of col­o­niza­tion of viable healthy shoots is char­ac­ter­ized by fol­low­ing ele­ments: con­struc­tion by females of sev­er­al short parental gal­leries with a small amount of egg cam­eras; reduc­tion in female fer­til­i­ty; mass death of the bugs that attack trees and prog­e­ny at the stages of eggs and lar­vae of the first age caused by pro­tec­tive reac­tions of the occu­pied tree and unsuit­able con­di­tion of food sub­strate (98–100 %); intro­duc­tion of path­o­gen­ic microor­gan­isms to xylem cells of tree stem and thick branch­es and devel­op­ment of an aggres­sive form of ves­sel dis­ease. The sec­ond stage of col­o­niza­tion begins in a year after death of the whole tree or a part of a tree. At this stage, behav­ior of aggres­sive species of Scolyti­nae does not dif­fer from behav­ior of bark bee­tles dur­ing col­o­niza­tion of strong­ly wound­ed or dying trees. In such trees, parental gal­leries are long, and mor­tal­i­ty of eggs and first stage lar­vae is the low (25–45 %).

     

    Key­words: bark bee­tles, aggres­sive species, sym­bi­ot­ic com­plex, bac­te­ria, fun­gi, vas­cu­lar bac­te­rio­sis, Dutch elm dis­ease, Rus­sia, Cau­ca­sus, Scoly­tus, Scolyti­nae, Curculionidae.

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    7

    Pono­marev V.I., Seryi G.A., Belit­skaya M.N., Gri­bust I. R. Dynam­ics of out­break foci area of Gyp­sy moth in Vol­gograd Province (Rus­sia).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The analy­sis of the dynam­ics of out­break foci area of Gyp­sy moth (Lyman­tria dis­par) in Vol­gograd Province (Rus­sia) 1964–2013 was per­formed. It was shown that the high lev­el of out­break foci occur­rence (100 %) in the region con­sid­er­ably con­di­tioned by its’ asyn­chrony, both between and with­in nat­ur­al zones. The high­est asyn­chrony in out­break foci dynam­ics occurs in dry steppe nat­ur­al zone in the north­ern part of Vol­gograd Province. The analy­sis of foci den­si­ty against area cov­ered by gyp­sy moth host plant stands showed that in case of intrare­gion­al zon­ing of gyp­sy moth out­break dan­ger and plan­ning of mon­i­tor­ing meth­ods at least two para­me­ters need to be tak­en into account, name­ly: occur­rence of out­break foci and foci area relat­ed to host plant cov­ered area.

     

    Key­words: gyp­sy moth Lyman­tria dis­par, out­break, mon­i­tor­ing, nat­ur­al zones.

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    8

    Svy­a­to­duh N.Yu., Gol­ub V.B. Eco­log­i­cal com­plex­es of true bugs (Hemiptera: Het­eroptera) as above-ground inhab­i­tants of Teller­man oak­ery (Voronezh Province, Russia).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Data col­lect­ed in 2010–2012 revealed 95 species of 16 Het­eroptera fam­i­lies among above-ground inhab­i­tants of six dif­fer­ent bio­cenoses of Teller­man oak for­est (Voronezh Province, Rus­sia). Nine species from 3 gen­era were list­ed for Voronezh Region for the first time. Fifty five species (57 %) were true above-ground inhab­i­tants or ones liv­ing on grass­es, where­as 40 species (43 %) use soil sur­face and ground lit­ter as tem­po­rary habi­tats or appear there occa­sion­al­ly. The results of a com­par­a­tive analy­sis of the sim­i­lar­i­ties and dif­fer­ences of the dom­i­nant and eco­log­i­cal struc­tures of Het­eroptera com­plex­es of six stud­ied bio­coenoses are presented.

    Key­words: Het­eroptera, above-ground inhab­i­tants, fau­na, dom­i­nants, Teller­man oak­ery, Voronezh Province (Rus­sia).

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    9

    Utk­i­na I.A., Rubtsov V.V. Win­ter moth (Oper­oph­tera bru­ma­ta) as an object of Russ­ian nation­al and for­eign research.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Win­ter moth Oper­oph­tera bru­ma­ta L. (Lep­i­doptera: Geometri­dae) is a com­mon polyphagous species with dis­crete range. The moth feeds on leaves of many trees and shrubs. Fea­tures of the win­ter moth’s life cycle, its out­breaks, pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics, and com­pe­ti­tion with oth­er phyl­lophagous insects were stud­ied in Rus­sia and many coun­tries in Europe as well as Cana­da and the Unit­ed States. Due to the wide dis­tri­b­u­tion range of the species, the win­ter moth is often used as a mod­el in stud­ies of inter­ac­tion between phyl­lophages and host plant, depen­dence of the growth on the con­di­tions of cater­pil­lars’ feed­ing and qual­i­ties of the con­sumed leaves, and dis­tur­bance of syn­chrony between the tim­ing of cater­pil­lars’ hatch­ing from eggs due to cli­mate change.

     

    Key­words: win­ter moth, phyl­lophagous insect, mass prop­a­ga­tion out­breaks, plant–insect inter­ac­tions, host plants, cli­mate changes.

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    2. PROBLEMS OF FOREST PATHOLOGY

    10

    Beloshap­ki­na О.О., Ryabchenko А.S.. Inhi­bi­tion of phy­topath­o­gen­ic fun­gi of the genus Fusicla­di­um under the influ­ence of agrochemicals.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Cur­rent­ly, the neces­si­ty of wide appli­ca­tion of bio­log­i­cal­ly active com­po­si­tions against dis­eases became cru­cial not only in gar­dens and nurs­eries of orna­men­tal and fruit plants, but also in the forests and park­land. A decrease of dis­tri­b­u­tion and devel­op­ment of path­o­gen­ic fun­gi of the genus Fusicla­di­um was shown through the exam­ple of pro­tec­tion against scab of pear and apple trees using fungi­cide Skor, bio­log­i­cal drug Vita­plan, and growth reg­u­la­tor Amulet. Also bio­log­i­cal effec­tive­ness of three meth­ods was com­pared. By the method of cryoSEM was shown the abil­i­ty of the growth reg­u­la­tor Amulet and bio­fungi­cide Skor to induce an inhibito­ry effect on coni­di­al sporu­la­tion of pathogens and sup­press their number.

     

    Key­words: the scab tree crops, scan­ning elec­tron microscopy, cryoSEM, coni­di­al sporu­la­tion, Fusicla­di­um sp., fungi­cides and agrochemicals.

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    11

    Davy­denko K. The main caus­es of ash dieback for Cen­tral and East part of Ukraine.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Ash dieback is an emerg­ing infec­tious dis­ease caused by the ascomycete fun­gus Hymenoscy­phus frax­ineus (anamorph Chalara frax­inea), cur­rent­ly spread­ing in Europe, inclu­sive of Ukraine. The authors’ own data on ash dieback, caused by H. frax­ineus are reviewed for 12 mon­i­tor­ing plots in three Ukrain­ian regions. Dis­ease is known now in over 25 coun­tries of Europe. The pres­ence of pathogen in Kharkiv, Sumy, and Zhy­to­myr regions is proved by mol­e­c­u­lar meth­ods. The main symp­toms of dis­ease are: quick suc­ces­sive crown dieback, necrot­ic spots on the bark of shoots, dis­col­oration of wood and leaves, leaf necro­sis, stem necroses. The present study was focused on inves­ti­ga­tion of iden­ti­fi­ca­tion pathogen, using both mor­pho­log­i­cal and mol­e­c­u­lar meth­ods as well as on devel­op­ment the guide­lines for pre­ven­tion of neg­a­tive con­se­quences of dis­ease spread for for­est man­age­ment and for­est ecosystems.

     

    Key­words: for­est dis­ease, ash dieback, Hymenoscy­phus frax­ineus, Chalara frax­inea, Frax­i­nus.

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    12

    Sazonov A.A. Region­al pat­terns of die-back of oak (Quer­cus robur L.) branch­es dur­ing oak forests depres­sion in Belarus (2003–2008).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Dying of oak crown branch­es is the most wide­spread symp­tom of weak­en­ing trees that was observed dur­ing the mass dry­ing of oak forests in Belarus in 2003–2008. Para­me­ters for assess­ing trees and plants preva­lence from of the dis­ease are pro­posed. Geo­graph­i­cal pecu­liar­i­ties of this oak pathol­o­gy dis­tri­b­u­tion in Belarus are described as well as depen­dence of the pathology’s dis­tri­b­u­tion on forestry stand characteristics.

     

    Key­words: Quer­cus robur, oak branch­es’ die-back, dry­ing of oak forests of Belarus, sil­vi­cul­tur­al plan­ta­tions options.

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    13

    Cher­pakov V.V. Moun­tain ash (Sor­bus spp.) as a mod­el test tax­on for stud­ies of fire blight (Erwinia amylovo­ra (Bur­rill) Winslow et al.) of for­est species.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Fire blight (Erwinia amylovo­ra (Bur­rill) Winslow et al.) affects more than 200 species of trees and shrubs. This one of the most dan­ger­ous bac­te­rios­es in the world was offi­cial­ly record­ed in Rus­sia in 2009. Many for­est tree and shrub species are affect­ed, includ­ing moun­tain ash, hawthorn, and oth­ers that can be indi­ca­tors and reser­va­tions of the infec­tion. Spe­cif­ic symp­toms of the fire blight on species of moun­tain ash (Sor­bus aucu­paria, S. tormi­nalis) were stud­ied. Cor­rect diag­no­sis was con­firmed by study of the pathogen biol­o­gy. Moun­tain ash (Sor­bus spp.) is wide­spread in the woods, for­est parks, and orna­men­tal plant­i­ngs in Rus­sia. It’s high sus­cep­ti­bil­i­ty to E. amylovo­ra car­ries a threat of fur­ther spread of the dis­ease. For the ear­ly detec­tion of bac­te­rio­sis in forestry it is rec­om­mend­ed to use moun­tain ash (Sor­bus ssp.) as a mod­el test tax­on in iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of fire blight.

     

    Key­words: moun­tain ash, fire blight, for­est species, exu­date, bac­te­rio­sis, wood, shep­herd’s сrook.

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    3. MONITORING AND CONTROL OF NATIVE
    AND INVASIVE PHYTOPATHOGENS AND FOREST TREESPESTS

    14

    Karpun N.N., Igna­to­va Ye.A., Zhu­ravl­e­va E.N. Species of pests on orna­men­tal woody plants in humid sub­trop­ics new for Krasnodar Kray (Rus­sia).

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The paper pro­vides infor­ma­tion on species of phy­tophagous insects recent­ly record­ed for the first time in the humid sub­trop­ics of Krasnodar Kray (Rus­sia). Cydal­i­ma per­spec­tal­is Walk­er, Rhyn­chopho­rus fer­rug­ineus Oliv., Paysan­disia archon Burmeis­ter, Ophe­limus maskel­li Ash­mead, Lep­to­cybe invasa Fis­ch­er & LaSalle and Cam­er­aria ohridel­la Desch­ka et Dimic.can becon­sid­ered the most dan­ger­ous for orna­men­tal plants.The major­i­ty of new­ly record­ed species belong to orders Lep­i­doptera, Hemiptera and Hymenoptera. The main cause of the appear­ance of those species in the region is assumed to be due to the anthro­pogenic fac­tor (unin­tend­ed intro­duc­tion of insects with plant­i­ng material).

     

    Key­words: insects, pest fau­na, Cydal­i­ma per­spec­tal­is, Rhyn­chopho­rus fer­rug­ineus, Paysan­disia archon, Ophe­limus maskel­li, Lep­to­cybe invasa.

    189

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    15

    Luk­ma­zo­va E.A., Popovichev B.G. Con­di­tion of the elm trees of the Sum­mer Gar­den in St. Petersburg.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle presents the results of the elm trees study at Sum­mer Gar­den in St. Peters­burg (Rus­sia), analy­sis of inven­to­ry data for 1962–2014, dynam­ics of change in the num­ber of elm trees, and Scoly­tus species com­po­si­tion. The cur­rent con­di­tion of the elm trees in the Sum­mer Gar­den is unsat­is­fac­to­ry. The main cause of tree death is the Dutch elm dis­ease. Due to falling out of the old­est trees, young elm trees includ­ing Resista® trees are now dom­i­nat­ing. Attacks of Scoly­tus bark bee­tles were found on the Resista®-elms’ trunks.

     

    Key­words: His­toric gar­den, Sum­mer gar­den, elms, Dutch disease.

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    16

    Mukhi­na L.N., Ser­aya L.G., Kash­tano­va O.A., Alek­san­dro­va M.S. Phy­topathogens and phy­tophagous insects in the juniper col­lec­tion of MBGRAS.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Con­di­tion of 26 taxa of the juniper col­lec­tion of the Main Botan­i­cal Gar­den of the Russ­ian Acad­e­my of Sci­ences (Moscow) was assessed. Ten species of den­drophilous fun­gi (Kabati­na juniperi R. Schnei­der. ex Arx., Pestalo­tiop­sis funerea (Desm.) Steyaert., Lopho­der­mi­um juniper­inum (Fr.) De Not., Het­er­oba­sid­ion anno­sum (Fr.) Bref., Gym­nospo­rangium cor­nu­tum Arthur ex. F. Kern., Pho­mop­sis juniperivo­ra G. Hahn., Cytospo­ra pinas­tri Fr. (teleo­morph – Val­sa abi­etis Fr.), Capnophialopho­ra pinophi­la (Ness) Borows­ka, Fomi­top­sis pini­co­la (Sw.) P. Karst., Her­potrichia pine­to­rum (Fuck­el) G. Win­ter), 7 species of insect pests (Planococ­cus vovae Nas., Lach­nus (Cinara) juniperi De Geer., Archips (Cocoe­cia) piceana L., Monoctenus juniperi L., Argyresthia argenti­na Zll., Oblig­otro­pus pan­teli Kiefif., Cryp­tur­gus cinereus Herb­st.), and abi­ot­ic fac­tors that weak­en plants were identified. 

                           

    Key­words: mon­i­tor­ing, juniper, intro­duc­tion, dis­ease, phy­topathogens, insect pests.

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    17

    Senasho­va V.A., Grod­nit­skaya I.D. Indi­ca­tor prop­er­ties of microor­gan­isms in mon­i­tor­ing of conif­er­ous trees’ health.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The arti­cle dis­cuss­es a pos­si­bil­i­ty of use of micro­bial com­mu­ni­ties as bio­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors of conif­er­ous plants health dur­ing rou­tine mon­i­tor­ing in for­est nurs­eries, plan­ta­tions, and nat­ur­al forests in Cen­tral Siberia. It was found that a healthy phyl­los­phere of each plant species has a unique epi­phyt­ic com­mu­ni­ty. Dur­ing an infec­tious process, the dif­fer­ences between com­mu­ni­ties dis­ap­pear. Epi­phyt­ic com­plex­es have sim­i­lar micro­bial com­po­si­tion in quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive aspects. Indi­ca­tors of stress state of soil micro­bio­coeno­sis were identified.

     

    Key­words: bioindi­ca­tion, epi­phyt­ic microor­gan­isms, plant diseases.

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    18

    Shirye­va N.V. New pests of trees and shrubs in Sochi Park «Arbore­tum».

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    New inva­sive species of pest arthro­pods, pre­vi­ous­ly absent in the park «Arbore­tum» in Sochi were found on col­lec­table plants. Pest inva­sions hap­pened due to inten­sive anthro­pogenic influ­ence on the plants dur­ing the devel­op­ment of new infra­struc­ture in the city, which caused plants’ depres­sion and weak­en­ing, reduced their resis­tance to pests, as well as with import of inva­sive species with plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al from Europe.

    Key­words: Sochi «Arbore­tum» col­lectible plants, pest arthro­pods, inva­sive species.

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    4. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF FOREST ENTOMOLOGY

    19

    Baranchikov Yu.N., Babichev N.S. On fau­na and iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of poplar gall-form­ing pem­phigous aphids (Ster­n­or­rhyn­hae, Pem­phigi­dae, Pem­phig­i­ni) of for­est-step­per land­scapes of Yenisey Siberia.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    In total, 13 species of pem­phigous aphids were found in 2008–2014 due to inves­ti­ga­tions in the South of Yenisey Siberia (south of Kras­no­yarsk Kray and north of the Repub­lic of Khakas­sia). Their dis­tri­b­u­tion pat­terns cor­re­spond to 5 types of ranges: transpalaearc­tic (The­cabius affi­nis (Kaltenbach), Pem­phi­gus bur­sar­ius L. и P. pop­ulin­i­grae (Schrank)), trans-euro­pean-asi­at­ic (P. bore­alis Tull­gren and P. pop­uli Courchet), west­ern-palaearc­tic (P. passe­ki Borner, P. pro­to­spi­rae Licht­en­stein and P. spy­rothe­cae Passeri­ni), east­ern-palaearc­tic (Th. latisen­so­rius (Hori), P. mat­sumu­rai Monzen and P. microse­to­sus Aoki) and Siber­ian (P. lau­ri­fo­li­ae Dol­go­va and P. pli­ca­tus Dol­go­va). Siber­ian species P. mon­goli­cus Hol­man et Szelegiewicz, known from Altay and North­ern Mon­go­lia is most prob­a­bly exist­ing here. Few species of west­ern-palaearc­tic pem­phigous species (P. passe­ki, P. spy­rothe­cae), prob­a­bly were intro­duced to Siberia already in XX cen­tu­ry. We devel­oped an iden­ti­fi­ca­tion key to rec­og­nize species of gene­ses Pem­phi­gus and The­ca­bilis of this region based on galls and anten­na struc­ture of migrant stage of aphids.

     

    Key­words: gall-form­ing aphids, Pen­phig­i­ni, poplars, Yenisey Siberia, iden­ti­fi­ca­tion key.

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    20

    Meshko­va V.L., Kuk­i­na O.N., Zinchenko O.V., Skryl­nyk Yu.E., Koval L.N., Sokolo­va I.N., Eroshenko S.A. Method­olog­i­cal approach­es to sim­u­la­tion of pine trees dam­age by insects.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    The goal of the research was an improve­ment of method­olog­i­cal approach­es to stud­ies of the impact of insect dam­age sim­u­la­tion on con­di­tion and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Cri­te­ria of tree selec­tion and mark­ing spec­i­fi­ca­tions for exper­i­ments were deter­mined. Meth­ods for dam­age sim­u­la­tion of dif­fer­ent pine organs are described. To avoid pen­e­tra­tion of infec­tion dur­ing sim­u­la­tion of tree dam­age by suck­ing and brows­ing insects on bark and phloem of branch­es, stem, and col­lar, it is rec­om­mend­ed to ster­il­ize the tools with alco­hol. The dates of exper­i­ments on dam­age sim­u­la­tion of nee­dles, buds, and shoots are jus­ti­fied based on the peri­od of shoot growth and pecu­liar­i­ties of feed­ing of stud­ied insects. Data on the dates of pine shoots and nee­dles devel­op­ment in the Left-bank For­est Steppe and Steppe of Ukraine are pre­sent­ed in rela­tions to air tem­per­a­ture, as well as to the dates of pine dam­age by foliage brows­ing insects, large pine wee­vil (Hylo­bius abi­etis L.), and pine shoot bee­tles (Tomi­cus sp.).

     

    Key­words: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), her­bi­vores insects, sim­u­la­tion of dam­age, devel­op­ment of shoots and nee­dles, dates of feed­ing of her­bi­vores insects.

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    21

    Ryss A.Yu. The most sim­ple tech­niques for detec­tion and lab­o­ra­to­ry cul­ti­va­tion of woody plant wilt nematodes.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Sim­ple and orig­i­nal tech­niques for detec­tion and lab­o­ra­to­ry cul­ti­va­tion of woody plant wilt nema­todes are described. The paper is aimed to for­est pathol­o­gists as well as biol­o­gy and forestry teach­ers and stu­dents with lim­it­ed access to equip­ment facilities.

     

    Key­words: woody plant wilt nema­todes, tech­niques for begin­ners, nema­tode infec­tion symp­toms, nema­tode extrac­tion, nema­tode culturing.

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    22

    Sal­nit­skaya M.A., Man­delsh­tam M.Yu. Key to gen­era of Cryphali­ni Lin­de­mann, 1876 (Coleoptera: Cur­culion­idae: Scolyti­nae) of Russ­ian fauna.

     

    Anno­ta­tion

     

    Orig­i­nal keys for deter­mi­na­tion of Cryphali­ni gen­era from Russ­ian fau­na based on exter­nal mor­phol­o­gy and male gen­i­talia struc­ture are devel­oped. Build­ing of male gen­i­talia as a whole and their parts, includ­ing penis body, apophy­ses, tegmen and gas­tral spicule is a sub­ject of strong vari­a­tion with­in the tribe. Male gen­i­talia of most Russ­ian Cryphali­ni gen­era are illustrated.

     

    Key­words: bark bee­tles, male gen­i­talia, mor­phol­o­gy, key, Rus­sia, Cryphali­ni, Scolyti­nae, Curculionidae.

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  • Issue 210
  • Name of article  Page Arti­cle
    I. FORESTRY
    1 Abdu­rach­mano­va Z.I., Neshatayev V.Iu., Neshatae­va V.Iu. Site types of pine forests of Dagestan

    Anno­ta­tion

    The data on the soil mor­phol­o­gy and plant com­mu­ni­ty com­po­si­tion were col­lect­ed on 25 sam­ple plots. The fol­low­ing 6 types were rec­og­nized: Mesic herb type on typ­i­cal dark humic burozems, Cala­m­a­grostis-Myr­tillus type on sod-pod­burs, Tor­gras­sand small-sedge type on resid­u­al­ly cal­care­ous dark humic burozems includ­ing agri­cul­tur­al­ly mod­i­fied, Tor-grass and small-sedge type on dark humic cal­care­ous lithozems, Oxalis-mesic herb type on dark humic cal­care­ous lithozems, Xeric herb type on psammozems.

    Key­words: Koch’s pine, type of for­est site, soil mor­phol­o­gy, eco­log­i­cal fac­tors, eco­log­i­cal ordi­na­tion, degrees of humid­i­ty, degrees of soil fer­til­i­ty, dom­i­nant­i­ng plant species, indi­ca­tor species.

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    2 Gol­ube­va L.V., Nakvasi­na E.N. Аban­doned agri­cul­tur­al land over­grown woody veg­e­ta­tion on car­bon­ate deposits in Arkhangel­sk region

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the dynam­ics regen­er­a­tion aban­doned agri­cul­tur­al land on car­bon­ate sed­i­ments in the mid­dle taiga sub­zone (Kar­gopol Dis­trict of the Arkhangel­sk region). Soil tex­ture, abun­dance and growth or brush­wood depends on the eco­nom­ic use dur­ing agri­cul­tur­al deposits, walls of for­est and the form of fields. Of com­mer­cial­ly valu­able species advan­tage in set­tling on the aban­doned agri­cul­tur­al land have pine, rare spruce, larch – only at pres­ence of the seed trees.

    Key­words: aban­doned agri­cul­tur­al land, resid­ual cal­care­ous soils, over­grow­ing, tim­bers, pine.

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    3 Guryanov M.O., Antonov O.I. Influ­ence of prun­ing in spruce plan­ta­tions on a form of butt length of trees

    Anno­ta­tion

    Is car­ried out con­sid­er­a­tion of influ­ence of one-recep­tion prun­ing up to the height of 7,5 m on a form of the cleared of branch­es butt length part of a large trees in spruce plan­ta­tions. The method of the analy­sis of vari­ance revealed lack of reli­able dis­tinc­tions in sizes of absolute and rel­a­tive rise of trees on exper­i­men­tal and con­trol objects.

    Key­words: spruce plan­ta­tions, prun­ing, stem-form, rise, analy­sis of variance.

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    4 Markov F.F. Cur­rent state of parks, mon­u­ments of land­scape art, of Zhit­o­mir region (Ukraine)

    Anno­ta­tion

    The author con­sid­ers the cur­rent state of parks, mon­u­ments of land­scape art local impor­tance in Zhit­o­mir region. Also he con­duct­ed tax­o­nom­ic and eco­log­i­cal analy­sis of trees and shrubs, aes­thet­ic eval­u­a­tion of plan­ta­tions, as well as iden­ti­fy­ing archi­tec­tur­al and plan­ning fea­tures old parks in the region. The author has devel­oped prac­ti­cal rec­om­men­da­tions for opti­miz­ing road and path net­work, improve the aes­thet­ic val­ue, increase sta­bil­i­ty and dec­o­ra­tive trees and shrubs.

    Key­words: old park, den­droflo­ra, aes­thet­ic evaluation.

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    5 Tyukav­ina O.N., Gri­azkin A.V. Trunk tem­per­a­ture regime of the lin­dens, maples and larchin Arkhangelsk

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle deals with the sea­son altem­per­a­ture vari­abil­i­ty of stems nor­waymaple (Acer pla­tanoides), small-leaved lin­den (Tili­a­cor­da­ta), siberi­an­larch (Lar­ixsi­bir­i­ca var. rossi­ca) dur­ing their phe­no­log­i­cal devel­op­ment. Stud­ies con­duct­ed in the park. The tem­per­a­ture of the tree trunk sur­face mea­sured infrared cam­era. In most cas­es, the tem­per­a­ture of tree trunks is high­er than the aver­ageair tem­per­a­ture of 1…2 °C. More­over, the great­est dif­fer­ence sob­served at the begin­ning of the grow­ing sea­son to the end of May. Tran­si­tion peri­ods between silence and grow­ing sea­son char­ac­ter­ized bylow­er­ing the tem­per­a­ture of tree trunks. The largest ampli­tude of tem­per­a­ture fluc­tu­a­tion son the stem­size cat­e­gories marked for maple.

    Key­words: trunk tem­per­a­ture regime, infrared cam­era, phenophas­es, diam­e­ter at the breastheight.

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    II. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    6 Alexan­drov V.A., Alexan­drov A.V. Vibroload­ing the oper­a­tor of the feller­pack­ag­ing car in a lift­ing car lift carrier

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle devel­oped a mod­el sys­tem of bio­dy­nam­ic «oper­a­tor – feller-bunch­er». Math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is made in the form of Lagrange equa­tions of the sec­ond kind. The sys­tem of equa­tions is solved with respect to the elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the spinal col­umn oper­a­tor Runge–Kutta method with the help of pro­gram­ming envi­ron­ment Math­cad. Analy­sis of results shows, that the process of «hang­ing» feller bunch­er clas­sic lay­out (with­out equal­iz­er plat­form) is accom­pa­nied by a high lev­el manip­u­la­tor vibra­tion expo­sure to the operator.

    Key­words: the bio­dy­nam­ic, vibra­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion, seat.

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    7 Bagaut­di­nov I.N., Bog­danov E.N., Zhelonkin A.A., Zhilin S.S. Enhanc­ing the sta­bil­i­ty of the tim­ber har­vest­ing machine of manip­u­la­tor type by using an active sus­pen­sion system

    Anno­ta­tion

    In arti­cle the­o­ret­i­cal mate­ri­als increase of sta­bil­i­ty of VPM LP-19V by use of active run­ning sys­tem with a change­able track that leads to increase of sta­bil­i­ty and as a result to increase of pro­duc­tiv­i­ty are stat­ed. It is applied the­o­ret­i­cal mate­ri­als and results of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing of var­i­ous situations.

    Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing, har­vester machine, manip­u­la­tor, сhas­sis frame, stability.

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    8 Bazarov S.M., Soloviev A.N. Syn­er­getic analy­sis of tech­no­log­i­cal speed pro­duc­tion of whips sys­tem of for­est machines and oper­a­tional mechanisms

    Anno­ta­tion

    Devel­op­ment of the forestry sec­tor in dynam­ic terms, the mar­ket should be based on the use of the most ener­gy-sav­ing tech­nolo­gies, the formed com­plex­es of machines and equip­ment, rep­re­sent­ing a uni­form sys­tem-syn­er­getic pat­terns, opti­mal­ly per­form­ing their objec­tive func­tions. The results of ana­lyt­i­cal stud­ies have shown that the effec­tive pow­er mech­a­nized-machine tech­nol­o­gy sig­nif­i­cant­ly less machine, machine tech­nol­o­gy com­pared with mech­a­nized-machine have great tech­no­log­i­cal pro­duc­tion speed of whips; machine tech­nol­o­gy com­pared with mech­a­nized-machine have small­er spe­cif­ic tech­no­log­i­cal pro­duc­tion speed of whips.An inven­to­ry of the pub­lished turnover of agri­cul­tur­al land Leningrad Agri­cul­tur­al Research Insti­tute «Bel­o­gor­ka». A descrip­tion of soil pro­files most char­ac­ter­is­tic sites using val­u­a­tion signs of for­est land-relief, par­ent rock and drainage con­di­tions. On these grounds esti­mat­ed nat­ur­al water regime and ele­ments of min­er­al nutri­tion of soil. Hydro­log­i­cal regime of the soil mea­sured by the depth of the first sur­face of the imper­me­able lay­er. Accord­ing to soil map­ping (descrip­tions and ana­lyt­i­cal work) com­posed val­u­a­tion of land pro­ject­ed pro­duc­tiv­i­ty conif­er­ous stands. The analy­sis on the con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter and water regime in the soil pro­file showed that they are suit­able for the cul­ti­va­tion of high for­est plan­ta­tions on I–II qual­i­ty class.

    Key­words: felling, skid­ding, tree trim­ming, spe­cif­ic per­for­mance, consistency.

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    9 Bir­man A.R., Sokolo­va V.A., Plya­sunov N.V., Kotkas L.A. Hydraulic brak­ing device of a pneu­mat­ic actu­a­tor in the forestry and wood­work­ing machines and devices

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the arti­cle the meth­ods of brak­ing of the pis­ton of the pneu­mat­ic cylin­der with hydraulic shock absorber to avoid being hit in the begin­ning and the end of the stroke are giv­ing. It is estab­lished that the exist­ing meth­ods of brak­ing does not pro­vide no shock that leads to vibra­tion, exces­sive noise and reduce the dura­bil­i­ty of the pneu­mat­ic actu­a­tor, in par­tic­u­lar, manip­u­la­tors­The pro­posed solu­tion using a hydraulic shock absorber, a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the brak­ing process of the pro­posed method is giv­ing. It is estab­lished that the design of a com­bined damper con­sist­ing of two chan­nels with con­stant and vari­able roseliane pro­vides the best char­ac­ter­is­tics of the brak­ing process.

    Key­words: actu­a­tor, the brak­ing pis­ton, the hydraulic damper.

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    10 Kulikov A. A., Duko­va I.N., Ivano­va I.V. Сhange entropy of the ide­al gas at sub­son­ic flow in rough channel

    Anno­ta­tion

    Sta­tion­ary sub­son­ic cur­rents of ide­al gas on the chan­nel with fric­tion are con­sid­ered. The anal­o­gy of such cur­rent with throt­tling is lead. For the gen­er­al case it is ana­lyt­i­cal­ly strict­ly proved, that entropy gas as func­tion of two para­me­ters of a con­di­tion, at throt­tling increas­es even then when the tem­per­a­ture of a stream behind a bar­ri­er decreas­es. It is shown, that if process of cur­rent with fric­tion occurs in the iso­lat­ed ther­mo­dy­nam­ic sys­tem its total entropy increas­es. All results are received on the basis of only one prin­ci­ple – the first begin­ning of thermodynamics.

    Key­words: cur­rent with fric­tion, throt­tling, ide­al gas, change entropy, the first begin­ning of thermodynamics.

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    11 Mar­tynov B.G., Mikhailov O.A., Kozlenok A.V. Improv­ing per­for­mance of for­est machi­nes­by opti­miza­tion their hyro­dy­nam­ic transmissions

    Anno­ta­tion

    The devel­op­ment trend of engines and pow­er­trains of mod­ern for­est indus­try machines is dis­cussed in this paper. It is shown that nowa­days wide­spread engines are con­stant pow­er ones with an increased torque rise fac­tor, it is found that for the imple­men­ta­tion of these prop­er­ties it is nec­es­sary and appro­pri­ate to use torque con­vert­ers with sig­nif­i­cant­ly adjust­ed prop­er­ties. Based on the method­ol­o­gy devel­oped by the authors of this arti­cle the opti­mal char­ac­ter­is­tics of torque con­vert­ers have been found and high effi­cien­cy of their appli­ca­tion has been shown. The mate­r­i­al in this work can be used in the edu­ca­tion­al process of stu­dents and teach­ers of high­er edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions, and in design depart­ments which pro­duce for­est machines.

    Key­words: for­est machines, torque rise, torque converters.

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    12 Soloviev A.N. Log­ging logistics

    Anno­ta­tion

    Sus­tain­able devel­op­ment of forestry enter­pris­es asso­ci­at­ed with the con­struc­tion of for­est tech­nol­o­gy logis­tics, unit­ing logis­tics of pro­duc­tion and trans­porta­tion (trans­port), tak­ing into account the specifics of the dynam­ic per­for­mance cri­te­ria of for­est tech­nol­o­gy: the short­est time and path oper­a­tions dur­ing pow­er-sav­ing modes of move­ment in the plot.

    Key­words: time, rate, pro­duc­tion, sys­tem, transport.

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    III. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY
    13 Varank­i­na G.S. Analy­sis of the effec­tive­ness of emis­sion con­trol and reduce the length of the bond­ing of wood mate­ri­als with var­i­ous modifiers

    Anno­ta­tion

    The results of inves­ti­ga­tions have shown that all mod­i­fiers can reduce the dura­tion of the cur­ing process of the phe­nol-formalde­hyde and urea-formalde­hyde adhe­sives. Alu­mi­nosil­i­cates and schun­gite sor­bents con­sid­er­ably reduce the emis­sion of free formalde­hyde of adhe­sives in ply­wood and par­ti­cle­board. Best results are obtained when we used as a mod­i­fi­er, schun­gite sor­bents with a par­ti­cle size of 0.2 mm. The con­tent of free formalde­hyde in phe­nol-formalde­hyde resins decreas­es from 0.18 to 0.04 %, in urea-formalde­hyde glue decreas­es from 0.18 to 0.03 %. Time of cur­ing process Reduce to 6–8 min.

    Key­words: рhenol- and urea-formalde­hyde resin, mod­i­fi­ca­tion, shun­gite sor­bents, veneer, plywood.

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    14 Vetoshkin Yu.I., Yat­sun I.V., Tsoy Yu.I. Com­pos­ite lam­i­nat­ed mate­r­i­al «Fan­otren»

    Anno­ta­tion

    Designed glued lam­i­nat­ed «Fan­otren» on the basis of peeled veneer, lin­ing mate­r­i­al – syn­thet­ic mate­r­i­al, impreg­nat­ed with a solu­tion of barite, glue and water. «Fan­otren» has spe­cial prop­er­ties: dec­o­ra­tive, struc­tur­al, x‑ray pro­tec­tive, tech­no­log­i­cal. There were car­ried out the­o­ret­i­cal and exper­i­men­tal research­es of the devel­oped glued lam­i­nate. Results of phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal tests in oper­a­tional prop­er­ties, pos­i­tive results on the pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties showed that «Fan­otren» can be suc­cess­ful­ly used as con­struc­tion, x‑ray pro­tec­tive mate­r­i­al of the design of var­i­ous rooms.

    Key­words: lay­ered mate­r­i­al, «Fan­otren», x‑rays, screens, panels.

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    15 Sergee­vichev V.V., Kuznetso­va E.G. The tem­per­a­ture in the wall ply­wood pipe dur­ing its manufacture

    Anno­ta­tion

    The prob­lem cal­cu­lat­ing the tem­per­a­ture in to of lam­i­nat­ed wood arose simul­ta­ne­ous­ly with the devel­op­ment of tech­nol­o­gy of hot press­ing of ply­wood and oth­er com­pos­ite mate­ri­als. Knowl­edge of the tem­per­a­ture field in the cross sec­tion adherend is need­ed to deter­mine dura­tion of the press­ing process. The right choice con­di­tions press­ing lies in the fact to pro­vide the high­est phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of a prod­uct with a min­i­mum dura­tion of tveat­ing. High tem­per­a­ture of press­ing increas­es the pres­sure gra­di­ent excess steam. When the pul­sat­ing char­ac­ter the com­paction pres­sure improves not only the heat trans­fer through the thick­ness of processed mate­r­i­al, but also out­put vapor-gas mix­ture as through the thick­ness, so and the end surfaces.

    Key­words: ply­wood, pipe, phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, the com­bined struc­ture, the meth­ods of studies.

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    16 Sergee­vichev A.V. Form of trim­ming blades of the effec­tive area of the abra­sive equip­ment of wood and wood materials

    Anno­ta­tion

    The analy­sis of the exist­ing mod­els of the cut­ting ele­ments of abra­sive grains, shows that the mod­el in the form of a parabo­la is in com­par­i­son with oth­ers more prefer­able and with a fine pre­ci­sion cor­re­sponds to the exper­i­men­tal geo­met­ri­cal para­me­ters of abra­sive grains. The nat­ur­al increase in radius of top due to wear is revealed. The grain obtru­sion nat­u­ral­ly increas­es up to its destruc­tion or an ejec­tion from a sheaf.

    Key­words: grind­ing of wood and wood mate­ri­als, abra­sive grains, change of a con­tour of abra­sive grain, mod­el of abra­sive grain, process of a shaping.

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    17 Chu­bin­sky A.N., Medov V.S. Jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of test­ing method of wood adhe­sive joints shear­ing strength

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the arti­cle jus­ti­fied, devel­oped and exper­i­men­tal­ly test­ed a method to deter­mine the bond­ing strength of lam­i­nat­ed sol­id wood in the pres­ence of ini­ti­at­ed cracks. A com­par­i­son of results of pro­posed and stan­dard meth­ods estab­lished by GOST 15613.1–84 is made. Proved the pos­si­bil­i­ty of an empir­i­cal study cal­cu­lat­ed resis­tance of wood mate­ri­als, reg­u­lat­ed by SP 64.13330.2011, by the pro­posed method.

    Key­words: glu­lam, lam­i­nat­ed wood, lon­gi­tu­di­nal shear­ing strength, ini­ti­at­ed crack.

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    IV. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY
    18 Ipa­to­va E.V., Kru­tov S.M., Sumer­skii I.V., Pra­novich A.V. Microniza­tion effect on hydrol­y­sis lignin exctrac­tive substances

    Anno­ta­tion

    The decrease of resid­ual poly­sac­cha­rides con­tent was shown in lignin sam­ples after microniza­tion. It was found that the dom­i­nat­ing com­po­nents in hydrol­y­sis lignin sam­ples were resin acids, with dehy­droa­bi­et­ic acid preva­lence, fat­ty acids С16–С24 and sterol com­po­nents pre­sent­ed campes­terol, sitos­terol and sitostanol.

    Key­words: micronized hydrol­y­sis lignin, hydrol­y­sis lignin extrac­tive substances.

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    19 Pazukhi­na G.A., Udaltsov V.A. The dis­tinc­tive fea­tures of birch wood delig­ni­fi­ca­tion in a potas­si­um hydrox­ide – hydrazine – isobutyl alco­hol – water cook­ing sys­tem at a low temperature

    Anno­ta­tion

    This paper presents the ben­e­fits of a com­pos­ite cook­ing sys­tem that includes such cook­ing reagents as potas­si­um hydrox­ide, hydrazine and isobutyl alco­hol. It exam­ines the process­es that occur dur­ing the break­down of birch wood chips into fibers at a tem­per­a­ture of 130 °C in a com­bined sys­tem of potas­si­um hydrox­ide, hydrazine, isobutyl alco­hol and water. It proves that it is pos­si­ble to delig­ni­fy birch wood chips in this sys­tem at a tem­per­a­ture of 130 °C and a con­cen­tra­tion of potas­si­um hydrox­ide in an impreg­na­tion solu­tion of 140 g K2O/dm3 to obtain pulp with a yield of 47 % and a lignin con­tent of about 5 %.

    Key­words: low-tem­per­a­ture delig­ni­fi­ca­tion, struc­ture of birch wood, potas­si­um hydrox­ide, hydrazine, isobutyl alco­hol, water.

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    20 Shkol’nikov E.V. The Sol­u­bil­i­ty and the Ampho­ter­ism of М2O3 (M−As, Sb, Bi) Oxides and Their Hydrates in Aque­ous Media

    Anno­ta­tion

    Ther­mo­dy­nam­ic method was used to cal­cu­late, tak­ing into account the for­ma­tion of hydroxo com­plex­es, the effect of the pH val­ue on the molar sol­u­bil­i­ty of M2O3 sol­id oxides and their hydrates at 25 °C and the con­stants of acid–base equi­lib­ria in aque­ous media for crys­talline oxides and hydrox­ides M(OH)3, where M–As, Sb, Bi. The min­i­mum sol­u­bil­i­ty and pH val­ues of the fullest pre­cip­i­ta­tion of the oxides and their hydrates were deter­mined, togeth­er with the ampho­ter­ism para­me­ter decreas­ing in the order Sb >As > Bi.

    Key­words: sol­u­bil­i­ty and ampho­ter­ism, ther­mo­dy­nam­ic cal­cu­la­tion, oxides М2O3 (M−As, Sb, Bi) and their hydrates, aque­ous media.

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    V. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
    21 Gurov S.V., Utkin L.V. Reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els and mea­sures of repairable sys­tems under exter­nal load

    Anno­ta­tion

    New reli­a­bil­i­ty load-share mod­els of repairable sys­tems under a sin­gle load at a ran­dom time moment, which leads to changes of the sur­vivor func­tion of sys­tems, are pro­posed in the paper. The mod­els are based on sys­tem of inte­gral equa­tions which describe the prob­a­bilis­tic behav­ior of a sys­tem. Spe­cial cas­es of the prob­a­bil­i­ty dis­tri­b­u­tions of time to fail­ure are con­sid­ered. They allow us to sig­nif­i­cant­ly sim­pli­fy the reli­a­bil­i­ty analy­sis. Dif­fer­ent sit­u­a­tions of the load are ana­lyzed. Numer­i­cal exam­ples illus­trate the pro­posed models.

    Key­words: reli­a­bil­i­ty, after­ef­fect, repairable sys­tem, inte­gral equa­tions, fail­ure, load, time to failure.

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    22 Chekh A.I. A method for one-class clas­si­fi­ca­tion of inter­val-val­ued data using the tri­an­gu­lar ker­nel and based on the Dempster–Shafer theory

    Anno­ta­tion

    In this paper, we pro­pose a method of cre­at­ing a mod­el for robust one-class clas­si­fi­ca­tion inter­val data. It is based on the the­o­ry of Dempster–Shafer for find­ing the low­er and upper bound­aries of the expect­ed risk. We applied min­i­max strat­e­gy for the opti­miza­tion prob­lem as a mod­i­fied method of sup­port vec­tors machine nota­tion. The algo­rithm for find­ing the opti­mal para­me­ters of the clas­si­fi­ca­tion func­tion is based on the extreme points of a con­vex poly­he­dron obtained from a train­ing set of inter­val data. Com­plex non­lin­ear opti­miza­tion prob­lem is reduced to a finite num­ber of stan­dard tasks SVM method.

    Key­words: one-class clas­si­fi­ca­tion, tri­an­gle ker­nel, Dempster–Shafer the­o­ry, inter­val-val­ued data.

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    VI. ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
    23 Tretyakov A.G. Ter­ri­to­r­i­al for­est pro­grams: indi­ca­tors and bal­ance of interests

    Anno­ta­tion

    The most impor­tant tool of the for­est pol­i­cy is plan­ning. The basic doc­u­ment of plan­ning is a for­est plan of the con­stituent enti­ty of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion. One of the ways to improve for­est man­age­ment plan­ning is the for­ma­tion of region­al devel­op­ment pro­grams of the forestry sec­tor, pro­vid­ing an inte­grat­ed approach to the for­est indus­try in the region as a whole, with­in which grounds for pro­duc­tion vol­umes and prod­uct range will be pro­vid­ed. The arti­cle analy­ses var­i­ous approach­es to pro­vid­ing grounds for pro­duc­tion vol­umes and prod­uct range, includ­ing the use of an approach based on assess­ing the eco­nom­ic acces­si­bil­i­ty of for­est resources.

    Key­words: for­est plan­ning, ter­ri­to­r­i­al devel­op­ment pro­gram of the forestry sec­tor, indi­ca­tors of the plan, eco­nom­ic acces­si­bil­i­ty of for­est resources.

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    2014:
  • Issue 209
  • Name of article  Page Arti­cle
      I. FORESTRY
    1 Alek­seev V.M., Zhi­gunov A.V., Bon­darenko A.S. Prospects for selec­tion of plus siber­ian larch trees intro­duced in the Leningrad region

    Anno­ta­tion

    The obser­va­tion of the growth of a 42-year-old clon­al prog­e­ny of Siber­ian larch plus trees in the for­est seed orchard in the Gatchi­na forestry has made it pos­si­ble to deter­mine the range of vari­a­tion of the main bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics for indi­vid­ual clones as well as their inter­clon­al vari­a­tion. The research results have allowed mark­ing out promis­ing clones of Siber­ian larch in order to use them for fur­ther selec­tion. The intro­duc­tion of Siber­ian larch should rely on the study of the process­es of the species adap­ta­tion to the new envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions. Also, close atten­tion should be giv­en to assess­ment of the effec­tive­ness of the plus selec­tion meth­ods used. The results obtained can be used as the rec­om­men­da­tions on grow­ing Siber­ian larch for­est plan­ta­tions in the Leningrad oblast.

    Key­words: lar­ix sibir­i­ca, intro­duc­tion, seed orchard, clone, for­est tree breeding.

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    2 Bess­chet­no­va N.N., Bess­chest­nov V.P. Eval­u­a­tion geno­typ­ic dis­sim­i­lar­i­ty of the plus trees of scots pine on seed yield from cones

    Anno­ta­tion

    Hered­i­tar­i­ly deter­mined dif­fer­ences between Scots pine plus trees was set on out­put from the cones the seeds of dif­fer­ent cat­e­gories. Inte­grat­ed assess­ment of geno­typ­ic dis­sim­i­lar­i­ty plus trees pro­posed inte­gral cri­te­ri­on – the index of non­iden­ti­ty. Esti­mates of the index of non-iden­ti­ty allow rank range of plus trees and pro­vide a basis for objec­tive appoint­ment last part of the new­ly cre­at­ed seed orchards. Geno­types plus trees with the high­est esti­mates of the index of non-iden­ti­ty have min­i­mum over­lap with oth­er, where­by the prob­a­bil­i­ty of inbreed­ing depres­sion of their seed prog­e­ny is min­i­mal. They are of the great­est inter­est in the for­ma­tion range of the new­ly cre­at­ed seed orchards.

    Key­words: scots pine, plus trees, her­i­tabil­i­ty coef­fi­cient.

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    3 Dobro­vol­sky А.А., Antonov О.I., Stepa­nenko S.M., Neshataev V.Y. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing of growth and devel­op­ment of spruce plan­ta­tions, treat­ed in a way to get high qual­i­ty timber.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Arti­cle pre­sent­ed the results of mod­el­ing the growth and devel­op­ment of arti­fi­cial plan­ta­tions of spruce stands (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The results based on long-term obser­va­tions in spruce stands in which prun­ings were done with the aim to pro­vide high­qual­i­ty­sawn tim­ber. The obser­va­tions were made over 25 years with an inter­val of 5 years. Using Markov chain mod­el we stud­ied the devel­op­ment of the spruce stands. «Vital­i­ty –class changes» (includ­ing mor­tal­i­ty prob­a­bil­i­ty) and «diam­e­ter-class changes» sub-mod­els were used as a basis for mod­el­ing. Based on mor­tal­i­ty rate and prob­a­bil­i­ty of the diam­e­ter class chang­ing for the peri­od from 1985–1986 to 2010, stand’s para­me­ters which can be achieved the age of 80 years in case of main­tain­ing the sil­vi­cul­ture regimes were modeling.

    Key­words: Markov chain mod­els, spruce plan­ta­tions, prun­ing, high-qual­i­ty wood.

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    4 Egorov A.A., Utkin L.V., Zhuk Yu.A., Vasil’ev N.P. Analy­sis win­ter resis­tance based on long stand­ing of obser­va­tion series.

    Anno­ta­tion

    A sta­tis­ti­cal regres­sion win­ter resis­tance analy­sis of obser­va­tions of 89 mod­el conifers which belong to 53 tax­ons of conif­er­ous for­est locat­ed in the Botan­ic Gar­den of the Saint Peters­burg State For­est Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty is pro­posed in the paper. The analy­sis is based on using the Las­so and elas­tic net meth­ods. 77 fea­tures are con­sid­ered by means of the sta­tis­ti­cal analy­sis such that 6 impor­tant fea­tures are select­ed, which deter­mine the win­ter resis­tance of the most plants. The obtained impor­tant fea­tures total­ly con­form to the qual­i­ta­tive win­ter resis­tance analy­sis avail­able in the literature.

    Key­words: conifers, botan­ic gar­den, win­ter resis­tance, impor­tant fea­tures, fea­ture selection.

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    5 Ermakov S.A., Smirnov A.P. The form and full body of spruce trunks in the mid­dleage for­est of plan­ta­tions on peat and min­er­al soil of Kalin­ingrad region.

    Anno­ta­tion

    High­ly pro­duc­tive (I–Ia class­es site index) for­est plan­ta­tions of spruce on rich min­er­al and drained peat soils in the Kalin­ingrad region are char­ac­ter­ized by sim­i­lar indi­ca­tors of growth rate and accu­mu­lat­ed stocks of stem wood. Indi­ca­tors of trunk form of a spruce (rise, coef­fi­cients, and the form class­es, full body) from drained peat­lands in gen­er­al are char­ac­ter­ized by a ten­den­cy to a slight dete­ri­o­ra­tion com­pared with for­est plan­ta­tions on min­er­al soil, but this dete­ri­o­ra­tion in most cas­es sta­tis­ti­cal­ly insignif­i­cant and is com­pen­sat­ed by a high­er den­si­ty of wood. At the site with the best growth of spruce on min­er­al soil (IB site index class) com­pared with for­est plan­ta­tions on peat­lands has been an increas­ing rise in the low­er part of trunks, low full body trunks and low wood density.

    Key­words: high pro­duc­tive spruce plan­ta­tions, drained peat­lands, form and full body of a tree trunk.

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    6 Kapit­sa E.A., Shum­sky K.A., Zayt­sev D.A. Shchurovsky S.Y. Coarse woody debris stores in the exper­i­men­tal forestry enter­prise «LOGKU Lenoblles».

    Anno­ta­tion

    Per­formed report is aimed to ana­lyze coarse woody debris stores (CWD) in the exper­i­men­tal forestry enter­prise in Leningrad region. The CWD stores rang­ing from 0 to 234 m³ ha‑1. Coarse woody debris is pre­dom­i­nant­ly spruce felling debris. The share of birch and aspen is about 10 % of the total amount CWD. The stores do not depend on the site class and for­est type.

    Key­words: coarse woody debris, south­ern taiga sub­zone, sec­ondary spruce forests.

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    7 Kovi­azin V.F., Nguen Tkhi Lan. Assess­ment of species diver­si­ty of bio­ceno­sis in St. Peters­burg.

    Anno­ta­tion

    An indi­ca­tor of sus­tain­able man­age­ment of plant bio­ceno­sis in St. Peters­burg is the eval­u­a­tion of their species com­po­si­tion. The authors record­ed the wood veg­e­ta­tion at 4 objects of the metrop­o­lis: Pri­morsky and Yuzh­no-Pri­morsky parks, gar­dens named after the 9 Jan­u­ary and Vasileostro­vets. Found that more than 20–35 % of the num­ber of species in urban plant­i­ngs is indige­nous or grow on the edge of its range, so they are plant­ed in all vari­eties of green space for increas­ing the sus­tain­abil­i­ty of bio­ceno­sis to urbanization.

    Key­words: the sta­bil­i­ty of the ecosys­tem, species diver­si­ty, wealth index­es, index­es of similarity.

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    8 Kras­novi­dov A.N., Danilov D.A., Riabinin B.N., Shes­takov V.I. Prospects of grow­ing for­est plan­ta­tions on land out of agri­cul­ture turnover.

    Anno­ta­tion

    An inven­to­ry of the pub­lished turnover of agri­cul­tur­al land Leningrad Agri­cul­tur­al Research Insti­tute «Bel­o­gor­ka». A descrip­tion of soil pro­files most char­ac­ter­is­tic sites using val­u­a­tion signs of for­est land-relief, par­ent rock and drainage con­di­tions. On these grounds esti­mat­ed nat­ur­al water regime and ele­ments of min­er­al nutri­tion of soil. Hydro­log­i­cal regime of the soil mea­sured by the depth of the first sur­face of the imper­me­able lay­er. Accord­ing to soil map­ping (descrip­tions and ana­lyt­i­cal work) com­posed val­u­a­tion of land pro­ject­ed pro­duc­tiv­i­ty conif­er­ous stands. The analy­sis on the con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter and water regime in the soil pro­file showed that they are suit­able for the cul­ti­va­tion of high for­est plan­ta­tions on I–II qual­i­ty class.

    Key­words: hydro­log­i­cal regime of the soil, soil-form­ing rock, soil pH, organ­ic mat­ter con­tent in the soil, the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of pine and spruce stands.

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    9 Lavren­tyev N.V., Firsov G.A. Quer­cus macran­thera (fam­i­ly fagaceae) at St. Petersburg.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The self-sow­ing of Quer­cus macran­thera et C.A. Mey. ex Hohen. was dis­cov­ered by authors of the arti­cle in autumn 2012 at Botan­ic gar­den of Saint-Peters­burg For­est-Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty (seedlings ger­mi­nat­ed in 2012) – the first time dur­ing its his­to­ry of its cul­ti­va­tion since the mid­dle of 1850’s. This con­firms the fact of bet­ter adap­ta­tion pos­si­bil­i­ties for exot­ic trees in con­di­tions of the warm­ing of the cli­mate. This species was described and first­ly intro­duced in Saint-Peters­burg more that 100 years ago, but till nowa­days it is rare in cul­ti­va­tion. The Per­sian oak is of inter­est for dis­tri­b­u­tion because of its cold and drought-resistance.

    Key­words: per­sian oak, arbori­cul­ture, self-sow­ing, resis­tance to cold and frosts, cli­mate change, biol­o­gy of ger­mi­na­tion, phenology.

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    10 Malykhi­na Y.O., Gryazkin A.V., Voskre­sen­skaya M.P., Ivanov D.V, Kochkin A.A. Vari­abil­i­ty of the park’s phy­to­ceno­sis in con­di­tion of inten­sive recreation.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents the results of a com­par­a­tive assess­ment of the liv­ing ground cov­er at select­ed sites of St. Peters­burg, the park Sos­nov­ka and Ohtin­sky leshoz. Inves­ti­ga­tions were car­ried out using 3 coef­fi­cients: Serensena’s coef­fi­cient for Sos­nov­ka park, species scat­ter­ing coef­fi­cient and coef­fi­cient of com­po­si­tion diver­si­ty of liv­ing ground cov­er for all select­ed objects to prove that sim­pli­fy­ing the struc­ture of the park’s phy­to­ceno­sis is depend­ing on the dis­tance from the walk­ing trail.

    Key­words: liv­ing ground cov­er, park’s phy­to­coeno­sis, Serensena’s coef­fi­cient, species scat­ter­ing coef­fi­cient, coef­fi­cient of com­po­si­tion diver­si­ty of liv­ing ground cover.

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    11 Nakvasi­na E.N. Changes in the gen­er­a­tive sphere of scots pine under imi­ta­tion warming.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Stud­ied gen­er­a­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of Scots pine in north­ern ori­gin cli­matypes grown in prove­nance tests of the Euro­pean North. It is a sim­u­la­tion mod­el rep­re­sent­ing the nat­ur­al cli­mate change (mov­ing prog­e­ny to the north and south). Fea­tures of the reac­tion of Scots pine gen­er­a­tive sphere of the pro­ject­ed cli­mate warm­ing. Warm­ing due­to incom­plete adap­ta­tion process­es soft­wood relat­ed to migra­tion in the Holocene, may­in­crease their pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, to ear­ly entry into seed-bear­ing, strength­en­ing edu­ca­tion makrostro­biles and improve the qual­i­ty of seeds.

    Key­words: prove­nance tests, Scots pine, gen­er­a­tion, imi­ta­tion warming.

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    12 Niko­lae­va M.A. Influ­ence of the elec­tro­mag­net­ic field of ultra-high fre­quen­cies range to the seeds stor­age longevi­ty of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Рinus sylvestris L.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents mate­ri­als on the study of the influ­ence of elec­tro­mag­net­ic field ultra-high fre­quen­cy (UHF) on the pos­si­bil­i­ty of long-term seeds stor­age of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Рinus sylvestris The work is per­formed on a lab elec­tro­mag­net­ic vac­u­um instal­la­tion of type «Mus­son» with the use of dif­fer­ent vari­ants of UHF influ­ence. The peri­od of seeds stor­age after pro­cess­ing with a UHF, depend­ing on the batch­es of seeds, was from 6,5 to 15.5 years. Com­par­a­tive esti­ma­tion of the test results, based on the qual­i­ty def­i­n­i­tion of processed seeds before putting into stor­age and after long peri­od stor­age, are giv­en. Research has shown the abil­i­ty to slow down the aging process of conif­er­ous seeds by using microwave-pro­cess­ing and the desir­abil­i­ty of con­tin­u­ing to work in this direction.

    Key­words: mul­ti-high, seeds, spruce, pine, stor­age, mois­ture of seeds, ener­gy of ger­mi­na­tion, germinability

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    13 Turchi­na T.A., Rodin S.A. Thin­nings impact on growth and struc­ture of black alder plantations.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Results of clear­ings and thin­ning in black alder plan­ta­tions. In 11 year old clear plan­ta­tions mod­er­ate inten­si­ty clear­ing didn’t have a sig­nif­i­cant impact on growth. Neg­a­tive impacts of high inten­si­ty clear­ings have been found: in 20 years thinned plan­ta­tion grow­ing stock was 1.43 low­er com­pared to con­trol indi­ca­tors and in plan­ta­tion struc­ture diam­e­ter there was a trend of 2 sep­a­rate dis­tri­b­u­tion rows shap­ing. Com­mon wil­low 10 % reduc­tion in mod­er­ate clear­ings had a short pos­i­tive effect. Mod­er­ate inten­si­ty thin­ning raised wil­low share to 20 % and had neg­a­tive impact on plan­ta­tion regen­er­a­tive potential.

    Key­words: black alder, pure and mixed plan­ta­tions, leav­ing fellings, regen­er­a­tive poten­tial of plant­i­ngs, struc­ture of for­est stands.

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    14 Tiukav­ina O.N., Lezh­ne­va S.V. Bal­sam poplar radi­al growth in Arkhangelsk.

    Anno­ta­tion

    Wide­spread plant­i­ng of poplar in Arkhangel­sk, allowed us to study its radi­al growth in dif­fer­ent growth con­di­tions. In ordi­nary radi­al growth of poplar plan­ta­tions as com­pared with squares. The high­est inten­si­ty of growth in diam­e­ter is not­ed under the age of 15 years in the ordi­nary crop and up to 10 years in the plan­ta­tion. After 50 years of growth in diam­e­ter sta­bi­lized at 2 mm per year. There­fore, radi­al incre­ment of 2 mm can be an indi­ca­tor of old age in poplar. Depen­dence of the radi­al incre­ment of age peri­od described by the equa­tion of the parabo­la 2 order: y = 0,001x2 – 0,135x + 7,241 (R2 = 0,906). Diam­e­ter 50 cm in ordi­nary crop indi­cates the age of 50 years old. In ordi­nary poplar plan­ta­tions diam­e­ter depen­dence on the age described by the equa­tion y = –0.010x2 + 1.544x – 2.816 (R2 = 0.997); in squares: y = –0.009x2 +
    1.269х – 1.669 (R2 = 0.987).

    Key­words: radi­al growth, poplar, age, diam­e­ter, crown shape.

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      II. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    15 Alek­san­drov V.A., Alek­san­drov A.V. The arti­cle dis­cuss­es vibroload­ing oper­a­tor felle-bunch­er dur­ing load­ing trees (whips).

    Anno­ta­tion

    The study was con­duct­ed on a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of a dynam­i­cal sys­tem «feller­bunch­er – oper­a­tor – the sub­ject of work – the tree». Math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is made in the form of Lagrange equa­tions of the 2nd kind. Oper­a­tor mod­el is pre­sent­ed in the form of one-mass. Dur­ing the study ranged: rigid­i­ty of a seat of the oper­a­tor, the amount of wood and immersed in pre-accel­er­a­tion, brake modes. The cal­cu­la­tions were per­formed with the orig­i­nal data felle-bunch­er LP-19A.

    Key­words: fall­er bencher, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, vibra­tion, seat.

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    16 Gri­azin V.A. Study of effi­cien­cy in the oper­a­tion of load­ers in the sto­chas­tic­i­ty technological

    Anno­ta­tion

    Method of esti­mat­ing the effi­cien­cy of load­ers in terms sto­chas­tic tech­no­log­i­cal process indus­tri­al base tim­ber or tim­ber-pro­cess­ing orga­ni­za­tions are present. The sim­u­la­tion is made on the basis of pseu­do-ran­dom data gen­er­at­ing source and the sub­se­quent pro­cess­ing depend­ing on the inter­nal struc­ture of the system.

    Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing, sim­u­la­tion mod­el­ing, lift-trans­port­ing machines, for­est machines.

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    17 Lok­sh­tanov B.M., Orlov V.V., Bacherikov I.V. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of dehy­dra­tion of wood chips by centrifugation.

    Anno­ta­tion

    This arti­cle describe prop­er­ties of wood chips for ener­gy pur­pos­es, which made from log­ging residues. The water-extract­ing process from wood (for exam­ple, from wood chips) for improv­ing of calorif­ic pow­er is also described. We have devel­oped the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of dehy­dra­tion of wood chips and made engi­neer­ing cal­cu­la­tion for pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of indus­tri­al cen­trifuge, which installed in wood chips pro­duc­tion system.

    Key­words: hip, tim­ber mois­ture con­tent, dehy­dra­tion, cen­trifu­ga­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal model.

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    18 Tikhonov I.I., Bra­gin N.A. Auto­mat­ed process con­trol sys­tem divi­sion and cut­ting buck­ing the trunks of trees.

    Anno­ta­tion

    In this arti­cle are con­sid­ered the process­es of auto­mat­ic con­trol of a trunk on a cut­ting area, lum­ber­yard and man­age­ment process­es. Auto­mat­ed process of divi­sion of trees on butt and api­cal seg­ments of the cut­ting area as pos­si­ble, and at the stor­age tim­ber. Con­sid­ered machine designed to divide trees at the cut­ting area: VSRM and VPDM (Giv­en their man­age­ment process­es), equipped with auto­mat­ed con­trol sys­tems, cut­ting divid­ing trunks. Revealed the most sim­ple sys­tem of auto­mat­ed control.

    Key­words: cut­ting buck­ing, api­cal seg­ments, auto­mat­ic con­trol, man­age­ment processes,

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      III. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY
    19 Vetoshkin Y.I., Yat­sun I.V., Tsoi Y.I. Com­pos­ite mane­r­i­al brand «Pli­totren»

    Anno­ta­tion

    Devel­oped com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al on the basis of waste wood «Pli­totren», pos­sess­ing high oper­a­tional, phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and pro­tec­tive (from the x‑ray prop­er­ties, envi­ron­men­tal­ly safe is man­u­fac­tured accord­ing to the tra­di­tion­al tech­nol­o­gy of man­u­fac­tur­ing of chip­board, well processed on wood-pro­cess­ing equip­ment, has a long ser­vice life. On the basis of the mate­r­i­al «Pli­totren» can pro­duce pro­tec­tive ele­ments for thedesign of x‑ray rooms in the form of wall pan­els, can­vas­es doors, pro­tec­tive screens, screens, blinds, fenc­ing pan­els etc.

    Key­words: plate, wood waste, x‑raus office, absorption.

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      IV. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY 
    20 Dyu A.V., Syso­e­va N.V., Dybovy V.K. New assess­ment method of effi­cien­cy of fil­ter materials.

    Anno­ta­tion

    In this paper live issue of assess­ment prob­lems of air fil­ter qual­i­ty for high and ultra­high purifi­ca­tion effi­cien­cy was inter­pret­ed. Dif­fer­ences in approach­es of air fil­ter cer­ti­fi­ca­tion between domes­tic and inter­na­tion­al lists were dis­closed. Descrip­tion of new air fil­ter quality’s assess­ment method for HEPA & ULPA class­es was pre­sent­ed. The­o­ret­ic foun­da­tion of fil­tra­tion mech­a­nisms and deter­min­ing of point con­formed to point of most pen­e­trat­ed par­ti­cle size in cor­re­spon­dence with Fuch’s law was giv­en in research work. Most pen­e­trat­ed sol­id and liq­uid par­ti­cle size’s data for glass fiber fil­ter mate­ri­als with vari­a­tion of air flow rate was brought.

    Key­words: fil­ter effi­cien­cy, pen­e­tra­tion, fil­ter mate­ri­als, most pen­e­trat­ed par­ti­cle size.

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    21 Rad­bil A.B., Dolin­sky T.I., Novoselov A.S., Mav­ri­na E.A., Sha­lasho­va A.A., Ilichev I.S., Semeny­che­va L.L. Obtain­ing of high qual­i­ty per­fume ter­pi­ne­ol by coun­ter­cur­rent crystallization

    Anno­ta­tion

    Sul­phate tur­pen­tine is an organ­ic waste of pulp and paper indus­try. Envi­ron­men­tal­ly and eco­nom­i­cal­ly per­spec­tive stud­ies are those which aimed at obtain­ing the high added val­ue prod­ucts from sul­fate tur­pen­tine. High qual­i­ty per­fume grade ?-ter­pi­ne­ol, con­tain­ing at least 95–97 % of terpineol’s iso­mers obtained from pine oil «MC-95» coun­ter­cur­rent crys­tal­liza­tion in the tem­per­a­ture range 0…30 °C. Rec­ti­fi­ca­tion of pine oil «MC-95» to increase the con­cen­tra­tion terpineol

    Key­words: tur­pen­tine, ter­pi­ne­ol, pine oil, coun­ter­cur­rent recrystallization.

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    22 Sheloumov A.V. The research of ther­mic destruc­tion process of the phos­pho­rus­ni­tro­gen-con­tain­ing adducts.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The educ­ing of ammo­nia in the ther­mic destruc­tion process of phos­pho­rus­ni­tro­gen-con­tain­ing fire retar­dants of adducts class in the tem­per­a­ture con­di­tions, cor­re­spond­ing to hot press­ing of wood boards, is stud­ied. It is estab­lished, that at heat­ing of fire retar­dant phos­pho­ramyde FKM the quan­ti­ty of iso­lat­ing ammo­nia is less, than at heat­ing of amy­dophos­phate KM. At that the educ­ing of ammo­nia from phos­pho­ramyde FKM takes place with less­er veloc­i­ty, than from amy­dophos­phate KM. On mod­el sam­ples is showed, that at using of phos­pho­ramyde FKM its neg­a­tive influ­ence on rate of UF-adhe­sive gela­tiniza­tion and strength of glue con­nec­tion is sub­stan­tial­ly low­er in com­par­i­son with amy­dophos­phate KM. This makes to per­spec­tive the appli­ca­tion of fire retar­dant phos­pho­ramyde FKM for reduc­tion of wood boards on the base of the UFR inflammability.

    Key­words: fire retar­dants, amy­dophos­phate, phos­pho­ramyde, ammo­nia, adhe­sive, urea-formalde­hyde resin, gelatinization.

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      V. ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
    23 Smirno­va A.I., Le Trung Hieu. Effi­cien­cy of com­plex use of wood.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle exam­ines the prob­lems of com­plex use of wood from the begin­ning (the sev­en­ties of the last cen­tu­ry) to the present. Pro­posed cri­te­ria for the effec­tive use of wood adjust­ed to the lev­el of use of the allow­able cut. Giv­en an analy­sis of the effec­tive­ness of com­bin­ing of har­vest­ing with wood pro­cess­ing. Out­lined ways of solv­ing the prob­lems that pro­vide increased effi­cien­cy of the com­plex use of wood.

    Key­words: : com­plex use of wood, inte­grat­ed for­est enter­prise, prof­it from prod­uct sales, net prof­it, prod­uct profitability

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  • Issue 208
  • Name of article  Page Arti­cle
    I. FORESTRY
    1 Tepli­ako­va T.E., Bak­i­na L.G., Mal­iukhin D.M. Form­ing of envi­ron­men­tal­ly safe ecosys­tem at recul­ti­va­tion of sol­id somes­tic waste land­fill (Gatchi­na town): ini­tial phase of bio­log­i­cal stage

    Anno­ta­tion

    Sol­id domes­tic waste land­fill uses three types of organ­ic sub­strates for recul­ti­va­tion: sewage sludge (SS), com­post pro­duced by local plant for sol­id domes­tic waste treat­ment, and cof­fee cake as a byprod­uct of sub­li­mat­ed cof­fee man­u­fac­ture. The fea­tures of spon­ta­neous over­growth on each organ­ic sub­strate have inves­ti­gat­ed. Char­ac­ter­is­tics of these sub­strates deter­mined their use as fer­tile lay­er for bio­log­i­cal stage of recul­ti­va­tion and cre­at­ed the nec­es­sary pre­req­ui­sites for form­ing of envi­ron­men­tal­ly safe qua­si-nat­ur­al ecosys­tem. All inves­ti­gat­ed sub­strates are dif­fer­ing in active troph­ic rich­es, floris­tic com­po­si­tions, veg­e­ta­tive cov­er and over­ground plant bio­mass. The seedlings of trees and shrubs appear in veg­e­ta­tion cov­er in the pio­neer­ing phase of its form­ing. These species are rep­re­sen­ta­tives of both native and cul­ti­vat­ed flora.

    Key words: recul­ti­va­tion, ecosys­tem, envi­ron­men­tal safe­ty, flo­ra, vegetation.

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    2 Arkhipov V.I., Chernikhovskii D.M., Berezin V.I., Belov V.A. Mod­ern tech­nol­o­gy of for­est men­su­ra­tion by inter­pre­ta­tion method «From sur­vey – to the project»

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the arti­cle are shown stages of devel­oped tech­nol­o­gy of for­est men­su­ra­tion by inter­pre­ta­tion method, named «From sur­vey to project» with use mod­ern aero sur­vey data, spe­cial soft­ware and hard­ware. Are used next means: pho­togram­met­ric com­plex Vision­Map A3, dig­i­tal pho­togram­met­ric sys­tem Pho­to­mod, pro­gram «ESAUL», GIS ArcGIS, spe­cial hard­ware for stereo visu­al­iza­tion. On exam­ple of mod­el ter­ri­to­ry are shown results of appro­ba­tion of its tech­nol­o­gy. Com­par­i­son of results of for­est men­su­ra­tion by inter­pre­ta­tion method and con­trol men­su­ra­tion by enu­mer­a­tion inven­to­ry demon­strat­ed that errors of def­i­n­i­tion of main for­est inven­to­ry char­ac­ter­is­tics do not exceed the norms.

    Key­words: dig­i­tal aero sur­vey, fea­tures of inter­pre­ta­tion, con­tour and ana­lyt­i­cal inter­pre­ta­tion, for­est men­su­ra­tion, geoin­for­mat­ic database.

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    3 Lopatin E.V. Land­sat based for­est growth mon­i­tor­ing system

    Anno­ta­tion

    One of the main source of data for the analy­sis of the dynam­ics of for­est growth forests are the time series of satel­lite Land­sat. The first Land­sat satel­lite was launched in 1972. The pro­to­type of Land­sat based for­est growth mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem was devel­oped. In the sys­tem the algo­rithms for auto­mat­ic image down­load­ing, cal­i­bra­tion and auto­mat­ic pro­cess­ing were imple­ment­ed. The sys­tem is allow­ing map­ping land cov­er, grow­ing stock, species and age struc­ture. The sys­tem can be used for stan­dard mon­i­tor­ing tasks and for the sus­tain­abil­i­ty assess­ment of for­est man­age­ment enter­pris­es in Russia.

    Key­words: mon­i­tor­ing, Land­sat, for­est growth dynam­ics, satel­lite images.

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    II. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    4 Vlasov E.N., Akhma­tovich E.A., Epi­fano­va A.Iu. The def­i­n­i­tion used effec­tive­ly dri­ve pow­er trac­tor LHT-100 in the mode of plowing

    Anno­ta­tion

    Con­sid­ered are the spend­ing of dri­ve pow­er machine-trac­tor unit (MTU) based trac­tor LHT-100 in the arable mode under dynam­ic load­ing con­di­tions. The influ­ence of dynam­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the dri­ve and sus­pen­sion sys­tem of the mass of the MTU on spend­ing dri­ve pow­er. Ways to reduce the spend­ing of pow­er for dynam­ic loads.

    Key­words: per­for­mance, ener­gy con­sump­tion, ampli­tude-fre­quen­cy char­ac­ter­is­tics, dri­ve power.

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    5 Chu­bin­skii A.N., Tam­bi А.A., Shvets V.L. Analy­sis of sawlogs shape influ­ence on sawmill equip­ment choice.

    Anno­ta­tion

    The results of the study form saw logs har­vest­ed in the Arkhangel­sk region. The sub­stan­ti­a­tion of the need to use sawmilling equip­ment which has the pos­si­bil­i­ty curve saw­ing when the sag of saw logs more than 20 mm. The results of mod­el­ing cut­ting saw logs using tech­nol­o­gy curve saw­ing. The analy­sis of changes in the vol­ume of saw tim­ber out­put when saw­ing logs on the few types of sawmill lines.

    Key­words: round tim­ber, the qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of tim­bers, sawmill equip­ment, curve sawing.

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    6 Vu Khai Kuan, Dovzhik V.L., Andronov A.V., Mikhailov O.A. Method of deter­min­ing the opti­mum oper­at­ing ratios hydro­me­chan­i­cal trans­mis­sion of skidder

    Anno­ta­tion

    In this paper, the devel­op­ment method of deter­min­ing the opti­mum ratios of hydro mechan­i­cal trans­mis­sion. The cri­te­ria for eval­u­at­ing the effec­tive­ness of select­ed per­for­mance indi­ca­tors of trans­port and spe­cif­ic fuel con­sump­tion per cubic meter of wood research method – ana­lyt­i­cal stud­ies on the effect of tow­ing pow­er para­me­ters on per­for­mance and fuel econ­o­my skid­ders. As the object of inves­ti­ga­tion, the domes­tic skid­der Onezhets-300, based on the results, rec­om­men­da­tions were made for designers.

    Key­words: skid­der, trans­port per­for­mance, fuel econ­o­my, hydro mechan­i­cal trans­mis­sion, gear ratio.

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    7 Kovalenko A.A. The eval­u­a­tion of fuel using in process of remov­ing of sow wood by the forklift

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle con­tain the mea­sure coef­fi­cient of fuel using and the research result of fuel using by the fork­lift in sep­a­rate parts of the tech­no­log­i­cal process for remov­ing sow wood in a dry cham­ber. The exper­i­men­tal research have been defined by basic indi­ca­tors, which char­ac­ter­ize the con­di­tions of the tech­no­log­i­cal process. Have been researched the char­ac­ter and extent of influ­ence of the basic fac­tors on coef­fi­cient of fuel using. Have been shown the ways of the ratio­nal fuel using.

    Key­words: coef­fi­cient of fuel using, weight of pack, fork­lift, ratio­nal fuel using.

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    8 Koval’ P.S., Glukhikh V.N. Stress dis­tri­b­u­tion in a series of tan­gen­tial lum­ber lam­i­na­tions as in elas­tic orthotrop­ic half-plane loaded by con­cen­trat­ed force applied at the edge

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle describes a method for deter­min­ing the stress-strain state of stress­lam­i­nat­ed tim­ber deck, which is stressed in trans­verse direc­tion on the erec­tion stage (with­out the work­ing load). The stress dis­tri­b­u­tion in the tim­ber deck’s body caused by one ten­sioned rod was con­sid­ered. The deck is rep­re­sent­ed as an infi­nite plane elas­tic orthotrop­ic medi­um hav­ing straight bor­der («elas­tic half-plane»). The method is based on stud­ies of S.G. Lekhnit­skii. The main result is the nature of the stress dis­tri­b­u­tion in the tim­ber deck’s body. It is revealed that the stress lines con­tours are «squash-type» with five extreme points – the two min­i­mum-points (the angles are ±46°) and the three max­i­mum-points (the angles are 0° and ±81°).

    Key­words: tim­ber, stress dis­tri­b­u­tion, orthotrop­ic plate, con­cen­trat­ed force.

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    9 Bazarov S.M., Soloviev A.N. Analy­sis of the tech­no­log­i­cal pro­duc­tion speed round­wood sys­tem of mech­a­nisms and machines

    Anno­ta­tion

    Sys­tem of mech­a­nisms and machines pro­duc­tion of round tim­ber refor­esta­tion rep­re­sent a syn­er­gis­tic struc­ture, opti­mal pro­duc­tion of which achieved a high degree of syn­chro­niza­tion process. The most infor­ma­tive cri­te­ri­on of inter­con­nect­ed­ness of tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tions com­plex­es, are effec­tive tech­no­log­i­cal pro­duc­tion speed, capac­i­ty and spe­cif­ic tech­no­log­i­cal speed, pre­sent­ed for the con­sid­ered systems.

    Key­words: рower, com­plex, syn­chronic­i­ty, spe­cif­ic productivity

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    III. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY
    10 Chau­zov K.V., Varank­i­na G.S. Inves­ti­ga­tion of glu­ing larch wood by com­po­si­tion glue

    Anno­ta­tion

    The paper deals with the prob­lem of increas­ing pro­duc­tion effi­cien­cy and improve oper­a­tional char­ac­ter­is­tics of Glu­lam from larch wood. Reviewed pos­si­ble ways of solv­ing this prob­lem by apply­ing a spe­cial­ly devel­oped adhe­sive com­po­si­tion. Based on exper­i­ments car­ried a com­par­a­tive analy­sis of strength char­ac­ter­is­tics, two types of binder: ure­ame­lamine­formalde­hyde resin (UMF) and devel­oped on this base the adhe­sive com­po­si­tion. Analy­sis showed the pos­si­bil­i­ty of apply­ing the devel­oped adhe­sive com­po­si­tion in the man­u­fac­ture of Glu­lam. Adhe­sive joint based on adhe­sive com­po­si­tion sat­is­fies the require­ments of both shear­ing strength along the fiber and the water resis­tance. Appli­ca­tion of the adhe­sive com­po­si­tion will reduce the cost of fin­ished prod­ucts for exam­ple glued beam by 5.65 %, as well as improve the per­for­mance of the press equip­ment in 3 times.

    Key­words: larch, wet­ting, den­si­ty, glu­ing, glu­lam, mod­i­fi­ca­tion, nature filler.

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    11 Lisov V.Iu., Iazov V.N. Influ­ence of humid­i­ty on the inner adhe­sion and fric­tion of the soil particles

    Anno­ta­tion

    The pur­pose of the study is to deter­mine the ulti­mate shear resis­tance of the soil under the influ­ence of (shear) force applied to it. The study of the soil resis­tance to shear forces result­ing from the impact of har­vest­ing machines is mean­ing­ful for cor­rect cal­cu­la­tions of the skid­ding trail sta­bil­i­ty. Stud­ies deter­min­ing shear resis­tance of the soil were held in lab­o­ra­to­ry con­di­tions in Octo­ber of 2012. The val­ue of the tan­gen­tial stress under shear in a sin­gu­lar plane was defined with the help of Coulomb law. Cor­re­la­tions obtained in the course of the exper­i­ment are facil­i­ta­tive in the soil’s bear­ing capac­i­ty fore­cast­ing and cal­en­dar sched­ul­ing of cut­ting areas’ development.

    Key­words: the shift of the soil, adhe­sion of soil par­ti­cles, fric­tion of soil particles

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    12 Bir­man A.R., Sokolo­va V.A., Krivono­go­va A.S. Impreg­na­tion wood by treat­ment with boron to improve its neu­tron pro­tec­tive properties

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle con­tains analy­sis of impreg­na­tion wood meth­ods. The pos­si­bil­i­ty of using treat­ment with boron wood as neu­tron pro­tec­tive mate­ri­als is estab­lished. Rec­om­men­da­tions on the imple­men­ta­tion of counter-cen­trifu­gal impreg­na­tion method in the field of cen­trifu­gal forces are giv­en. Modes of impreg­na­tion on exper­i­men­tal and pro­duc­tion equip­ment are defined. Para­me­ters of speed and vol­ume absorp­tion of the impreg­nat­ing solu­tions (water and boric acid) and meth­ods exper­i­ments in the impreg­na­tion of wood are defined.

    Key­words: wood, treat­ment with boron, impreg­na­tion in a cen­trifu­gal field, neu­tron pro­tec­tive materials.

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    13 Sergee­vichev A.V., Sokolo­va V.A., Kush­nerev V.O. For­ma­tion of a sur­face of sol­id bod­ies: cut­off region material-Wednesday

    Anno­ta­tion

    The rel­a­tive immov­abil­i­ty of the sur­face atoms of sol­id bod­ies results in the con­sid­er­able depen­dence of the sur­face ener­gy and oth­er phys­i­cal prop­er­ties on back­ground of a sol­id body. Impor­tant method of study­ing of the sur­face lay­er of sol­id bod­ies is the elec­tron dif­frac­tion method. For the major­i­ty of process­es sur­faced it can­not be pre­sent­ed as prime geo­met­ri­cal copy­ing of a form-build­ing field as inter­ac­tion of trim­ming blades and a mate­r­i­al is accom­pa­nied by a com­plex of the com­pos­ite phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal phe­nom­e­na. When form­ing sur­face in the con­di­tions of a dom­i­nance of one of process­es the prob­a­bil­i­ty of removal of a mate­r­i­al and a fre­quen­cy func­tion of dis­tri­b­u­tion of ordi­nates of a pro­file are deter­mined by para­me­ters of a repro­duc­ing field.

    Key­words: wood grind­ing, the sur­face defects, form-build­ing field and prob­a­bil­i­ty of removal of a mate­r­i­al, effec­tive­ness and qual­i­ty of process­es of a shaping.

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    IV. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY
    14 Ipa­to­va E.V., Kru­tov S.M., Evtiu­g­in D.V. Split­ting of tech­ni­cal lignins under alka­line conditions

    Anno­ta­tion

    Par­ti­cles (ca 0.25 mm) of tech­ni­cal hydrol­y­sis lignin (THL) were grind­ed by a rotary-jet mill to obtain a frac­tion of THL ca 5 ?m. Both ini­tial and milled THL were liq­ue­fied by ther­mal alka­line treat­ment at 220 ?C for 2h. Upgrad­ed THL from non­milled (L1) and milled (L2) were desalt­ed by treat­ment with cation-exchanged resin and dried. The mol­e­c­u­lar weights (Mw) of L1 and L2 were 1100 and 1000 Da, respec­tive­ly, as deter­mined by SEC. Struc­tur­al char­ac­ter­i­za­tion car­ried out employ­ing ESI-MSn and 1D and 2D NMR spec­troscopy revealed that small amounts of ?–O–4 (ca 6 mol.%), ?–5 and ?–? struc­tures still remained in L1 and L2. Over­all, upgrad­ed lignins are oligomers (trimmers–pentamers) with high­ly degrad­ed propane chains and pos­sess­ing poly­con­ju­gat­ed aro­mat­ic struc­tures. L2 pro­duced from milled THL didn?t con­tain con­comi­tant poly­sac­cha­rides and showed low­er poly­dis­per­si­ty than L1 and was sug­gest­ed as a promis­ing raw mate­r­i­al for poly­mer­ic formulations.

    Key words: hydrol­y­sis lignin, hydrol­y­sis lignin degra­da­tion prod­ucts, SEC, 1D and 2D 13С NMR, ESI-MS.

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    15 Shkol’nikov E.V. Struc­tur­al-Chem­i­cal Mod­el of Semi­con­duc­tor Glass­es AsSe1,5Snx
    (x ? 0,3)

    Anno­ta­tion

    The near­est envi­ron­ment of tin atoms and the regions of the exis­tence of the Sn(IV) and Sn(II) states in hard­ened glass­es of the As2Se3–Sn sys­tem have been deter­mined based on the study of Mess­bauer spec­tra on 119Sn nuclei and long-wave­length IR spec­tra, ther­mo­dy­nam­ic cal­cu­la­tions, analy­sis and the gen­er­al­iza­tion of the data from mea­sur­ing micro­hard­ness, den­si­ty, elec­tric con­duc­tiv­i­ty para­me­ters and oth­er data. The prob­a­ble struc­tur­al units and struc­tur­al-chem­i­cal mod­el of AsSe1,5Snx (x < 0,3) semi­con­duc­tor glass­es inclined to vol­ume crys­tal­liza­tion have been proposed.

    Key words: vibra­tion IR spec­tra, Mеssbauer spec­tra on 119Sn nuclei, iso­mer­ic shift, quadru­pole split­ting, struc­tur­al units.

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    16 Mikhailo­va N.V., Fil­ip­po­va E.S., Krylo­va T.E. Spec­tropho­to­met­ric deter­mi­na­tion of cop­per with extrac­tion-chro­mato­graph­ic preconcentration

    Anno­ta­tion

    The pos­si­bil­i­ty of extrac­tion-chro­mato­graph­ic pre­con­cen­tra­tion of cop­per using the chro­mato­graph­ic col­umn, filled with polite­traftoretilen (PTFE) and pre-washed with a solu­tion of reagent was inves­ti­gat­ed. The pos­si­bil­i­ty of apply­ing this method­ol­o­gy to ana­lyze of min­er­al fer­til­iz­ers was stud­ied. As selec­tive reagent for cop­per was used lead diethyldithio­car­ba­mate dis­solved in chlo­ro­form. The detec­tion lim­it was 12 ?g/l with sam­ple vol­ume 50 ml passed through the column.

    Key words: cop­per, pho­tom­e­try, extrac­tion-chro­mato­graph­ic concentration.

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    17 ineko I.P., Simono­va A.N. Prepa­ra­tion of cation exchang­ers by treat­ment of wood saw­dust by water solu­tion of sul­fu­ric acid with a low­ered pressure

    Anno­ta­tion

    Influ­ence of con­cen­tra­tion and con­sump­tion of sul­fu­ric acid on yield and ionex­change capac­i­ty of cation exchang­ers, received of wood saw­dust, has been stud­ied. Process car­ried out at 140 °C under vac­u­um dur­ing 3 hours. At increase of con­cen­tra­tion of acid from 4,4 to 39 % the yield of cation exchang­ers increased from 67,6 to 69,6 %. Cation exchang­ers con­tained both strong­ly acid and the weak acid func­tion­al groups, which con­tents with growth of acid con­cen­tra­tion increased and reached 4,0 mmol/g.

    Key­words: spruce saw­dust, sul­fu­ric acid, cation exchang­ers, yield, exchange capac­i­ty, acid groups.

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    V. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
    AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
    18 Bot­ian I.Iu., Utkin L.V. Doc­u­ment clas­si­fi­ca­tion and rank­ing robust mod­el by inter­val expert judg­ments in the learn­ing sample

    Anno­ta­tion

    A new doc­u­ment clas­si­fi­ca­tion approach based on inter­val expert judg­ments is intro­duced in this paper. The approach is based on the Damp­ster-Shafer the­o­ry and mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the sup­port vec­tor machine. An appro­pri­ate opti­miza­tion prob­lem was devel­oped. Its dual form defined in terms of the Lagrange mul­ti­pli­ers was obtained. The form allows to uti­lize non-lin­ear­i­ty to build more ade­quate mod­el. An illus­tra­tive exam­ple of the opti­miza­tion prob­lem build­ing was given.

    Key words: machine learn­ing, rank­ing, sup­port vec­tor machine, inter­val expert

    196 Down­load
    19 Zhuk Yu.A. Boost­ing clas­si­fi­ca­tion algo­rithms with adap­ta­tion sub­sets of weights based on robust impre­cise sta­tis­ti­cal models

    Anno­ta­tion

    A new boost­ing-like approach for con­struct­ing a series of clas­si­fi­ca­tion mod­els, which can be regard­ed as exten­sions of the well-known AdaBoost algo­rithm, are pro­posed in the paper. A main idea under­ly­ing the approach is that the pre­cise vec­tor of weights assigned to exam­ples in the train­ing set at each iter­a­tion of boost­ing is replaced by local con­vex sets of weights. The local sets of weights are pro­duced by means of impre­cise sta­tis­ti­cal mod­els. The adap­ta­tion pro­ce­dure at each iter­a­tion is car­ried out by chang­ing weights of extreme points of the con­vex sets, but not weights of exam­ples. The pro­posed approach allows us to avoid the prob­lem of over­fit­ting which is very impor­tant in boost­ing algo­rithms. Numer­i­cal exper­i­ments with real data show that the pro­posed mod­els out­per­form the stan­dard AdaBoost algo­rithm for sev­er­al well-known data sets.

    Key words: clas­si­fi­ca­tion, machine learn­ing, robust mod­el, ensem­ble method­ol­o­gy, adap­tive boost­ing, impre­cise con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed model.

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    VI. ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
    20 Bez­pal’ko A.R. Analy­sis of the com­po­si­tion, struc­ture of tax pay­ments and pay­ments for use of forests

    Anno­ta­tion

    Tax pay­ments, charges and con­tri­bu­tions from wood indus­tries include more than 13 species and are sig­nif­i­cant in com­par­i­son with enter­pris­es engaged only in trade activ­i­ties. On the basis of the actu­al­ly received data about finan­cial and eco­nom­ic activ­i­ties of log­ging enter­pris­es the analy­sis of the com­po­si­tion and struc­ture of tax pay­ments, includ­ing pay­ments for use of forests, payable in forestry orga­ni­za­tions, deter­mines the lev­el of the tax bur­den on log­ging enter­pris­es, con­clu­sions are drawn about the neces­si­ty of cre­at­ing a mod­el of the opti­mal dis­tri­b­u­tion of the tax bur­den in the for­est sector.

    Key words: tax pay­ments, pay­ments for use of forests, the cost of timber.

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    21 Le Trung Hieu. Meth­ods of assess­ment of eco­nom­ic afford­abil­i­ty of use of lowqual­i­ty wood, fire­wood and waste

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle describes a new method­olog­i­cal approach to assess­ing the eco­nom­ic avail­abil­i­ty of wood raw mate­r­i­al using, depend­ing on the dis­tance of its trans­porta­tion to the place of pro­cess­ing. Eco­nom­ic eval­u­a­tion of invest­ment projects com­plet­ed by indi­ca­tor – the max­i­mum dis­tance trans­port of raw mate­ri­als to the con­sumer, devel­oped a method of cal­cu­la­tion. The pro­posed method­ol­o­gy is illus­trat­ed by cal­cu­la­tions of the max­i­mum dis­tance trans­porta­tion of wood raw mate­r­i­al for projects of pel­let pro­duc­tion with capac­i­ty 10, 15 and 30 thou­sand tons per year.

    Key words: effi­cien­cy, low-qual­i­ty wood, pel­lets, cost, eco­nom­ic assessment.

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    22 Petrov V.N., Katko­va T.E. Wood cost on the root in Finland

    Anno­ta­tion

    On the exam­ple of forestry of Fin­land approach on for­ma­tion of cost of the wood on a root is con­sid­ered. The char­ac­ter­is­tic of types and ways of the con­clu­sion of trans­ac­tions is giv­en at trade in for­est prod­ucts in Fin­land. The fac­tors influ­enc­ing pric­ing in forestry of Fin­land are inves­ti­gat­ed. An anal­o­gy between the eco­nom­ic cat­e­gories «net income of the own­er of the woods» in Fin­land and «the stumpage price» in Rus­sia is drawn, dis­tinc­tions are spec­i­fied. Expens­es and income of for­est own­ers of Fin­land are analysed, cal­cu­lat­ed showed prof­itabil­i­ties on for­est regions.

    Key words: for­est econ­o­my, the for­est rela­tions, for­est pol­i­cy, wood pric­ing on a root, sys­tem of pay­ments for for­est exploita­tion, net income from use of the woods, the state sup­port, the mar­ket of round for­est products

    249 Down­load
    23 SHPAK N.А. Mod­ern scince and tech­nol­o­gy parks as the instru­ments of tran­si­tion of region­al econ­o­my to the prin­ci­ples of «green» economy

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle ana­lyzes the impact of sci­ence parks to intro­duc­tion of the prin­ci­ples of envi­ron­men­tal man­age­ment and sus­tain­able devel­op­ment in the region’s econ­o­my. It is per­formed the actu­al data col­lec­tion and analy­sis of the basic tools, which are used by sci­ence parks of the world for this pur­pose. The author ana­lyzes the main stages of

    glob­al devel­op­ment of sci­ence parks and major infra­struc­ture ele­ments form­ing sci­ence parks as devel­op­ment insti­tu­tions. The esti­ma­tion of pro­duc­tion of sci­ence parks, apply­ing «green» tech­nol­o­gy obtained the con­clu­sion that that its share is sig­nif­i­cant and it is con­stant­ly increas­ing, because apply­ing of «green econ­o­my» the prin­ci­ples is more eco­nom­i­cal for the region­al econ­o­my than the tra­di­tion­al con­sumer approach, and con­tributes to sus­tain­able devel­op­ment region and the coun­try as a whole.

    Key words: sci­ence park, «green econ­o­my», sus­tain­able devel­op­ment, inno­va­tion, adap­tive mech­a­nism, indus­tri­al pro­duc­tion, envi­ron­men­tal management.

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  • Issue 207
  • Name of article Page Arti­cle
    I. ECOLOGY OF FOREST DENDROPHILOUS INSECTS
    1 Volkovich M.G., Mozolevska­ia E.G. The tenth «anniver­sary» of the inva­sion of emer­ald ash bor­er Agrilus pla­nipen­nis Fairm. (Coleoptera: Bupresti­dae) in Rus­sia: results and prospects

    Anno­ta­tion

    Dur­ing the ten years that have passed since the dis­cov­ery of the first cen­ters of emer­ald ash bor­er Agrilus pla­nipen­nis Fair­maire in Moscow region infes­ta­tion spread to a large part of Cen­tral Rus­sia. The paper sum­ma­rizes recent data on the tax­on­o­my, dis­tri­b­u­tion, hosts, impact, par­a­sitoids and con­trol mea­sures against Emer­ald ash borer.

    Key­words: emer­ald ash bor­er, Agrilus pla­nipen­nis, EAB, inva­sion, Rus­sia, tax­on­o­my, dis­tri­b­u­tion, host plants, dam­age, par­a­sitoids, control.

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    2 Ermo­laev I.V., Efre­mo­va Z.A., Tru­bitsin A.V. Par­a­sitoids of the poplar leafmin­er Phyl­lono­ryc­ter pop­uli­foliel­la Tr. (Lep­i­doptera, Gracillariidae)

    Anno­ta­tion

    The study revealed 62 species of the Phyl­lono­ryc­ter pop­uli­foliel­la par­a­sitoids from 5 fam­i­lies (Ptero­ma­l­i­dae, Encyr­tidae, Eulophi­dae, Ich­neu­monidae, and Bra­conidae). The fol­low­ing 16 species were record­ed as this miner’s par­a­sitoids for the first time: Pni­galio mediter­ra­neus, Elacher­tus fen­e­s­tra­tus, Elacher­tus gal­li­cus, Chrysocharis amanus, Chrysocharis cras­sis­ca­pus, Chrysocharis gem­ma, Chrysocharis laome­don, Chrysocharis pentheus, Chrysocharis phryne, Chrysocharis pubi­cor­nis, Chrysocharis prodice, Chrysocharis viridis, Neochrysocharis ara­tus, Neochrysocharis cuprifrons, Neochrysocharis For­mosa, and Pedio­bius metallicus.

    Key­words: par­a­sitoid, poplar leafmin­er, Phyl­lono­ryc­ter populifoliella.

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    3 Ilyinykh A.V., Polenogo­va O.V. Virus car­riage and poly­he­dro­sis in gyp­sy moth Lyman­tria dis­par (L.) populations

    Anno­ta­tion

    The mech­a­nism of nucle­opoly­he­drovirus (NPV) trans­mis­sion through gyp­sy moth Lyman­tria dis­par (L.) pop­u­la­tions was explored. The pres­ence of latent virus in insects was deter­mined by PCR method. Insects were reared on arti­fi­cial diet for iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of NPV-caused mor­tal­i­ty. The latent virus was detect­ed in all gyp­sy moth pop­u­la­tions includ­ing those from areas where out­breaks have not been detect­ed pre­vi­ous­ly. The num­ber of virus-pos­i­tive indi­vid­u­als in gyp­sy moth pop­u­la­tions was rather high­er than NPV-caused mor­tal­i­ty in lab­o­ra­to­ry-grown insects. Based on these data, the pos­si­bil­i­ty of ver­ti­cal trans­mis­sion of the NPV is low in gyp­sy moth populations.

    Key­words: gyp­sy moth, pop­u­la­tions, latent virus, polyhedrosis.

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    4 Kriv­ets S.A., Bisiro­va E.M., Kerchev I.A., Pats E.N., Cher­no­va N.A.
    Pop­u­la­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics and impact of Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf. on the con­di­tion of the Siber­ian fir forests in the North-East­ern Altai

    Anno­ta­tion

    The paper presents results of stud­ies of the four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf. (Coleoptera: Cur­culion­idae, Scolyti­nae), a new inva­sive pest of Siber­ian fir forests in the North-East­ern Altai. It was estab­lished that the species has wide dis­tri­b­u­tion in the region: from the low­er bor­der of taiga to the upper lim­it of fir growth in moun­tain taiga. The vari­a­tion in pop­u­la­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics of the invad­er in dif­fer­ent fir stands was found. Eval­u­a­tion of the for­est stands vital­i­ty and fac­tors of their weak­en­ing were con­duct­ed. The impact of P. prox­imus in weak­en­ing and mor­tal­i­ty of fir trees was shown.

    Key­words: four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf., pop­u­la­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics, con­di­tion of Siber­ian fir forests, North-East­ern Altai.

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    5 Kuznetso­va V.V., Pal­niko­va E.N. Fac­tors affect­ing abun­dance dynam­ics of the thorn but­ter­fly (Apo­r­ia cratae­gi L.) in sub­ur­ban stand­ing woods of Kras­no­yarsk city

    Anno­ta­tion

    The paper exam­ines the main fac­tors of abun­dance dynam­ics of the thorn but­ter­fly (Apo­r­ia cratae­gi) in sub­ur­ban stad­ing woods of Kras­no­yarsk (Rus­sia). Such qual­i­ta­tive pop­u­la­tion indi­ca­tors as sex ratio at the pupal and adult stages, pupal weight, and fecun­di­ty of but­ter­flies are ana­lyzed and the rela­tion­ship of these indi­ca­tors with pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of the thorn but­ter­fly is char­ac­ter­ized. The role of the main fac­tors reg­u­lat­ing adun­dance of the num­ber of thorn but­ter­fly at dif­fer­ent stages of insect devel­op­ment is dis­cussed. It is shown that one of the lead­ing fac­tors con­tribut­ing to the pos­si­bil­i­ty of the long-term exis­tence of an out­break of the thorn but­ter­fly is active migra­tion of the insect at the adult stage.

    Key­words: thorn but­ter­fly, bird cher­ry tree, pop­u­la­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics, fac­tors of pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty reg­u­la­tion, abun­dance dynam­ics, migration.

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    6 Rubtsov V.V., Utk­i­na I.A. Impact of for­est phyl­lophagous insects on phy­tomass frac­tions of trees

    Anno­ta­tion

    Direct and indi­rect influ­ence of for­est phyl­lophagous insects on above­ground (foliage or nee­dles, buds, shoots, branch­es, and stems) and under­ground (roots) frac­tions of phy­tomass is con­sid­ered. Exam­ples tak­en from own stud­ies (on oak) and sci­en­tif­ic pub­li­ca­tions (on birch and pine) sug­gest that respons­es of trees to crown dam­age are deter­mined first of all by the lev­el, time, and repeata­bil­i­ty of defo­li­a­tion as well as by the fea­tures of growth strat­e­gy of tree species. The inten­si­ty and time of foliage recov­ery, devel­op­ment of dif­fer­ent shoot types in defo­li­at­ed crowns affect the loss of stem wood incre­ment and growth activ­i­ty of roots. Cur­rent cli­mate change still fur­ther com­pli­cates the quan­ti­ta­tive eval­u­a­tion of inter­ac­tions between phyl­lophagous insects and their host trees.

    Key­words: phyl­lophagous insects, defo­li­a­tion, above- and under­ground phy­tomass, regen­er­a­tive shoots, stem incre­ment, absorb­ing roots, cli­mate change.

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    7 Cher­pakov V.V. Xylophagous insects as vec­tors and sym­bionts of tree species’ path­o­gen­ic microflora

    Anno­ta­tion

    Inter­dis­ci­pli­nary field and lab­o­ra­to­ry research was done to study inter­ac­tion of xylophagous insects and path­o­gen­ic microor­gan­isms in patho­log­i­cal process­es that lead to death of for­est trees. The xylophages of coleopter­an fam­i­lies Cur­culion­idae (Scolyti­nae, Platy­po­d­i­nae, Cryp­torhynchi­nae), Lymexyl­i­dae, Bupresti­dae; hymenopter­an fam­i­ly Siri­ci­dae; lep­i­dopter­an fam­i­ly Cos­si­dae, and oth­ers are vec­tors and sym­bionts of path­o­gen­ic fun­gi and bac­te­ria. The agents of erwin­io­sis (Erwinia) accom­pa­ny xylophages with­out show­ing antag­o­nism to fun­gal pathogens dam­ag­ing cam­bi­um and xylem caus­ing death of plants and show­ing ento­mopath­o­gen­ic prop­er­ties (Uro­cerus spp., Agrilus spp.). Bac­te­r­i­al mass is the food for xylophages (Cos­sus cos­sus bac­te­rio­phagy). It is nec­es­sary to devel­op a new phi­los­o­phy and method­ol­o­gy of for­est pathol­o­gy diagnosis.

    Key­words: insects, fun­gi, bac­te­ria, pathol­o­gy, bac­te­r­i­al dis­eases, wood.

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    II. INSECTS IN ANTHROPOGENIC ECOSYSTEMS
    8 Belit­skaya M.N., Gri­bust I.R. Struc­ture of insect fau­na of field pro­tec­tive for­est stands

    Anno­ta­tion

    The data on insect species, their abun­dance and diver­si­ty on the main woody species in field pro­tec­tive for­est shel­ter belts (con­sist­ed of oak, elm, birch, and poplar) and under-crown area were col­lect­ed. The results con­firm­ing the changes of eco­log­i­cal and fau­nis­tic char­ac­ter­is­tics of insect pop­u­la­tion in field pro­tec­tive for­est shel­ter belts of dif­fer­ent cli­mat­ic zones are pre­sent­ed. A com­plex con­sist­ing of sev­er­al dom­i­nant insect species dif­fer in abun­dance and com­po­si­tion depend­ing on cli­mat­ic zone was iden­ti­fied. Tropho-func­tion­al and zoo­geo­graph­i­cal struc­tures of insect com­mu­ni­ties were ana­lyzed. The data that char­ac­ter­ize sim­i­lar­i­ty of local insect com­mu­ni­ties in agroland­scapes with for­est pro­tec­tive stands are provided.

    Key­words: for­est stands, diver­si­ty of insects, pests, ento­mophags, struc­ture of insect community.

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    9 Bobrov I.A. Pop­u­la­tion struc­ture of pine bark bug (Aradus cin­namo­meus Panz.) in the Left-bank Polessye of Ukraine

    Anno­ta­tion

    Pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty and struc­ture of pine bark bug (Aradus cin­namo­meus Panz.) was stud­ied in the Left-bank Polessye of Ukraine in swarm and non-swarm years in pure and mixed stands of dif­fer­ent age and for­est site con­di­tions by month­ly (from April to Octo­ber) assess­ment on stems using method of sticky tape. It was proved that odd-year gen­er­a­tion dom­i­nates in all stud­ied plots of pine plan­ta­tions, which is sup­port­ed by dom­i­na­tion of adults in April–May. It is rec­om­mend­ed to car­ry out ear­ly thin­ning in swarm years (start­ing from June) and to use insec­ti­cides by stem spray­ing dur­ing dom­i­na­tion of I–II instar lar­vae (in June–August).

    Key­words: pine bark bug, pop­u­la­tion struc­ture, sea­son­al devel­op­ment, swarm year.

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    10 Elance­va A.A., Elni­co­va Iu.S. Diver­si­ty of her­peto­biont coleoptera of urban stand­ing woods (by the exam­ple of Vol­gograd city)

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle presents results of the research of eco­log­i­cal and fau­nis­tic struc­ture of the pop­u­la­tion of soil insects in urban areas in Vol­gograd City. The species diver­si­ty and quan­ti­ta­tive abun­dance of soil insects of the urban stand­ing woods of dif­fer­ent eco­log­i­cal cat­e­gories have been stud­ied. The qual­i­ta­tive and quan­ti­ta­tive rep­re­sen­ta­tion of soil insects’ biotopes of the city is pre­sent­ed. The struc­ture of insect com­plex­es and their dom­i­nant groups is ana­lyzed. Descrip­tion of insect com­plex­es’ bio­di­ver­si­ty in dif­fer­ent cat­e­gories of urban stand­ing woods is pre­sent­ed. The cor­re­spon­dence of life forms and eco­log­i­cal groups of ground bee­tles is shown. The ?- and ?-diver­si­ty of insect com­plex­es of soil insects in Vol­gograd City stand­ing woods are evaluated.

    Key­words: urban stand­ing woods, soil insects, Cara­bidae, life forms.

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    11 Ere­mee­va N.I., Luzyanin S.L., Kortchag­i­na M.R., Bli­no­va S.V. For­est ento­mo­fau­na ele­ments at the dumps of open­cast coal mines

    Anno­ta­tion

    The her­peto­bion meso­fau­na of recul­ti­vat­ed dumps of two open­cast coal mines in Kuzbass region was stud­ied. In meso­her­peto­bions’ struc­ture, rep­re­sen­ta­tives of few arthro­pod class­es were reg­is­tered: Crus­tacea (Isopo­da), Arach­ni­da, Chilopo­da, Insec­ta-Ectog­natha. The major­i­ty of species in meso­fau­na were insects (Insec­ta-Ectog­natha). Pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of Coleoptera and Hymenoptera was the high­est. In this work species com­po­si­tion and abun­dance of two groups of insects (ground bee­tles of genus Carabus and ants) were stud­ied; for­est species suc­cess­ful­ly inhab­it­ing dumps of open­cast coal mines were iden­ti­fied. It was shown that pen­e­tra­tion of for­est species into places of recul­ti­va­tion from the close­ly locat­ed undis­turbed nat­ur­al ecosys­tems took place at the ear­ly stages of succession.

    Key­words: insects, ecol­o­gy, fau­na, her­peto­bionts, cara­bids, ants, dumps of open­cast coal mines.

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    12 Tim­o­fee­va Yu.A. Eco­log­i­cal pecu­liar­i­ties of the lime leafmin­er Phyl­lono­ryc­ter issikii (Kuma­ta) (Lep­i­doptera, Gracil­lari­idae) in Saint Petersburg

    Anno­ta­tion

    In St. Peters­burg the lime leafmin­er Phyl­lono­ryc­ter issikii (Kuma­ta, 1963) con­sid­er­ably dam­ages limes in city parks. In 2009–2013 eco­log­i­cal den­si­ty of the lime leafmin­er pop­u­la­tion increased in all stud­ied parks. In 2013, eco­log­i­cal den­si­ty was the high­est and reached 1712.2 ± 186.8 mines per 100 g of foliage. The great­est den­si­ty of mines was record­ed at the end of August and the begin­ning of Sep­tem­ber and aver­aged 4 mines per leaf. Par­a­sitism lev­el did not exceed 17 %, i.e. par­a­sitoids played an insignif­i­cant role in reg­u­la­tion of the moth den­si­ty. Up to 55 % of the moth indi­vid­u­als died because of unknown reasons.

    Key­words: Phyl­lono­ryc­ter issikii, leafmin­er, pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty, eco­log­i­cal pecu­liar­i­ties, lar­val and pupal mor­tal­i­ty, Saint Petersburg.

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    III. PROBLEMS OF FOREST PATHOLOGY
    13 Astrakhant­se­va N.V., Pashen­o­va N.V., Petko V.M, Baranchikov V.M. Abies sibir­i­ca Ledeb. and A. nephrolepis (Trautv. ex Max­im.) Max­im. stem tis­sue reac­tion on inoc­u­la­tion by phy­topath­o­gen­ic fun­gus Gros­man­nia aoshi­mae (Ohta­ka, Masuya et Yamao­ka) Masuya et Yamao­ka, asso­ci­at­ed with four-eyed fir bark beetle

    Anno­ta­tion

    The respons­es of Abies sibir­i­ca Ledeb. and A. nephrolepis Max­im. stem tis­sues on arti­fi­cial inoc­u­la­tion by Gros­man­nia aoshi­mae (Ohta­ka, Masuya et Yamao­ka) Masuya et Yamao­ka, the main fun­gus asso­ci­at­ed with the inva­sive bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf., were inves­ti­gat­ed to iden­ti­fy the caus­es of A. sibir­i­ca heavy dam­age by the invad­er. Dif­fer­ences in the rate of myceli­um move­ment into the A. sibir­i­ca and A. nephrolepis stem tis­sues were explained by the dif­fer­ences in: (1) con­sti­tu­tive resis­tance, i.e. quan­ti­ty and fea­tures of scle­reid (stone cell) groups for­ma­tion, num­ber and local­iza­tion of mucilage cells in the phloem; (2) induced resis­tance, i. e. fea­tures of resin pro­duc­tion, speed and degree of phloem cells lig­ni­fi­ca­tion inside necro­sis, trans­for­ma­tion of parenchy­ma cells at the necro­sis bor­der; (3) lev­els of fun­gus cul­tures aggressiveness.

    Key­words: Abies sp., phloem, xylem, ophios­tom­a­toid fun­gi, bark beetles.

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    14 Grod­nit­skaya I.D., Kon­dako­va O.E. Uti­liza­tion of micro­bial antag­o­nism in pro­tec­tion of conif­er­ous seedlings from infec­tious dis­eases in for­est nurseries

    Anno­ta­tion

    Strains of microor­gan­isms extract­ed from soil of for­est nurs­eries in Siberia with high bio­log­i­cal activ­i­ty (antag­o­nis­tic, plant growth stim­u­lat­ing prop­er­ties) were iden­ti­fied and test­ed. The bac­te­ria from gen­era Bacil­lus and Pseudomonas, and fun­gi from genus Tri­cho­der­ma that were applied to soil of for­est nurs­eries sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduced the amount of phy­topath­o­gen­ic micromycetes (Fusar­i­um, Alternar­ia, Cla­dospo­ri­um), thus, improv­ing the phy­tosan­i­tary con­di­tion of the soil in nurs­eries. Pre-sow­ing treat­ment of pine and Siber­ian larch seeds with microbes antag­o­nists increased their ground ger­mi­na­tion (in 3,5–5,8 times) and safe­ty of seedlings (4.5–12.0 times) by the end of veg­e­ta­tion, if com­pared to the control.

    Key­words: pro­tec­tion of conif­er­ous seedlings, micro­bial antag­o­nism, phy­topath­o­gen­ic micromycetes, infec­tious diseases.

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    15 Davy­denko E.V. Fun­gal pathogens of pine plan­ta­tions of south Ukraine

    Anno­ta­tion

    The aim of the study was to reveal the com­plex of fun­gal pathogens asso­ci­at­ed with nee­dle of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Crimean pine (P. pal­lasiana) in three regions of south Ukraine. The sam­ples of symp­to­matic nee­dles in pine plan­ta­tions were col­lect­ed. The mate­r­i­al was used to iden­ti­fy the com­plex of fun­gal pathogens with micro­scop­ic and PCR based meth­ods. In total, 10 fun­gal pathogens have been iden­ti­fied using micro­scop­ic and mol­e­c­u­lar meth­ods for pine plan­ta­tions of Zaporozhye, Niko­layev, and Kher­son regions. The fol­low­ing fun­gal pathogens Alternar­ia sp., Doth­istro­ma sp., Fusar­i­um sp., Fusic­oc­cum sp., Grem­me­niel­la abi­eti­na, Lopho­der­mi­um sedi­tio­sum, Pho­mop­sis sp. Sphaerop­sis sap­inea, Scle­rophoma pithyophi­la, Cycla­neusma minus were detect­ed with dif­fer­ent frequencies.

    Key­words: for­est dis­ease, Sphaerop­sis, Doth­istro­ma, Cycla­neusma, Fusic­oc­cum, pine plantations.

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    16 Senasho­va V.A. Influ­ence of biot­ic fac­tors on Siber­ian fir epi­phyt­ic com­mu­ni­ty formation

    Anno­ta­tion

    The study was con­duct­ed on epi­phyt­ic micro­bial com­mu­ni­ty of healthy Siber­ian fir nee­dles and those under affec­tion by rust fun­gus Melamp­sorel­la caryophyl­lacearum Shroet. A com­par­i­son of phy­ton­cide activ­i­ty of both kinds of nee­dles was made . The study of infect­ed nee­dles showed that the num­ber of microor­gan­isms on them 2–3 times high­er than on healthy nee­dles. On healthy nee­dles dur­ing sum­mer months spore-form­ing bac­te­ria are dom­i­nat­ing, while on sick nee­dles increas­ing the num­ber of non-spore microor­gan­isms. It was found that the nee­dles dam­aged by rust have no retard­ing effect on growth of the test iso­lates of micromycetes, but has a strong bac­te­rio­sta­t­ic effect on bac­te­ria (includ­ing actinomycetes).

    Key­words: fir rust, epi­phyt­ic microor­gan­isms, phytoncides.

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    IV. MONITORING AND CONTROL OF NATIVE AND INVASIVE PHYTOPATHOGENS 

    AND FOREST TREESPESTS

    17 Zhukov E.A., Shchurov V.I., Niko­laenko C.S. Path­o­gen­ic mycobiota
    (Fun­gi: Ascomy­co­ta, Basid­iomy­co­ta) as one of the for­est pathol­o­gy mon­i­tor­ing objects in the North­west Caucasus

    Anno­ta­tion

    The data on for­est pathol­o­gy mon­i­tor­ing dur­ing the peri­od 2000–2013 at Krasnodar Region obtained by the Cen­ter of For­est Health of Krasnodar Region are ana­lyzed. Exploit­ed forests in the region are main­ly rep­re­sent­ed by low­er and medi­um ele­va­tion forests of sec­ondary oak, beech, and fir with high lev­el of wood-decay fun­gi and vas­cu­lar dis­eases. List of eco­nom­i­cal­ly impor­tant fun­gal pathogens and its dynam­ics was devel­oped and areas of their activ­i­ty were deter­mined. Gen­er­al biol­o­gy and dis­tri­b­u­tion of the men­tioned species were stud­ied. It will facil­i­tate devel­op­ment of short and long term pre­dic­tions of phy­topatho­log­i­cal sit­u­a­tion. Future study in pri­ma­ry forests will pro­vide data on nat­ur­al process­es in the most sus­tain­able and viable forests formation.

    Key­words: for­est phy­topathol­o­gy mon­i­tor­ing, wood-inhab­it­ing fun­gi, sec­ondary forests, for­est health effec­tive­ness estimation.

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    18 Malakho­va E.G., Lyamt­sev N.I. Extent and struc­ture of Moscow region spruce for­est dieback in 2010–2012

    Anno­ta­tion

    The paper ana­lyzes changes in space and time struc­ture of bark bee­tle (Ips typogra­phus L.) out­breaks which caused a mass dieback of spruce forests in Moscow region. Maps of out­breaks extent in 2010–2012 are based on high res­o­lu­tion space images. Changes ass­es­ment of the num­ber, area and loca­tion of the dam­aged and dead stands has been done in the Nogin­sky for­est dis­trict. The out­break for­ma­tion and the bark bee­tle migra­tion activ­i­ty were evaluated.

    Key­words: spruce, dieback, remote mon­i­tor­ing, spa­tial analysis.

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    19 Pono­marev V.I., Klobukov G.I., Orozum­bekov A.A., Seryi G.A. Influ­ence of cli­mate fac­tors on the effi­cien­cy of gyp­sy moth Lyman­tria dis­par (L.) pheromone monitoring

    Anno­ta­tion

    Com­par­i­son of catch­a­bil­i­ty of closed «milk car­ton» box type pheromone-bait­ed traps dur­ing the depres­sion phase of pop­u­la­tion cycle in dif­fer­ent parts of gyp­sy moth Lyman­tria dis­par (L.) nat­ur­al range was con­duct­ed. Con­clu­sion is made about sig­nif­i­cant influ­ence of steadi­ness of air­flows on traps catch­a­bil­i­ty dur­ing the gyp­sy moth male flight period.

    Key­words: pheromone mon­i­tor­ing, Dis­par­lure, weath­er fac­tors, gyp­sy moth.

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    20 Shishlyan­niko­va A.B., Zarud­naya G.I., Zinchuk T.M. Analy­sis of changes in the health con­di­tions of memo­r­i­al woody plants of the muse­um-reserve «Mon­re­pos Park»

    Anno­ta­tion

    In 2011–2013 phy­topatho­log­ic health con­di­tions of decid­u­ous trees in the memo­r­i­al Mon­re­pos Park (Vyborg, Leningrad Region, Rus­sia) was re-exam­ined to ana­lyze changes in the preva­lence of the most com­mon tree dis­eases and their pathogens in the his­toric park over a peri­od of 1991–2011. A com­par­i­son of the data on dis­tri­b­u­tion of memo­r­i­al trees by cat­e­gories of con­di­tion showed decline in trees’ bio­log­i­cal resis­tance over the study peri­od. The most com­mon and harm­ful pathogens such as canker-can­cer­ous and rot dis­eases were iden­ti­fied. Uneven and often sharp rise ofpathogens abun­dance at dif­fer­ent sec­tions of the park, their patchy dis­tri­b­u­tion, expan­sion of their sub­strate spe­cial­iza­tion as well as increase in the species com­po­si­tion of plant pathogens were observed. It is sug­gest­ed that the dis­tur­bance of soil hydro­log­i­cal regime of the Mon­re­pos Park has the lead­ing role in the qual­i­ta­tive and quan­ti­tive changes in com­po­si­tion of pathogens and reduc­tion of bio­log­i­cal sus­tain­abil­i­ty of memo­r­i­al decid­u­ous trees.

    Key­words: memo­r­i­al trees, canker-can­cers, rot dis­eases, infes­ta­tion, bio­log­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty, hydro­log­i­cal regime.

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    V. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF FOREST ENTOMOLOGY
    21 Demid­ko D.A. Dat­ing of four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Bland­ford (Coleoptera, Cur­culion­idae, Scolyti­nae) inva­sion into Tom­sk region

    Anno­ta­tion

    The arti­cle reports results of dat­ing of Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Bland­ford (Coleoptera, Cur­culion­idae, Scolyti­nae) inva­sion into Tom­sk Region (West­ern Siberia). Dat­ing is ful­filled by meth­ods of den­drochronol­o­gy. Cores and wood discs were tak­en from five stands which were killed by P. prox­imus around Tom­sk City. The ear­li­est occur­rence of death of trees with P. prox­imus gal­leries was dat­ed by 2000. Aggres­sive species of bark bee­tles need to accu­mu­late sub­stan­tial quan­ti­ty of indi­vid­u­als to over­come the pro­tec­tive mech­a­nisms of host trees. Thus, the date of inva­sion should be moved back to the mid-1990s.

    Key­words: Poly­gra­phus prox­imus, Siber­ian fir, bio­log­i­cal inva­sion, den­drochronol­o­gy, crossdating.

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    22 Kirichenko N.I. Method­olog­i­cal approach­es to the study of insects min­ing leaves of woody plants

    Anno­ta­tion

    The paper pro­vides an overview of the method­olog­i­cal approach­es to the study of leafmin­ing insects and their mines on leaves of woody plants, rear­ing of leaf-min­ers up to ima­go under lab­o­ra­to­ry con­di­tions, preser­va­tion and stor­age of lar­vae and pupae, and arrange­ment of herbar­i­um col­lec­tions (with descrip­tion of the author’s tech­nique). The char­ac­ter­is­tics of mines, lar­vae and pupae of leaf-min­ing insects are spec­i­fied for the orders Lep­i­doptera, Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, and Diptera; the orig­i­nal pho­tographs of mines typ­i­cal for cer­tain insect species are pro­vid­ed. The review might be inter­est­ing for begin­ners as well expe­ri­enced researches.

    Key­words: leafmin­ing insects, woody plants, mines, herbar­i­um, lar­vae, pupae, preser­va­tion of sam­ples, rear­ing of leafminers.

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    23 Meshko­va V.L., Didenko M.M. Biot­ic caus­es of dam­age of acorns and young seedlings of pedun­cu­late oak (Quer­cus robur L.)

    Anno­ta­tion

    Via­bil­i­ty of acorns was eval­u­at­ed by flota­tion test, dis­sec­tion, and sprout­ing. Via­bil­i­ty of young seedlings was eval­u­at­ed by sow­ing in the for­est. Acorns with­out signs of dam­age were found only among sink­ing ones in the flota­tion test. Acorns dam­aged by acorn wee­vil were found only among float­ing ones. Acorns dam­aged by small ver­te­brates for win­ter stor­age did not lose their abil­i­ty to ger­mi­nate. Via­bil­i­ty of young seedlings from acorns with dam­aged peri­carp is low­er than from acorns with­out signs of dam­age. Dis­col­oration of cotyle­dons does not influ­ence essen­tial­ly abil­i­ty of acorns to germinate.

    Key­words: pedun­cu­late oak, acorns, flota­tion test, young growth, acorn wee­vil, brows­ing by small ani­mals, dis­col­oration of cotyledon.

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    24 Musolin D.L., Saulich A.Kh. Phe­no­log­i­cal shifts in insects in response to the cur­rent cli­mate change

    Anno­ta­tion

    Shifts in phe­nol­o­gy are the most often record­ed exam­ples of biota’s respons­es to the cur­rent cli­mate change. The paper reviews exam­ples of the respons­es to the cur­rent cli­mate change among insects. The cli­mate warm­ing shifts not only terms of the begin­ning of the warm sea­son suit­able for active devel­op­ment of species, but also the whole fur­ther activ­i­ty sea­son. How­ev­er, in many cas­es of uni- or bivol­tine devel­op­ment of insects, mod­er­ate warm­ing is unlike­ly to sig­nif­i­cant­ly affect the struc­ture of the population’s sea­son­al cycle or vol­tin­ism. It is con­clud­ed that phe­no­log­i­cal respons­es of dif­fer­ent species to the cur­rent cli­mate change will dif­fer. Mis­match­es of respons­es between dif­fer­ent troph­ic lev­els under the cur­rent cli­mate change con­di­tions might result in hard­ly pre­dictable mis­bal­ances in the ecosystem’s structure.

    Key­words: insects, cli­mate change, phe­nol­o­gy, vol­tin­ism, sea­son­al development.

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  • Issue 206
  • Name of article  Page Arti­cle
    FORESTRY
    1 Alek­se­ichenko N.A., Bor­shchevskii M.A., Kitaev O.I. Fea­tures intraspe­cif­ic adap­ta­tion of rhus typhi­na l. in urban­hab­i­tats of Kyiv

    Anno­ta­tion

    We study intraspe­cif­ic vari­abil­i­ty of indi­ca­tor mor­pho­fy­s­i­o­log­ic fea­tures of a func­tion­al state of the staghorn sumac (Rhus typhi­na L.) as techno­geni­cal­ly trans­formed urban­hab­i­tats in Kyiv: ampli­tude of their vari­abil­i­ty, direc­tion of the vari­abil­i­ty of indi­ca­tor signs, and the esti­mate of their adap­tive capac­i­ty. To eval­u­ate the adap­tive respons­es of plants used indi­ca­tors: area, length, width, shape index of leaves, the annu­al growth of trees, index of chloro­phyll flu­o­res­cence induc­tion Fm.

    Key words: adap­tive capac­i­ty, Rhus typhi­na L., indus­tri­al pol­lu­tion, green­ing of cities.

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    2 Veselkin D.V., Neshataev V.Iu. Change of the abun­dance of arbo­re­al plants dif­fer­ent­ly inter­act­ing with myc­or­rhizal fun­gi in the recov­ery suc­ces­sions after cut­ting at the North-West­ern dis­tricts of Russia

    Anno­ta­tion

    The role of arbo­re­al plants in dif­fer­ent ways inter­act­ing with myc­or­rhizal fun­gi (arbus­cu­lar and ecto­my­c­or­rhizal), in the suc­ces­sions of recov­ery after clear cut­ting in the taiga zone in north­west­ern regions of Rus­sia was ana­lyzed. Crown cov­er val­ues of four groups of plants dif­fer­ent in their myc­or­rhizal sta­tus in com­mu­ni­ties of dif­fer­ent suc­ces­sion­al stages were mea­sured on sam­ple plots cor­re­spond­ing to spruce forests on loams and bina­ry deposits rich with bil­ber­ry and pine forests on sands rich with­The gen­er­al direc­tion of change in the struc­ture of dom­i­na­tion in the over­grown of tree felling in bore­al zone is the pro­gres­sive­ly reduc­tion of the par­tic­i­pa­tion of option­al myc­or­rhizal plants and a monot­o­n­ic increase of the role of oblig­ate ecto­my­c­or­rhizal plants. Tem­po­rary increase of the pro­jec­tive cov­er of the non-spe­cial­ized species occurred in the process of recov­ery of spruce forests. The sim­i­lar increase was absent in the suc­ces­sion of recov­ery of pine forests rich with crowberry.

    Key words: plant suc­ces­sions, recov­ery of cut­ting area, bore­al for­est, myc­or­rhiza, arbus­cu­lar myc­or­rhiza, ecto­my­c­or­rhiza, mod­els of suc­ces­sions, mech­a­nisms of successions.

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    3 Dobro­vol’skii A.A. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing of the stands, dom­i­nat­ing by broadleave species

    Anno­ta­tion

    We stud­ied Oranien­baum Park in the North-West part of Rus­sia and used two research stud­ies of park’s veg­e­ta­tion. Using Markov chain mod­el we stud­ied the devel­op­ment of the lime stands in the Park. «Vital­i­ty –class changes» and «diam­e­ter-class changes» sub-mod­els were used as a basis for mod­el­ing. Both sub-mod­el groups cor­re­late with the rate of canopy den­si­ty. By using the mod­el results with the expe­ri­en­tial data it shows that the mod­el real­is­ti­cal­ly reflects stand ten­den­cy in the future and can be a use­ful tool for park man­age­ment under dif­fer­ent sylvi­cul­tur­al sce­nar­ios. The mod­el takes into account the influ­ence of all fac­tors, which affect the oak and lime stands devel­op­ment in «Oranien­baum» Park through 22-years period.

    Key words: markov chain mod­els, lime stands, parks.

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    4 Belenets Iu.E., Antonov O.I. The influ­ence of the inten­si­ty of land recla­ma­tion and fat­sion­al­noy struc­ture on the prop­er­ties of a num­ber of marsh and for­est soils drained long sphag­num bogs

    Anno­ta­tion

    The intro­duc­tion reflects the impor­tance of for­est hydrome­lio­ra­tion at the present time. Sec­tion describ­ing the objects and meth­ods of work deals with con­di­tions of nat­ur­al objects, espe­cial­ly types of site con­di­tions, the char­ac­ter­is­tic of the spe­cif­ic of drainage and place­ment of plots in the test area: 5 plots in the inter­chan­nel space and 5 plots at the ditch­es. The effect of the pro­longed drainage of sphag­num bog on the trans­for­ma­tion of for­est con­di­tions and the for­ma­tion of mod­ern facial struc­ture of the inves­ti­gat­ed tract of swamp is con­sid­ered. The depen­dence of tax­a­tion para­me­ters of nat­ur­al pine stands on the facial struc­ture and trophic­i­ty of stud­ied peat and min­er­al soils is ana­lyzed. In dis­cussing the results of stud­ies, the acid-base, phys­i­cal, chem­i­cal and agro­chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of soils in the exper­i­men­tal plots locat­ed at the ditch­es are com­pared. Pos­i­tive effects of dura­tion and the inten­si­ty of drainage on the devel­op­ment and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of for­est stands and the para­me­ters deter­min­ing the fer­til­i­ty of the peat soils is revealed. The research results are reflect­ed in the con­clu­sions of the work.

    Key words: drainage of forests, soil acid­i­ty, humus, ash con­tent of peat, soil fertility.

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    5 Mal­iukhin D.M., Bar­di­na V.I., Bak­i­na L.G. Esti­ma­tion of eco­tox­i­c­i­ty of new organohenic sub­strates used in recla­ma­tion of sol­id domes­tic waste dump

    Anno­ta­tion

    We learned about the tox­i­c­i­ty of organ­ic sub­strates used in the recla­ma­tion of the sol­id domes­tic waste dumps of Gatchi­na, Leningrad region, using biotests meth­ods. It was set that all of the sub­strates are referred to IV‑V risk grades, which cor­re­spond to the reg­u­la­to­ry doc­u­ments and to the projects of recla­ma­tion of the sol­id domes­tic waste dumps. Two inves­ti­gat­ed sub­strates – waste water mud and cof­fee pulp – in a fresh state have a mod­er­ate degree of tox­i­c­i­ty, and the manure of sol­id domes­tic waste dumps not only has no tox­i­c­i­ty, but also has a stim­u­lat­ing effect on the seedlings. After expo­sure of the sub­strates to the sur­face of the sol­id domes­tic waste dumps, dur­ing the first year, the tox­i­c­i­ty of the waste water mud is com­plete­ly elim­i­nat­ed, and the phy­to­tox­i­c­i­ty of the cof­fee pulp is grad­u­al­ly reduced.

    Key words: recul­ti­va­tion, tox­i­c­i­ty, biotest­ing, overgrowth.

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    6 Goli­ad­ki­na I.V., Pankov Ia.V., Nava­likhin S.V. Poly­acry­lamide effi­ca­cy on the con­sol­i­da­tion of techno­genic land­scapes of Kursk mag­net­ic anomaly

    Anno­ta­tion

    Techno­genic land­scape is the main type of land­scape of the post-min­ing areas. For­est recla­ma­tion is con­sid­ered to be the most effec­tive way of pre­vent­ing soil ero­sion and increas­ing fer­til­i­ty of destruc­t­ed lands. It is well known that growth of peren­ni­al grass­es plays a great melio­ra­tive role for the for­est plan­ta­tion estab­lish­ment. Seed­ing of peren­ni­al grass­es will be more effec­tive while using mechan­i­cal, bio­log­i­cal, chem­i­cal and oth­ers meth­ods of con­sol­i­da­tion of destruc­t­ed lands. One of the most per­spec­tive meth­ods is the appli­ca­tion of soil sta­bi­liz­ers, such as poly­acril­amide (PAM). In this study describes the results of PAM appli­ca­tion for seed­ings of peren­ni­al grass­es for the post-min­ing areas of Kursk mag­net­ic anomaly.

    Key words: poly­acril­amide, soil ero­sion, for­est recla­ma­tion, peren­ni­al grasses.

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    TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    7 Mil­i­aev A.S. Design pro­ce­dure of heat con­duc­tiv­i­ty of the wheel track-plates on win­ter tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads

    Anno­ta­tion

    The design pro­ce­dure of heat con­duc­tiv­i­ty rein­forced con­crete wheel track-plates with aper­tures of the round form, filled with air is devel­oped. Intro­duc­tion in a body of a design rein­forced con­crete wheel track-plates of aper­tures of the round form filled with air, allows to reduce their heat con­duc­tiv­i­ty on the aver­age by 32 % that can lead to delay of process thaw and to length­en­ing of terms of oper­a­tion win­ter tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads dur­ing spring-and-sum­mer time at appli­ca­tion of such plates. The design pro­ce­dure of heat con­duc­tiv­i­ty wheel track-plates with aper­tures can be used for plates with aper­tures of oth­er forms, and also for def­i­n­i­tion of heat con­duc­tiv­i­ty rein­forced con­crete, fer­ro­con­crete and lay­ered con­crete cov­er­ings in cal­cu­la­tions of process­es a freez­ing and thaw tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads.

    Key words: win­ter tim­ber-car­ry­ing roads, wheel track plates, road’s thaw, ther­mal conductivity. 

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    8 Shegel’­man I.R., Skryp­nik V.I., Kuznetsov A.V., Krup­ko A.M. Pro­gram sys­tems for refin­ing ship­ping logis­tics and opti­miza­tion of car­go-car­ry­ing and tech­no­log­i­cal road­ing of for­est bases in tim­ber pro­cure­ment enterprise

    Anno­ta­tion

    This paper presents range of ideas which ded­i­cat­ed research in the field of effi­cien­cy upgrad­ing har­vest­ing and trans­porta­tion oper­a­tions: ques­tions about sched­ul­ing, opti­miza­tion of car­go-car­ry­ing and tech­no­log­i­cal road­ing of for­est bases in tim­ber pro­cure­ment enter­prise using SRNS-tech­nol­o­gy and solu­tions mul­ti­ver­sion tasks about rea­son and choos­ing ratio­nal exploita­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics of log trucks for enter­prise roads, choos­ing scheme of removal, fore­cast­ing of effec­tive using car­go-car­ry­ing, def­i­n­i­tion ratio­nal truck load and stan­dard time of car­go-car­ry­ing tech­ni­cal-and-eco­nom­ic indexes.

    Key words: for­est base area, tim­ber road, opti­miza­tion, the SRNS-tehnol­o­gy, log trucks, traf­fic sim­u­la­tion, scheduling.

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    9 Lapin N.N., Manenko M.V. Tech­ni­cal and eco­nom­ic assess­ment struc­tures and para­me­ters of drives

    Anno­ta­tion

    Results of research­es of tech­ni­cal and eco­nom­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of dri­ves are pre­sent­ed in arti­cle. Graph­ic cre­ation of func­tion­al­i­ty spec­i­fied opti­mum val­ues of char­ac­ter­is­tics elec­tric and hydraulic dri­ves. Dura­bil­i­ty of dri­ves in a sta­tion­ary mode of func­tion­ing is esti­mat­ed by the effec­tive peri­od of loading.

    Key words: dynam­ics, unsta­ble sys­tem, elec­tric dri­ve, hydraulic dri­ve, dynam­ic model

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    10 Bazarov S.M., Solov’ev A.N. Analy­sis of cri­te­ria of effi­cien­cy of sys­tems of mech­a­nisms and cars of log­ging production

    Anno­ta­tion

    In mar­ket con­di­tions, improve­ment of log­ging is con­nect­ed with the neces­si­ty of for­mu­lat­ing a new dynam­ic cri­te­ria of effi­cien­cy of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of pro­duc­tion. Opti­miza­tion of the oper­a­tion of com­plex­es of machines and mech­a­nisms on the cut­ting area by syn­chro­niz­ing them to be sup­ple­ment­ed by the con­struc­tion of the short­est tech­no­log­i­cal path­ways of tim­ber, which deter­mines the max­i­mum effi­cien­cy of the tech­no­log­i­cal process as a whole. On the basis of the time of pro­duc­tion of a unit vol­ume of tim­ber sys­tem of mech­a­nisms and machines are deter­mined by the effec­tive spe­cif­ic per­for­mance and pow­er con­sump­tion. Fur­ther improve­ment of tim­ber pro­duc­tion on the cut­ting area is con­nect­ed with the neces­si­ty of deter­mi­na­tion of effec­tive tech­no­log­i­cal pro­duc­tion speeds, which allows to for­mu­late the most effec­tive logis­tics at the felling site.

    Key words: tech­nol­o­gy, speed, syn­chro­nize, time, improvement.

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    11 Vlasov E.N., Akhma­tovich E.A., Epi­fano­va A.Iu. The def­i­n­i­tion of the tan­gent trac­tive effort trac­tor LHT-100 in trans­port mode

    Anno­ta­tion

    We con­sid­er the loss of the tan­gent trac­tive effort machine-trac­tor unit (MTU) based trac­tor LHT-100 in trans­port mode under dynam­ic load­ing con­di­tions. The effect of the dynam­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the dri­ve and sus­pen­sion sys­tem for weight loss of the tan­gen­tial trac­tion MTU. Pro­posed ways to improve the wife’s trac­tion-speed char­ac­ter­is­tics of the MTU.

    Key words: tan­gent trac­tive effort, move­ment speed, trans­fer func­tions, effi­cien­cy of machine-trac­tor unit.

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    12 Alek­san­drov V.A., Alek­san­drov A.V. Vibroload­ing of the oper­a­tor of the fall­er bunch­er in a latch­ing mode when trans­fer­ring tree by plat­form turn

    Anno­ta­tion

    In arti­cle the mod­el of dynam­ic sys­tem is devel­oped: «The oper­a­tor – feller – an object of the labor – a tree». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the Lagrange’s equa­tion of the 2nd row. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion sus­pen­sion seats of the oper­a­tor by Runge-Kut­t’s method, by means of the envi­ron­ment of pro­gram­ming of Math­CAD. Appro­ba­tion of mod­el is car­ried out on the exam­ple of seri­al­ly released fall­er LP-19A cars in a mode of trans­fer­ring of a pack­aged tree by plat­form turn in the hor­i­zon­tal plane. As a result of research­es it is established:

    – vibroload­ing of oper­a­tors of feller ‑pack­ag­ing cars in stop-gear at trans­fer­ring trees by plat­form turn in the hor­i­zon­tal plane exceeds san­i­tary code in 1,3…1,8 times;

    – on lev­el vibra­tion accel­er­a­tion on sit­ting of the oper­a­tor defin­ing influ­ence ren­ders inten­si­ty of a stop-gear and vol­ume of a pack­aged tree;

    – for decrease in vibroload­ing of oper­a­tors it is expe­di­ent to lim­it accel­er­a­tions in a dis­per­sal mode at mov­ing of a tree by plat­form turn to a hor­i­zon­tal plane to 0,2…0,25 it is glad/s2.

    Key words: dynam­ic mod­el, fall­er bunch­er, vibra­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion, seat.

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    WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY
    13 Sergee­vichev A.V. The basic char­ac­ter­is­tics of process of grind­ing of wood and wood materials

    Anno­ta­tion

    Grind­ing car­ry out with objec­tive of align­ment of a sur­face after the pre­vi­ous oper­a­tions and giv­ing to it of a required rough­ness, as well as removal of a lay­er of wood or a wood mate­r­i­al for main­te­nance of the set size of a prod­uct. The rough­ness of a sur­face at grind­ing basi­cal­ly depends on the size of grains of the basic frac­tion, den­si­ty of wood, an acute­ness of a grind­ing skin and a direc­tion of grind­ing. Pres­sure of a clip and speed of cut­ting are the basic tech­nol­o­gy fac­tors influ­enc­ing on засаливание of skins. The mate­r­i­al of abra­sive grains and their gran­u­lar­i­ty are key para­me­ters of a grind­ing skin defin­ing pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and qual­i­ty of grinding.

    Key words: sur­face rough­ness of prod­ucts from wood, wood grind, grind para­me­ters, gran­u­lar­i­ty of an abra­sive material.

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    14 Sergee­vichev V.V., Kuznetso­va E.G. Stress anal­i­sis of glues lay­ers in com­pos­ite plywood

    Anno­ta­tion

    Using of ply­wood pipes as a con­struc­tion mate­r­i­al con­nect­ed with the opti­miza­tion of phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of prod­uct. This opti­miza­tion fac­tors are the para­me­ters of the struc­ture and com­bin­ing of out­side and inter­me­di­ate veneer coats. Opti­miza­tion of the mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the mate­r­i­al is to ensure through the man­age­ment struc­ture of the giv­en ratio of the strength and elas­tic para­me­ters in mutu­al­ly orthog­o­nal direc­tions. A par­tic­u­lar case of such an opti­miz­ing con­di­tions – strength bal­ance and equal rigidity.

    Key words: ply­wood, pipe, phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, the com­bined struc­ture, the meth­ods of studies.

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    15 Chu­bin­skii A.N., Tam­bi A.A., Khitrov E.G., Shimke­vich Iu.A., Semi­shkur S.O. Jus­ti­fi­ca­tion vol­u­met­ric yield of saw-tim­ber to meet the require­ment of glued wood­en struc­tures based on the phys­i­cal prop­er­ties of wood

    Anno­ta­tion

    Arti­cle is devot­ed to the jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of a quan­ti­ta­tive yield of saw-tim­ber, the den­si­ty of which meets the require­ments for glued wood­en struc­tures. Exper­i­men­tal­ly defined zone of a tree trunk with a cer­tain den­si­ty and mois­ture con­tent. Math­e­mat­i­cal­ly described the dis­tri­b­u­tion of den­si­ty and mois­ture con­tent along the length and radius of the trunk. Iden­ti­fied a pos­si­ble yield and loca­tion of saw-tim­ber weigh­ing more than 500 kg of one m3 in the trunk of a tree.

    Key words: wood sci­ence, the dis­tri­b­u­tion of den­si­ty, wood mois­ture con­tent, inno­v­a­tive meth­ods of con­trol, tomography.

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    CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY
    16 Shkol’nikov E.V. Sol­u­bil­i­ty and Ampho­ter­ism of the Oxides Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and Their Hydrates in Aque­ous Media

    Anno­ta­tion

    The molar sol­u­bil­i­ties of sol­id oxides М2O3 and their hydrates at 25 °C as func­tions of pH of aque­ous media, as well as the acid-base equi­lib­ri­um con­stants were cal­cu­lat­ed for crys­talline oxides and dis­solved M(OH)3hydroxides, where M = Cr, Fe, by the ther­mo­dy­nam­ic method, tak­ing into account the for­ma­tion of mono- and polynu­clear hydroxo com­plex­es. The sol­u­bil­i­ty ther­mo­dy­nam­ic con­stant Ks0 and the para­me­ters of dis­so­lu­tion in aque­ous media at 25 °C were for the first time cal­cu­lat­ed for spar­ing­ly sol­u­ble crys­talline metahy­drox­ides CrOOH, ?(?, ?)-FeOOH and oxide ?-FeO1,5.

    Key words: sol­u­bil­i­ty and ampho­ter­ism, ther­mo­dy­nam­ic cal­cu­la­tion, oxides Cr2О3, Fe2О3 and their hydrates, aque­ous media.

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    17 Minaev A.N., Rakovska­ia E.G., Kudri­asho­va O.A., Iaguno­va L.K.
    Research of influ­ence of eco­log­i­cal­ly harm­less organ­ic addi­tives as corrosion
    inhibitors at their intro­duc­tion in PF-115 enamel

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the work we inves­ti­gat­ed the influ­ence of organ­ic addi­tives class сульфамидов and deriv­a­tives fur­fur­al the pas­sive state of У8А steel to replace envi­ron­men­tal­ly harm­ful ways of prepa­ra­tion of met­al sur­face for paint­ing. It is estab­lished that water extrac­tion of poly­mer film on the basis of the enam­el PF-115 with the intro­duc­tion of these com­pounds class сульфамидов and deriv­a­tives fur­fur­al have cor­ro­sion inhibit­ing effect. The intro­duc­tion of these addi­tives in the enam­el PF-115 is reduced anion­ic con­duc­tiv­i­ty films, reduced mobil­i­ty and speed of move­ment of the anion. The inves­ti­gat­ed addi­tives improv­ing physi­co­me­chan­i­cal and dec­o­ra­tive prop­er­ties of poly­mer­ic cov­er­ings in com­par­i­son with a back­ground that is traced dur­ing the whole time of the exper­i­ment and can be rec­om­mend­ed for replac­ing envi­ron­men­tal­ly harm­ful com­po­nents of the coatings.

    Key words: coat­ings, com­pounds class сульфамидов and deriv­a­tives of fur­fur­al, eco­log­i­cal­ly harm­less addi­tives, cathod­ic polar­iza­tion curves, anod­ic polar­iza­tion curves, water extrac­tion, enam­el PF-115, cor­ro­sion inhibit­ing effect.

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    INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
    AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
    18 Gogolevskii A.S., Utkin L.V., Khabarov S.P. Meth­ods for detec­tion of anom­alous mea­sure­ments in real-time sys­tems based on machine learn­ing algorithms

    Anno­ta­tion

    In arti­cle the prob­lem of con­vert­ing the mea­sure­ment data through the com­mu­ni­ca­tion chan­nels in real-time sys­tems. It lies in the fact that the trans­mis­sion of infor­ma­tion is sub­ject to errors (anom­alies) that may influ­ence deci­sion-mak­ing in a neg­a­tive way, affect the valid­i­ty of dynam­i­cal sys­tems. To detect these anom­alies are applied machine learn­ing tech­niques. How­ev­er, the mea­sure­ment data in a tem­po­rary space can­not be applied. In this paper pro­pos­es a method of con­vert­ing data to con­tin­ue to make the pro­cess­ing of machine learn­ing meth­ods for the detec­tion of anomalies.

    Key words: novet­ly detec­tion, anom­alies, data con­ver­sion, sup­port vec­tor machine, real-time system.

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    PROBLEMS OF FOREST SCIENCE
    19 Tret’i­akov A.G. What mod­ern russ­ian for­est man­age­ment lacks?

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the ear­ly 30-ies of the last cen­tu­ry the con­tent of the Russ­ian for­est man­age­ment dra­mat­i­cal­ly changed, when it was exclud­ed from the eco­nom­ic com­po­nent. This is large­ly a lega­cy of the social­ist plan­ning prac­tice in for­est rela­tions. One of the most impor­tant cur­rent prob­lems of Russ­ian for­est man­age­ment, is its trans­for­ma­tion into a source of deci­sions in forestry includ­ing eco­nom­ic deci­sions. Inte­grat­ed for­est resource assess­ment should be ren­dered in for­est inven­to­ry, on the basis of which such a com­plex and rarely used indi­ca­tor as the eco­nom­ic acces­si­bil­i­ty of for­est resources should be formed. The assess­ment of the eco­nom­ic avail­abil­i­ty of for­est resources should become a manda­to­ry ele­ment of for­est planning.

    Key words: for­est man­age­ment, For­est man­age­ment man­u­al, for­est plan­ning, eco­nom­ic assess­ment of for­est resources, for­est resources accessibility.

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    DISCUSSION: SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES AT UNIVERSITY
    20 Kise­lev I.Ia. Estab­lish­ment of the active cen­ter of a mol­e­cule of enzyme
    of a catalase

    Anno­ta­tion

    Is found that FeN group of atoms of por­phyrinic nucle­us is an active cen­tre of the cata­lase mol­e­cule. Inter­nal effect of elec­tron trans­fer in the acti­vat­ed com­plex H2O2 FeN rep­re­sents a mech­a­nism decom­po­sion reac­tion of H2O2 by catalase.

    Key words: active cen­tre, acti­vat­ed com­plex, inter­nal effect of elec­tron trans­fer.

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    2013:
  • Issue 205
  • Name of article  Page Arti­cle
    FORESTRY
    1 Alek­seev A.S., Niki­forov A.A. Remote sens­ing of for­est cov­er by unmanned aer­i­al vehi­cle (UAV) effi­cien­cy analy­sis (Case study for Lisi­no training
    and exper­i­men­tal forest)

    Anno­ta­tion

    Remote sens­ing of Earth sur­face by unmanned aer­i­al vehi­cle (UAV) has now wide appli­ca­tions in a num­ber of fields of activ­i­ty and busi­ness, also UAV used in forestry for dif­fer­ent pur­pos­es. UAV may be used for a num­ber of for­est man­age­ment relat­ed pur­pos­es such as inven­to­ry of for­est resources and for­est lands, con­trol of forestry oper­a­tions (thin­ning, tend­ing, cut­tings, trans­porta­tion etc.), con­trol of ille­gal log­gings, con­trol and esti­ma­tion of dam­age after biot­ic and abi­ot­ic effects on for­est (for­est fires, insect and dis­eases etc.). Analy­sis of the use UAV for remote sens­ing of Lisi­no train­ing and exper­i­men­tal for­est shows a pos­si­bil­i­ty to cov­er the area as much as 1800 hectares per flight with res­o­lu­tion 0.5 m/pixel. Such a res­o­lu­tion is enough for infor­ma­tion­al sup­port need­ed to resolve the above men­tioned forestry relat­ed prob­lems. To cov­er all the area of Lisi­no train­ing and exper­i­men­tal for­est which is as much as 28361 hectare will be need­ed 16 fights of UAV or 4 work­ing days if sup­posed to do 4 flights per day as aver­age. Esti­mat­ed cost is as much as 100 RUR/hectare. Includ­ing of UAV into for­est inven­to­ry tech­nol­o­gy may give two pos­i­tive results, first, to save the work­ing time at least for one year by join­ing the time for remote sens­ing and field data col­lec­tion and, sec­ond, decline the cost of inven­to­ry because using of UAV cheap­er com­par­a­tive­ly with tra­di­tion­al use of big planes.

    Key words: unmanned aer­i­al vehi­cle, aer­i­al pho­tog­ra­phy, effi­cien­cy, cost, for­est management.

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    2 Zhi­gunov A.V., Marko­va I.A., Grig­or’ev A.A., Viukhlish G., Rake­strou D. Com­par­a­tive test of hybrid poplar and hybrid aspen clones on the hardwood
    plan­ta­tions in north-west Russia

    Anno­ta­tion

    Cre­at­ing of hard­wood plan­ta­tion is a very promis­ing direc­tion, which allows for raw mate­r­i­al inde­pen­dence of the enter­prise. The prac­tice of using the inno­v­a­tive tech­nol­o­gy reduces final felling by 15 years, and the estab­lish­ment of plan­ta­tions on unused agri­cul­tur­al land shall decide on their appli­ca­tion. Test­ing of var­i­ous clones of hybrid aspen and hybrid poplar for the con­di­tions of the North-West of Rus­sia is very impor­tant because suc­cess­ful tests allow you to imme­di­ate­ly put into prac­tice the results.

    Key words: poplar, clone, hard­wood plan­ta­tion, in vitro. 

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    3 Boro­dulin V.A. Approach­es to quan­ti­ta­tive assess­ment of the pop­u­la­tion of an elk in north­west of a wood zone

    Anno­ta­tion

    Prob­lems of deter­mi­na­tion of num­ber of an elk by means of rec­om­mend­ed meth­ods of the account are con­sid­ered. The task of def­i­n­i­tion opti­mum for var­i­ous con­di­tions of a tech­nique of the account­ing of its num­ber is set. On an exam­ple it is the most fre­quent used in prac­tice of for­est and hunt­ing econ­o­my of meth­ods of the account­ing of num­ber the approx­i­mate scheme, allow­ing to char­ac­ter­ize advan­tages is giv­en and short­com­ings of tech­niques. The analy­sis of exist­ing meth­ods in a sec­tion of eight var­i­ous is car­ried out the fac­tors influ­enc­ing a choice of this or that tech­nique, and also on their result. Thus, the assess­ment is giv­en to nine most often rec­om­mend­ed meth­ods account. Their fol­low­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics are tak­en for selec­tion cri­te­ria of tech­niques: cat­e­go­ry of obtained data of the account (absolute or rel­a­tive data will be are received as a result of method appli­ca­tion); result accu­ra­cy; labor input field works; the peri­od in which car­ry­ing out the account is pos­si­ble; peri­od, which reflect the obtained data (the result of the account will char­ac­ter­ize num­ber in a short inter­val of time or it will be aver­age num­ber for the long peri­od); the cost of the tech­ni­cal means which are using in the field works; pos­si­bil­i­ty of con­trol of reli­a­bil­i­ty of these field works; pos­si­bil­i­ty of appli­ca­tion of a method in var­i­ous con­di­tions of for­est fund. The meth­ods of the account for an assess­ment of num­ber of an elk in a for­est zone is as a result car­ried out.

    Key words: meth­ods for esti­mate the num­ber of elk, the cri­te­ria for select­ing account­ing methodologies.

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    4 Pono­marev V.I., Klobukov G.I. Influ­ence of urban area on population
    dynam­ics of the phyl­lophagous insects

    Anno­ta­tion

    Research of dif­fer­ences in pop­u­la­tion dynam­ic of phyl­lophagous insects in urban and rur­al for­est stands of same con­di­tions was tak­en. We noticed sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences in den­si­ty dynam­ics of ana­lyzed species in urban and rur­al stands. Based on analy­sis of fac­tors that could affect the num­ber of phyl­lophagous insects, we sug­gest that urban heat island effect more sig­nif­i­cant­ly impacts on find­ings than oth­er fac­tors of urban area (recre­ation­al load, tech­no­log­i­cal impact etc.).

    Key words: pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics, phyl­lophagous insects, pheromone mon­i­tor­ing, urban heat island.

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    5 Gol­ub V.B., Svy­a­to­dukh N.Yu. Species diver­si­ty and dom­i­nants of Het­eroptera com­plex­es of trees and shrubs of Teller­man oak­ery (Voronezh
    Region)

    Anno­ta­tion

    70 species of bugs (Het­eroptera) belong­ing to 11 fam­i­lies have been revealed on the basis of the mate­ri­als col­lect­ed on the for­est-form­ing tree and shrub species in the upland Teller­man oak­ery (Voronezh region) in 2007–2012. The analy­sis of tax­o­nom­ic and eco­log­i­cal struc­ture of the Het­eroptera com­plex­es on stud­ied trees species was car­ried out. Iden­ti­fied dom­i­nate species on each of them. The oak Het­eroptera com­plex is most diverse of all com­plex­es and dom­i­nat­ed by a preda­tor Der­aeo­coris lutescens. Oligophagous and polyphagous bugs dom­i­nate in all troph­ic groups of pre­dom­i­nate trees species. It is estab­lished that lime-tree is the main food plant for pear lace bug (Stephani­tis pyri) in the stud­ied for­est ecosystem.

    Key words: het­eroptera, Voronezh Province, Teller­man oak­ery, species list, dominants.

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    6 Ermakov S.A., Smirnov A.P. Tim­ber den­si­ty of for­est plan­ta­tions of Spruce at the peat and min­er­al soils in Kalin­ingrad region

    Anno­ta­tion

    For­est plan­ta­tions of spruce on the reach min­er­al soils in com­par­i­son with plan­ta­tions on drained tran­si­tion and low peat­lands in Kalin­ingrad region have at all high­er pro­duc­tiv­i­ty (grow­ing stock of spruce part in mixed stands in 50 years cor­re­spon­dent­ly is 257–416 and 266–290 m³/ha). By the way tim­ber of plan­ta­tions on the min­er­al soils has low­er para­me­ters of basis den­si­ty. For spruce plan­ta­tions in 48–65 years at the peat­lands wood den­si­ty is 367–379 kg/m3 and for plan­ta­tions in 48–49 years at mull soil is 293–354 kg/m3. More sharply, on 21 %, den­si­ty decreased on the plot with the best growth of spruce at the mull soil (Ib bonitet class) in com­par­i­son with tim­ber den­si­ty at drained peat soils. Inves­ti­ga­tion of tim­ber qual­i­ty of high pro­duc­tive spruce for­est plan­ta­tions allows rec­om­mend for the con­di­tions of Kalin­ingrad region inten­sive forestry for get­ting aimed stands in the cer­tain soil conditions.

    Key words: high pro­duc­tive spruce plan­ta­tions, drained peat­lands, basis den­si­ty of timber. 

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    7 Sergien­ko V.G., Antonov O.I., Kovalev N.V. Floris­tic composition
    of ground cov­er in spruce plan­ta­tions intend­ed for grow­ing high-quality
    brunch-free wood

    Anno­ta­tion

    In the arti­cle data are giv­en on floris­tic com­po­si­tion of ground veg­e­ta­tive cov­er in spruce plan­ta­tions intend­ed for grow­ing high-qual­i­ty brunch-free wood. Results are pre­sent­ed on plant dis­tri­b­u­tion on exper­i­men­tal plots. Dif­fer­ences and pecu­liar­i­ties of veg­e­ta­tion cov­er trans­for­ma­tion in dif­fer­ent vari­ants of exper­i­ments are marked.

    Key words: refor­esta­tion, ground cov­er, spruce plan­ta­tions, high-qual­i­ty wood.

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    TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES
    8 Arte­mev V.V., Bessarab G.A., Antonov N.S. Pilot st