05 October 2022
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Archive

2022 issues

Issue 241

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Issue 240

The issue is being prepared

Issue 239

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Issue 238

1. FORESTRY

Kovyazin V.F., Ivano­va E.A. Soil and veg­e­ta­tion com­plex of the «Dub­ki» Park in St. Peters­burg, Rus­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 6–22 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.6–22

Abstract

The research is devot­ed to the study of the soil and plant com­plex of the mon­u­ment of land­scape archi­tec­ture of the XVIII cen­tu­ry – the park «Dub­ki» in St. Peters­burg, locat­ed on the north­ern coast of the Gulf of Fin­land in the Resort area of St. Peters­burg, in the city of Ses­troret­sk. The park was cre­at­ed on the ini­tia­tive of Emper­or Peter the Great, who, dur­ing his return from the Bat­tle of Gangut, made a stop among an oak grove on the shore of the Gulf of Fin­land. Cur­rent­ly, the park is rec­og­nized as a mon­u­ment of cul­tur­al and his­tor­i­cal her­itage, pro­tect­ed by UNESCO. In the sum­mer of 2021, the mor­phol­o­gy of the soil, the species diver­si­ty of conif­er­ous, decid­u­ous species and shrubs were stud­ied at the facil­i­ty. The mor­phol­o­gy of the soil was stud­ied by 2 soil sec­tions laid down in var­i­ous for­est grow­ing con­di­tions. The species com­po­si­tion of park plant­i­ngs was deter­mined by the plant deter­mi­nant [Kise­l­e­va et al., 2020], using mor­pho­log­i­cal fea­tures of leaves and bark. With the use of the RGIS and Auto­CAD soft­ware com­plex­es, the areas of the park’s land under veg­e­ta­tion, under paths, arti­fi­cial reser­voirs, sports grounds, etc. are cal­cu­lat­ed. Based on the results of the research, rec­om­men­da­tions are giv­en for main­tain­ing the bal­ance and sus­tain­able devel­op­ment of the soil and plant com­plex and infor­ma­tion on the devel­op­ment of the land cadas­tre of the park.

Key­words: park, land, soil mor­phol­o­gy, tree and shrub species of plants

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Usolt­sev V.A., Tse­pordey I.S., Kovyazin V.F. Bio­mass of beech (Fagus L.) and ash (Frax­i­nus L.) depend­ing on tree height, crown width and aver­age Jan­u­ary tem­per­a­ture in Eura­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 23–48 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.23–48

Abstract

Remote reg­is­tra­tion of such tax­a­tion indi­ca­tors of trees as crown width and tree height has become wide­spread in assess­ing the bio­mass of trees. There are many allo­met­ric mod­els of the bio­mass of dif­fer­ent tree species in dif­fer­ent cli­mat­ic con­di­tions, but for the assess­ment of bio­mass by remote meth­ods, they are pre­sent­ed in sin­gle pub­li­ca­tions. The authors used the exper­i­men­tal data base of 249 and 78 mod­el trees of Fagus spp. and Frax­i­nus spp. cor­re­spond­ing­ly with mea­sured indi­ca­tors of tree height, crown width, as well as the bio­mass of trunk, foliage, branch­es and roots. For all com­po­nents of above­ground bio­mass, a pos­i­tive rela­tion­ship was estab­lished with the crown width and the tree height. Two-input tables for the tax­a­tion of the bio­mass of two gen­era are com­piled. The results obtained give an idea of how much the bio­mass struc­ture of equal-sized trees of such species as beech and ash can dif­fer, whether this struc­ture can change in the win­ter tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ent of Eura­sia, and what can be the con­tri­bu­tion of the cli­mate vari­able to the expla­na­tion of the vari­abil­i­ty of tree biomass. 

Key­words: win­ter tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ent, bio­mass com­po­nents, remote sens­ing of trees, allo­met­ric mod­els, regres­sion analysis

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Lebe­dev A.V. Pre­dict­ing growth by aver­age height of pine plan­ta­tions using a gen­er­al­ized alge­bra­ic dif­fer­ence approach. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022. iss. 238, pp. 49–66 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.49–66

Abstract

The rela­tion­ship between the height and age of the stand is the basis for assess­ing the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of the grow­ing area. Among the numer­ous meth­ods for con­struct­ing site index scales, the gen­er­al­ized alge­bra­ic dif­fer­ence approach has become increas­ing­ly wide­spread in recent years due to the abil­i­ty to vary sev­er­al para­me­ters of the basic growth func­tion and there­by obtain poly­mor­phic curves that are invari­ant with respect to the base age, spe­cif­ic for each lev­el of stand pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. The aim of the study is to mod­el the growth of pine for­est plan­ta­tions along the aver­age height using var­i­ous equa­tions (anomor­phic and poly­mor­phic curves, with con­stant or vari­able asymp­totes) using a gen­er­al­ized alge­bra­ic dif­fer­ence approach and the devel­op­ment of a dynam­ic site index scale. The study uses data from mea­sure­ments of stands on 89 per­ma­nent sam­ple plots in pine for­est cul­tures of the For­est Exper­i­men­tal Sta­tion of the RSAU-MTAA (Moscow). The study ana­lyzed 25 equa­tions obtained using the gen­er­al­ized alge­bra­ic dif­fer­ence approach. The gen­er­al asymp­tot­ic poly­mor­phic equa­tion for the basic Richards (Mitscher­lich) func­tion with the replace­ment of the para­me­ter respon­si­ble for the shape of the curve was adopt­ed as the best mod­el. Since all the stud­ied for­est stands are in sim­i­lar soil and cli­mat­ic con­di­tions, a gen­er­al asymp­tote appears regard­less of the ini­tial growth para­me­ters. After remov­ing the age trend, cycli­cal fluc­tu­a­tions were revealed in the resid­u­als, which indi­cates the pres­ence of wave­like peri­ods of growth. The mod­el is suit­able for use in the age range from 10 to 150 years. In all cas­es, the mod­eled growth curves at aver­age height reflect the dynam­ics of the actu­al stands.

Key­words: aver­age height, age, site index, mod­el, gen­er­al­ized alge­bra­ic dif­fer­ence approach

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Bess­chet­no­va N.N., Bess­chet­nov V.P., Kent­baye­va B.A., Kent­bayev Y.Zh., Mamonov E.I., Zapol­nov V.E. Growth of seedlings of Schrenk Spruce (Picea schrenkiana) in the con­di­tions of intro­duc­tion to the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 67–87 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.67–87

Abstract

The growth rates of seedlings of Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) in con­tain­ers in open ground con­di­tions with arti­fi­cial irri­ga­tion were stud­ied. The pur­pose of the research is to estab­lish the effec­tive­ness and deter­mine the prospects for the intro­duc­tion of the Shrenk spruce into the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. The object of research is four-year-old seedlings of Shren­ka spruce, obtained from nor­mal seeds from nat­ur­al plant­i­ngs in the south-east of Kaza­khstan in the cen­tral part of the Trans-Ili Alatau. The vec­tor of intro­duc­tion trans­fer was 13°13′43″ north lat­i­tude and –33°18′53″ east lon­gi­tude; the height dif­fer­ence reached 2664 m. The hypoth­e­sis about the pos­si­bil­i­ty of the intro­duc­tion of Schrenk spruce into the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod Vol­ga region was based on the dis­tri­b­u­tion in the region of nat­ur­al stands of Nor­way spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Siber­ian spruce (Picea obo­va­ta Ledeb.), which in the area of trans­gres­sion of habi­tats form fer­tile inter­spe­cif­ic hybrids known as Finnish spruce (Picea×fennica (Regel) Kom.). The typ­i­cal­i­ty, suit­abil­i­ty, expe­di­en­cy and reli­a­bil­i­ty of the exper­i­ment are ensured, the prin­ci­ple of a sin­gle log­i­cal dif­fer­ence and a ran­dom­ized assign­ment of plants to the sam­ple is imple­ment­ed. The dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion of seedlings accord­ing to the para­me­ters of the above­ground part was estab­lished: in height Cv = 26.91% (10.53 ± 0.23 cm); in diam­e­ter Cv = 35.20% (2.52 ± 0.07 mm). The cor­re­la­tion of the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the above­ground part of the seedlings of Schrenk spruce was found. The height of the above­ground part had a high close­ness on the Ched­dock scale with the num­ber of lat­er­al branch­es on the cen­tral shoot and the total length of the lat­er­al branch­es in the above­ground part: r±mr = 0.705±0.057 (tr = 12.38) and r±mr = 0.728±0.055 (tr = 13.20). This is described by regres­sion equa­tions: y = 0.551x + 6.257; (R2 = 0.49719) and y = 0.114x + 7.617 (R2 = 0.5294). The com­pli­ance of seedlings with the require­ments for the rates of onto­ge­net­ic devel­op­ment of this tree species was not­ed. The lev­el of growth and devel­op­ment of the above­ground part of the Schrenk spruce seedlings in the open ground of the nurs­ery indi­cates a suf­fi­cient resource for seed prop­a­ga­tion of the nat­ur­al con­di­tions of the region and a sig­nif­i­cant poten­tial for its intro­duc­tion to the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. 

Key­words: Schrenk spruce, intro­duc­tion, seedlings, growth, mor­phom­e­try, cor­re­la­tion, regression

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Pet­rosyan S.S., Otmakhov D.V., Alek­seenko V.G., Revyako S.I., Egorin A.A., Khitrov E.G. Mod­el of rut for­ma­tion on a lin­ear strength­en­ing soil under a peri­od­ic load. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 88–98 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.88–98

Abstract

The aim of the study is to devel­op a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of rut for­ma­tion on a for­est soil, tak­ing into account its par­tial elas­tic recov­ery with a decrease and removal of a peri­od­ic load, as well as its’ lim­it­ed plas­tic defor­ma­tions. The rhe­o­log­i­cal mod­el of the Bing­ham body was used as a the­o­ret­i­cal basis for the devel­op­ment of the mod­el. The numer­i­cal val­ues of the mod­el para­me­ters are tak­en on the basis of the results of exper­i­ments to deter­mine the mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of for­est soils, car­ried out pre­vi­ous­ly. To assess the lim­it­ing val­ue of the mod­el defor­ma­tion, the results of pre­vi­ous stud­ies were used to deter­mine the rut depth bas­ing on the meth­ods of ter­rame­chan­ics and the the­o­ry of off-the-road loco­mo­tion. The pro­posed mod­el was imple­ment­ed in the Maple 2017 pro­gram; the solu­tions were obtained numer­i­cal­ly by the Runge-Kut­ta method. The cal­cu­la­tions show that the use of a vari­able plas­tic­i­ty lim­it, which increas­es in pro­por­tion to the defor­ma­tion, makes it pos­si­ble to take into account the lim­i­ta­tion of the plas­tic defor­ma­tions of for­est soil, which qual­i­ta­tive­ly cor­re­sponds with the known exper­i­men­tal data. This dis­tin­guish­es the pro­posed mod­el from com­mon elas­tic-vis­cous and elas­tic-vis­co-plas­tic mod­els. In the future, the results obtained are planned to be inte­grat­ed into math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els that reveal the dynam­ic effect of forestry machines on soils linked with vibra­tions dur­ing their move­ment, obsta­cles encoun­ter­ing, and trees pro­cess­ing. A sep­a­rate area of fur­ther research con­sists in mod­el­ing the behav­ior of non­lin­ear­ly strength­en­ing soil under the influ­ence of for­est machines.

Key­words: soil plas­tic­i­ty lim­it, dynam­ic load, forestry vehi­cles, numer­i­cal methods

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Vlasov E.N., Sergee­vichev A.V., Dobrynin Yu.A., Sergee­vichev V.V. The analy­sis of the work of a hydraulic manip­u­la­tor of a for­est machine with a cyclic con­trol sys­tem. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 99–112 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.99–112

Abstract

Log­ging is one of the most dynam­ic eco­nom­ic sec­tors in our coun­try. At the moment, the meth­ods of tim­ber har­vest­ing have under­gone sig­nif­i­cant changes. Instead of man­u­al labor, var­i­ous devices and devices are used, includ­ing hydraulic manip­u­la­tors for the for­est. The manip­u­la­tor-type equip­ment (hydraulic manip­u­la­tor) is a mech­a­nism that is installed on cars, trac­tors, spe­cial­ized vehi­cles, as well as sta­tion­ary. The effi­cien­cy of using machines and equip­ment is direct­ly depen­dent on their tech­ni­cal con­di­tion, readi­ness to reli­ably, effi­cient­ly and safe­ly car­ry out the process­es of log­ging pro­duc­tion. The con­di­tion of machines and equip­ment depends not only on their tech­ni­cal lev­el and com­pli­ance with oper­at­ing rules, but also on the qual­i­ty of their design. Dynam­ic research of vol­u­met­ric hydraulic dri­ves of for­est machines occu­pies an impor­tant place in the process of their design. In engi­neer­ing prac­tice, at the stage of both pre­lim­i­nary analy­sis of the dynam­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of vol­u­met­ric hydraulic dri­ves, and at the stage of pre­lim­i­nary design, their lin­earized math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els are wide­ly used. The arti­cle con­sid­ers lin­earized mod­els: a cyclic hydraulic dri­ve with throt­tle con­trol, an actu­a­tor for a hydraulic ser­vo dri­ve of a for­est machine manip­u­la­tor, a hydraulic ser­vo dri­ve with mechan­i­cal con­trol. The results of a study of the sta­bil­i­ty of a ser­vo hydraulic dri­ve with mechan­i­cal con­trol are pre­sent­ed. An expres­sion is derived that deter­mines the sta­bil­i­ty of a hydraulic ser­vo dri­ve with mechan­i­cal con­trol, includ­ing the slip coef­fi­cient of the gen­er­al­ized hydraulic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the spool and the flow rate gain, which makes it pos­si­ble to find their val­ues cor­re­spond­ing to the steady state of a hydraulic dri­ve with mechan­i­cal con­trol. The results obtained can be used in the process of design­ing hydraulic manip­u­la­tors of for­est machines, both at the stage of pre­lim­i­nary design and at the stage of tech­ni­cal design and obtain­ing the ampli­tude-phase fre­quen­cy char­ac­ter­is­tics of the hydraulic dri­ve of for­est machines.

Key­words: hydraulic manip­u­la­tor, lin­earized math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, hydraulic dri­ve sta­bil­i­ty and hydraulic ser­vo drive

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Mikhailov O.A., Andronov A.V., Taradin G.S., Kozmin S.F., Zverev I.A. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for pre­dict­ing the usage of the trans­mis­sion ratio of a wheel skid­der. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 113–123 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.113–123

Abstract

The skid­der is one of the most impor­tant types of forestry it requires a com­pe­tent approach to the design process, which of this type of equip­ment is one of the most impor­tant types of forestry machin­ery. One of the most loaded part of wheeled skid­ders is the trans­mis­sion, which it expe­ri­ences sig­nif­i­cant loads in the process of oper­a­tion. To record and to mea­sure the val­ues of these loads depend­ing on the gear, on which the process of skid­ding a pack of trees is car­ried out. Which the process of skid­ding a pack of trees is car­ried out, were car­ried out tests of the skid­der TLK‑1, which took place on the fir­ing ground One­ga trac­tor plant. As a result of tests were deter­mined val­ues of torques on axles and car­dan shaft of the skid­der on dif­fer­ent gears, as well as the time of using each of the gears. The data obtained dur­ing the tests were processed using the meth­ods of sto­chas­tic math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing. As a result, a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el to pre­dict the usage of gear ratio of a wheeled skid­der trans­mis­sion equipped with hydro­dy­nam­ic trans­mis­sion. This method­ol­o­gy allows to esti­mate the cor­rect­ness of the choice of the trans­mis­sion ratio at the design stage. Design stage to assess the cor­rect­ness of the choice of the trans­mis­sion gear ratio.

Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, fore­cast­ing, move­ment resis­tance coef­fi­cient, dis­tri­b­u­tion law of a ran­dom vari­able, dis­tri­b­u­tion curves, skid­der, wheel skidder

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Pet­rosian S.S., Iliushenko D.A., Barysh­niko­va E.V., Khitrov E.G. Eval­u­a­tion of eco­log­i­cal com­pat­i­bil­i­ty of wheeled skid­ders with for­est soil. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 124–136 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.124–136

Abstract

Heavy for­est machines dis­rupt the for­est soil struc­ture, for this rea­son, researchers pay con­sid­er­able atten­tion to the impact of for­est machines on the move­ment sur­face. The rut depth after the first pass of the machine is one of the most infor­ma­tive indi­ca­tors of the eco­log­i­cal impact. At the same time, rel­a­tive­ly few stud­ies are known, the results of which reveal the impact of wheeled skid­ders on the soil. To improve the process of skid­ding, fur­ther devel­op­ments are need­ed to assess skid­ders envi­ron­men­tal com­pat­i­bil­i­ty with for­est soil con­di­tions, which is the sub­ject of our work. When per­form­ing the work, infor­ma­tion about per­for­mance char­ac­ter­is­tics of skid­ders Tiger­cat, John Deere, Weil­er, obtained from the offi­cial web­sites of man­u­fac­tur­ers, was used. The rut depth was esti­mat­ed using the prin­ci­ples of soil mechan­ics and the the­o­ry of off-the-road loco­mo­tion. The math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of rut for­ma­tion is imple­ment­ed numer­i­cal­ly. When pro­cess­ing the sim­u­la­tion results, data approx­i­ma­tion meth­ods were used. As a result of the study, mod­els were obtained that allow in prac­tice to assess the eco­log­i­cal com­pat­i­bil­i­ty of the skid­der with for­est soil con­di­tions. The mod­els use fol­low­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics of the machine: weight, num­ber of wheels, width and diam­e­ter of the wheel, tire pres­sure, grap­ple open­ing area. The soil is char­ac­ter­ized by its’ bear­ing capac­i­ty or cone index. The mod­els take into account the aver­age vol­ume of a tree skid­ded in the bun­dle. Accord­ing to the obtained mod­els, it is pos­si­ble to solve an inverse prob­lem: jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of the per­mis­si­ble mass of the machine and the grap­ple open­ing area, tak­ing into account the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the mover and the soil conditions.

Key­words: trac­tor mass, grap­ple open­ing area, aver­age and nom­i­nal ground pres­sure, rut depth, soil bear­ing capac­i­ty, soil cone index

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Vasi­lyev V.V. The struc­ture of wood raw mate­ri­als at fac­to­ries of par­ti­cle boards of dif­fer­ent capac­i­ties. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 137–151 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.137–151

Abstract

The com­po­si­tion of wood raw mate­ri­als was inves­ti­gat­ed at four chip­board plants with a capac­i­ty of 100, 120, 200 and 480 thou­sand m3 of boards per year. Cur­rent­ly, the main raw mate­r­i­al for board fac­to­ries is sol­id stem wood in the form of fire­wood and pulp­wood. Its share is 63…100% of all raw mate­ri­als, the aver­age val­ue for four plants is 70.2%. The rest of the raw mate­r­i­al is waste from var­i­ous wood-pro­cess­ing indus­tries. The pro­por­tion of used waste increas­es with an increase in the capac­i­ty of the board plant from 0 to 32.0%. On aver­age, the con­sump­tion of waste is as fol­lows: import­ed chips 4.7%, slab 10.9%, saw­dust 7.1%, waste from veneer and ply­wood pro­duc­tion 4.3%, waste from board pro­duc­tion 1.2%, recy­clable mate­ri­als 1.6%. Plants with a capac­i­ty of up to 120 thou­sand m3 /year use waste that does not require the cre­ation of addi­tion­al tech­no­log­i­cal sec­tions for the prepa­ra­tion and pro­cess­ing of raw mate­ri­als: slab and import­ed chips. They are processed in the basic tech­nolo­gies for mak­ing wood par­ti­cles. Plants with a capac­i­ty of 200 and more thou­sand m3 /year use not only slab and import­ed chips, but also oth­er types of wood waste: saw­dust, waste from the pro­duc­tion of veneer, ply­wood, boards, and recy­clable mate­ri­als. They require spe­cial tech­nolo­gies for their prepa­ra­tion in new areas, which include tech­no­log­i­cal and trans­port equip­ment. When plan­ning the use of wood­work­ing waste, it is nec­es­sary to take into account the pecu­liar­i­ties of each type of waste, which lim­it the upper lev­el of their share in the com­po­si­tion of raw mate­ri­als. In pine slab, the bark con­tent is 38.2%, which is 3.9 times high­er than in stem wood. A sig­nif­i­cant increase in the pro­por­tion of bark in the slab leads to a decrease in the strength char­ac­ter­is­tics of the slab. In addi­tion, the bark of the slab may con­tain min­er­al impu­ri­ties and pieces of met­al. They get there dur­ing the har­vest­ing, trans­porta­tion and stor­age of the sawlogs. The aver­age length of saw­dust par­ti­cles does not exceed 5 mm. Only microchips for the out­er lay­ers of the slab can be made from such raw mate­ri­als. The com­po­si­tion of conif­er­ous and decid­u­ous raw mate­ri­als is approx­i­mate­ly the same: the share of conifers is 46.8%, decid­u­ous 53.2%. The bulk of decid­u­ous raw mate­ri­als are fire­wood and pulp­wood (47.8 out of 53.2%). Conif­er­ous raw mate­ri­als main­ly come in the form of wood pro­cess­ing waste (wood chips, slabs, saw­dust). The use of pine and spruce is rough­ly equal. Aspen pre­dom­i­nates among decid­u­ous species – 38.2% ver­sus 15.0% for birch. This is due to the fact that the bulk of the fire­wood sup­plied to the enter­prise is aspen trunks. Com­par­i­son of the con­sumed raw mate­ri­als at present and in 1984 shows that the share of the main raw mate­ri­als, fire­wood and pulp­wood, is main­tained prac­ti­cal­ly at the same lev­el of 70.2 and 68.1%. Con­sump­tion of import­ed wood chips decreased by 3.6 times from 16.9 to 4.7%. The use of waste wood pro­cess­ing indus­tries (slab, saw­dust, waste veneer and ply­wood), on the con­trary, increased 1.7 times from 13.1 to 22.3%. As a result, the share of conif­er­ous wood in the com­po­si­tion of mod­ern raw mate­ri­als has almost dou­bled from 23…25% to 46.8%, and the share of decid­u­ous species has decreased from 75…77% to 53.2%.

Key­words: par­ti­cle boards, wood raw mate­ri­als, wood-burn­ing wood, pulp­wood, tech­no­log­i­cal chips, slab, saw­dust, ply­wood pro­duc­tion waste, wood recy­clable mate­ri­als, conif­er­ous and decid­u­ous species, struc­ture of raw mate­ri­als, plant capacity

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Viunkov S.N. Cur­ing of urea-formalde­hyde resins with a molar ratio of formalde­hyde to urea less than one. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 152–159 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.152–159

Abstract

In the course of stud­ies, it was found that the cur­ing of urea-formalde­hyde resins (UFR), with the for­ma­tion of a spa­tial­ly crosslinked struc­ture, at a molar ratio of formalde­hyde to urea less than one, occurs due to the for­ma­tion of an inert com­pound – meth­yl­enedi­urea (MDU). For the exper­i­ment, the lab­o­ra­to­ry UFR (LUFR) was syn­the­sized accord­ing to the fol­low­ing scheme. In the first stage, the molar ratio of urea : formalde­hyde (U : F) = 1 : 2. The pH val­ue is 7.5…8. At the sec­ond stage, the pH is 4,2…4,5. The third stage is the intro­duc­tion of addi­tion­al urea to the molar ratio U : F = 1 : 0.9, the pH is 7…8. The syn­the­sis of MDU was car­ried out at a molar ratio of U: F = 1: 0.5. Urea was intro­duced into the for­ma­lin solu­tion (pH 3), with con­stant stir­ring, and the lat­ter was com­plete­ly dis­solved at 20 °C. After that, the reac­tion tem­per­a­ture was raised to 50 °C, and kept until a dense pre­cip­i­tate was formed. The result­ing pre­cip­i­tate was washed on a paper fil­ter with dis­tilled water until a neu­tral reac­tion. The sam­ple was dried at 105 °C to a con­stant mass. In a slight­ly alka­line envi­ron­ment, at the third stage of syn­the­sis, when urea is intro­duced to the molar ratio U : F = 1 : 0.9, monomethy­lolurea is formed, which under acidic cur­ing con­di­tions will react pri­mar­i­ly with urea, which is in a sig­nif­i­cant excess. This leads to the for­ma­tion of MDU. More­over, the lat­ter does not enter into either the addi­tion reac­tion with formalde­hyde or the con­den­sa­tion reac­tion with the hydrox­ymethyl groups of UFR. As a result, MDU does not par­tic­i­pate in the for­ma­tion of the poly­mer struc­ture, being an inert filler, and its com­po­nents by weight, urea and formalde­hyde, can be exclud­ed from the final molar ratio. Thus, at the ini­tial molar ratio of the ini­tial com­po­nents U : F = 1 : 0.9, dur­ing a series of chem­i­cal trans­for­ma­tions, the final molar ratio increas­es to U : F = 1 : 1.012,which allows the for­ma­tion of a spa­tial­ly crosslinked polymer.

Key­words: urea-formalde­hyde resin, molar ratio, oligomer, mol­e­c­u­lar struc­ture, urea, formalde­hyde, meth­yl­ene ether bond, hydrox­ymethyl group

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Ved­ernikov D.N., Ryse­va E.A. Syn­the­sis of esters of birch bud sesquiter­pene alco­hols and cin­nam­ic acid deriv­a­tives. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 160–169 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish summary).DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.160–169

Abstract

This research is aimed at cre­at­ing drugs that inhib­it the growth of the microor­gan­ism Staphy­lo­coc­cus epi­der­midis, which caus­es dif­fi­cult to treat dis­eases. The study shows a suc­cess­ful attempt to syn­the­size nat­ur­al esters – coumarates of sesquiter­pene alco­hols from sesquiter­pene com­pounds of birch buds. The chro­mato­graph­ic and mass spec­tro­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of the obtained com­pounds coin­cide with the char­ac­ter­is­tics of nat­ur­al ones. Con­trol over the qual­i­ty and quan­ti­ty of inter­me­di­ate and final prod­ucts was car­ried out by gas chro­matog­ra­phy-mass spec­trom­e­try. The result­ing prod­ucts showed reten­tion times and mass spec­tra cor­re­spond­ing to nat­ur­al val­ues. The syn­the­sis includ­ed the prepa­ra­tion of a veg­e­ta­tive buds extract, saponi­fi­ca­tion of sesquiter­pene alco­hol acetate, vac­u­um dis­til­la­tion of the sesquiter­pene alco­hol frac­tion, prepa­ra­tion of coumar­ic acid acetate, oxa­lyl chlo­ride, coumar­ic acid acetate chlo­ride, esters of coumar­ic acid acetate and sesquiter­pene acetyl alco­hols, hydrol­y­sis and chro­matog­ra­phy of prod­ucts with sil­i­ca gel. The prod­uct yield, cal­cu­lat­ed as sesquiter­pene alco­hols, was 70%. The syn­the­sized com­pounds, as well as nat­ur­al ones, showed antimi­cro­bial activ­i­ty against Staphy­lo­coc­cus epi­der­midis with a MIC = 1000 μg / ml. The esti­mat­ed antimi­cro­bial activ­i­ty was 20 times less than the activ­i­ty of nat­ur­al coumarates of sesquiter­pene alco­hols. The com­po­si­tion of the obtained prod­ucts dif­fered from nat­ur­al com­pounds by the absence of one of the main com­po­nents – τ‑betulenol coumarate. τ‑Betulenol is absent in free form in birch buds.

Key­words: coumarates of sesquiter­pene alco­hols, birch buds, acety­la­tion, ester­i­fi­ca­tion, hydrol­y­sis, gas chro­matog­ra­phy-mass spec­trom­e­try, antimi­cro­bial activity

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Shkol’nikov E.V. Kinet­ics of isother­mal bulk crys­tal­liza­tion of AsSe1,5Bix glass­es (x = 0,01, 0,05). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 170–184 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.170–184

Abstract

When As2Se3 glass is doped with tin, lead, or bis­muth, isother­mal bulk crys­tal­liza­tion of the result­ing glass­es under opti­mal con­di­tions is pos­si­ble. The influ­ence of bis­muth con­cen­tra­tion on the char­ac­ter and kinet­ic para­me­ters of glass­es crys­tal­liza­tion has not been stud­ied suf­fi­cient­ly. The pur­pose of this work is the com­par­a­tive analy­sis of the kinet­ics of isother­mal vol­u­met­ric crys­tal­liza­tion of As2Se3 and AsSe1,5Bix glass­es (x = 0,01 and 0,05). Glass­es were syn­the­sized by vac­u­um melt­ing method from espe­cial­ly pure ele­men­tal sub­stances with total mass of 7 g in the inter­val 700–900 °С with the sub­se­quent quench­ing of quartz ampoules with melts in air from 700 °С. The kinet­ics of trans­for­ma­tions dur­ing bulk isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of AsSe1,5Bi0,01 and AsSe1,5Bi0,05 glass­es in the tem­per­a­ture range 210–260 °С wаs stud­ied by meth­ods of den­si­ty, micro­hard­ness, tem­per­a­ture depen­dence of elec­tric con­duc­tiv­i­ty, X‑ray phase analy­sis of quenched sam­ples. Analy­sis of the kinet­ics of bulk crys­tal­liza­tion of the glass­es was per­formed accord­ing to den­si­ty mea­sure­ments using the gen­er­al­ized Kolmogorov–Avrami equa­tion. The addi­tion of 2 at.% Bi to As2Se3 glass accel­er­at­ed the crys­tal­liza­tion of the main As2Se3 phase, reduc­ing the latent peri­od of the onset of As2Se3 phase sep­a­ra­tion by about 4 times and the kinet­ic peri­od of half-tran­si­tion by 13 times in com­par­i­son with the crys­tal­liza­tion of pure As2Se3 glass. The effect of 0,4 and 2 at.% Bi addi­tions on the isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of As2Se3 glass man­i­fests itself main­ly in decreas­ing the ther­mo­dy­nam­ic bar­ri­er and acti­va­tion ener­gy of bulk het­ero­ge­neous nucle­ation of lamel­lar As2Se3 phase crys­tals on pri­ma­ry Bi2Se3 phase nanocrys­tals. The recon­struc­tive crys­tal­liza­tion of the main phase of As2Se3 in AsSe1.5Bi0.05 glass is asso­ci­at­ed with a con­tin­u­ous change in the chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion of the resid­ual glass phase and is char­ac­ter­ized by an inter­val of decreas­ing val­ues of the effec­tive acti­va­tion ener­gy (142 → 114 ± 5 kJ/ mol).

Key­words: vol­u­met­ric crys­tal­liza­tion of glass­es, kinet­ic para­me­ters of isother­mal mass crys­tal­liza­tion, gen­er­al­ized Kolmogorov–Avrami equation

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Sivakov V.P., Vurasko A.V., Isae­va K.S. Tem­per­a­ture diag­nos­tics of bear­ings dry­ing cylin­ders of the card­board mak­ing machine. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 185–202 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.185–202

Abstract

The object of work is the bear­ings of the dry­ing cylin­ders of the card­board­mak­ing machine. The sub­ject of the work is tem­per­a­ture diag­nos­tics of the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the bear­ings of dry­ing cylin­ders. The pur­pose is to devel­op a method for cal­cu­lat­ing the per­mis­si­ble tem­per­a­ture lev­els of bear­ings of dry­ing cylin­ders and the use of per­mis­si­ble tem­per­a­ture lev­els to assess the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of bear­ings. Dur­ing the peri­od of oper­at­ing time, the wear of the rub­bing sur­faces of bear­ing parts is accom­pa­nied, by the for­ma­tion and devel­op­ment of defects. Defects increase the fric­tion forces between the rub­bing parts and the tem­per­a­ture of the bear­ings. The tem­per­a­ture of the bear­ing hous­ings is con­sid­ered as a struc­tur­al para­me­ter of the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the bear­ing. Exper­i­men­tal stud­ies of the tem­per­a­ture of the bear­ings of dry­ing cylin­ders under the steady-state oper­a­tion of the card­board-mak­ing machine have been car­ried out. The cal­cu­la­tion of the total mea­sure­ment error of instru­ments and instru­ments was made. The repro­ducibil­i­ty of tem­per­a­ture diag­nos­tics was estab­lished by check­ing. The devi­at­ing tem­per­a­ture lev­els of indi­vid­ual bear­ings of the exam­ined array have been clar­i­fied. The cal­cu­la­tion deter­mines the aver­age and per­mis­si­ble tem­per­a­ture lev­els of bear­ings sep­a­rate­ly from the front and dri­ve sides of the dry­ing groups for steam sup­plied to the dry­ing cylin­ders. Accord­ing to the processed data of exper­i­men­tal stud­ies it was found that the bear­ings on the front side in each of the groups of pairs have an arith­metic mean tem­per­a­ture lev­el 7…9 °C low­er, than on the dri­ve side. The arith­metic mean tem­per­a­ture lev­el of the bear­ings of dry­ing cylin­ders increas­es from the third group of steam to the first. The tem­per­a­ture dif­fer­ence between adja­cent groups is 5…9 °C, and between the first and third groups reach­es 20…21 °C. Thus, a method of tem­per­a­ture diag­nos­tics of bear­ings of dry­ing cylin­ders of a card­board-mak­ing machine has been devel­oped and test­ed. Diag­nos­tic mea­sure­ments were car­ried out and the per­mis­si­ble tem­per­a­ture lev­els of bear­ings with two-way restric­tion were cal­cu­lat­ed. Accord­ing to the per­mis­si­ble tem­per­a­ture lev­els, the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the bear­ings was assessed. 4 bear­ings with the rat­ing “unac­cept­able” were found. The pro­posed method of tem­per­a­ture diag­nos­tics sat­is­fies the con­di­tions of repro­ducibil­i­ty and ensures the detec­tion of faulty bear­ings in the oper­at­ing mode of the equipment. 

Key­words: dry­ing part, tem­per­a­ture, bear­ings, dry­ing cylin­ders, diag­nos­tics, experiment

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Laty­she­vich I.A., Hapanko­va E.I., Kozlov N.G. Def­i­n­i­tion of poly­mer­iza­tion com­plete­ness of epoxy oligomers. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 203–214 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.203–214

Abstract

The arti­cle deals with phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal meth­ods that deter­mine the poly­mer­iza­tion com­plete­ness of epoxy oligomers. New ter­penoid prod­ucts are pre­sent­ed as cur­ing cat­a­lysts. The phase tran­si­tion of epoxy oligomers from sol­u­ble to poly­mer­ized state is stud­ied. It is known that epoxy oligomers in poly­mer­ized state have a small num­ber of cross-links locat­ed at a suf­fi­cient­ly large dis­tance from each oth­er, and chain seg­ments between the cross-links have some mobil­i­ty. The pres­ence of hydrox­yl groups in the oligomer macro­mol­e­cules makes it pos­si­ble to cre­ate com­pos­ites char­ac­ter­ized by high adhe­sion prop­er­ties to a vari­ety of mate­ri­als. The IR spec­troscopy method is used to con­trol the qual­i­ty of poly­mer­ized com­pos­ites. It allows to deter­mine the com­po­si­tion change and poly­mer­iza­tion com­plete­ness. In the course of research it was found that the IR spec­troscopy method can be used to deter­mine the poly­mer­iza­tion com­plete­ness of epoxy binder by sec­ondary ter­penoid prod­ucts. On the reg­is­tered spec­tra there are changes in the area of absorp­tion bands belong­ing to anhy­dride and epoxy groups. These bands com­plete­ly dis­ap­pear in com­par­i­son with sim­i­lar bands in the spec­tra of the orig­i­nal binder com­po­nents. New absorp­tion bands char­ac­ter­is­tic of ester groups – ν(С=О), ν as С–О–С и ν s С–О–С – were found in the IR spec­trum of the com­pos­ite. The inten­si­ty ratio of aro­mat­ics absorp­tion bands in the spec­trum of the com­pos­ite, ‑CH3 groups prac­ti­cal­ly remains the same as in the spec­trum of the epoxy oligomer, which con­firms the non­par­tic­i­pa­tion of this oligomer part in the poly­mer­iza­tion process. The con­duct­ed stud­ies made it pos­si­ble to adapt the method of IR spec­troscopy to deter­mine the poly­mer­iza­tion reac­tion com­plete­ness of epoxy oligomer by sec­ondary ter­penoid products. 

Key­words: epoxy oligomers, sec­ondary ter­penoid prod­ucts, IR spectroscopy

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Seleznev V.N., Makhoti­na L.G. Study of the effect of cot­ton pulp milling on the prop­er­ties of cel­lu­lose com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al for col­lect­ing and pre­serv­ing sam­ples of bio­log­i­cal mate­r­i­al. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 215–227 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.215–227

Abstract

The paper deals with issues relat­ed to the CСM tech­nol­o­gy for the col­lec­tion and stor­age of bio­log­i­cal sub­stances, these tech­nolo­gies and their man­u­fac­tur­ers. Stud­ies of the prop­er­ties of sam­ples of CСM from dif­fer­ent man­u­fac­tur­ers have shown that the cot­ton fiber of which they are com­posed has low indi­ca­tors of the weight­ed aver­age length (1.0–1.2 mm) at the beat­ing degree of 18–20 °SR. Stud­ies of sam­ples of FTA cards for absorben­cy have shown that the sam­ples have a high rate of absorp­tion of a drop of water on the sur­face (on aver­age 0.5 sec.) and not high cap­il­lary absorben­cy (6.5 cm), which is nec­es­sary for the effec­tive oper­a­tion of the mate­r­i­al for col­lect­ing and stor­ing sam­ples of bio­log­i­cal sub­stances. Inves­ti­ga­tion of the phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of import­ed sam­ples of cards for the col­lec­tion and stor­age of bio­log­i­cal mate­ri­als have shown that the cards have not high indi­ca­tors of break­ing length (1.3–1.5 km) and burst­ing strength (74–100 kPa), which sim­pli­fies the pro­ce­dure for extract­ing a bio­log­i­cal sam­ple by punch­ing. Inves­ti­ga­tion of the influ­ence of the tech­no­log­i­cal para­me­ters process of refin­ing (mass con­cen­tra­tion, refin­ing time) on the prop­er­ties of CCM made it pos­si­ble to deter­mine the opti­mal modes of refin­ing cot­ton cel­lu­lose, pro­vid­ing qual­i­ty indi­ca­tors sim­i­lar to the prop­er­ties of import­ed sam­ples of FTA cards. It is shown that in order to achieve mor­pho­log­i­cal para­me­ters of fiber and prop­er­ties of CCM sim­i­lar to those of import­ed sam­ples of FTA-cards, the refin­ing of cot­ton pulp in a roll must be car­ried out at a mass con­cen­tra­tion of 3 to 4 g / l with a pres­sure on the lever and a beat­ing degree of 16–18 °SR.

Key­words: cot­ton cel­lu­lose, fiber mor­phol­o­gy, FTA card, refin­ing, cel­lu­lose com­pos­ite material

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Fefelov S.A., Kaza­ko­va L.P., Bogoslovskiy N.A., Bylev A.B., Annenko­va A.M. Study of mem­o­ry effect in amor­phous chalco­genide semi­con­duc­tor GST225 thin films. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 228–242 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.228–242

Abstract

We explored phase change mem­o­ry phe­nom­e­na in thin film of chalco­genide-glass semi­con­duc­tors GST225 by pass­ing through the film a sequence of tri­an­gu­lar cur­rent impuls­es with increas­ing ampli­tude. Ini­tial­ly the film was in amor­phous state. We took simul­ta­ne­ous oscil­lo­scope pic­tures of the volt­age across the thin-film “sand­wich” type sam­ple and the cur­rent pass­ing through the above unit as a func­tion of time. Then we got the cur­rent-volt­age char­ac­ter­is­tics of the unit done. Dis­tinc­tive fea­tures observed on some of the oscil­lo­scope pic­tures and cur­rent-volt­age char­ac­ter­is­tics are places with rapid decrease in volt­age and neg­a­tive dif­fer­en­tial resis­tance. After pass­ing cur­rent impulse with the biggest ampli­tude the cur­rent-volt­age char­ac­ter­is­tic of the unit is becom­ing almost ohmic. Analy­sis of all the cur­rent-volt­age char­ac­ter­is­tics obtained allows us to sug­gest that the mem­o­ry state for­ma­tion appar­ent­ly occurs in stages with grad­ual crys­tal­liza­tion of amor­phous sub­stance of the film on thick­ness depend­ing on ampli­tude of the tri­an­gu­lar cur­rent impuls­es pass­ing through the unit. This pos­si­ble sce­nario is dis­cussed here only from qual­i­ta­tive point of view. The rapid decreas­es in volt­age appar­ent­ly can under cer­tain con­di­tions be explained by pecu­liar­i­ties of crys­tal­liza­tion process (“explo­sive” crys­tal­liza­tion) while crys­tal­liza­tion itself is ini­ti­at­ed by elec­tri­cal field. Tak­ing also into account that under injec­tion of cur­rent, when the film is in poor­ly con­duct­ing state, a space charge appears to form and as con­se­quence a nonuni­form dis­tri­b­u­tion of field on thick­ness of the film can arise we can assume that crys­tal­liza­tion starts at one of elec­trodes where the field is the biggest. “Explo­sive” crys­tal­liza­tion of amor­phous sub­stance dies down when the field near the front of crys­tal­liza­tion turns out to be not enough for hold­ing it. After a part of the film is crys­tal­lized such a way and con­di­tions for “explo­sive” crys­tal­liza­tion are not more ful­filled the fur­ther crys­tal­liza­tion can run by heat­ing. As to a part of cur­rent-volt­age char­ac­ter­is­tic with neg­a­tive dif­fer­en­tial resis­tance they appar­ent­ly are con­nect­ed with switch­ing phe­nom­e­na that is char­ac­ter­is­tic of amor­phous chalco­genide semiconductors.

Key­words: chalco­genide semi­con­duc­tors, phase change memory

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Baidakov D.L., Michailo­va N.V. Elec­tro­con­duc­tiv­i­ty of the amor­phous films MnCl2-GeS2-Ga2S3 and MnS-GeS2-Ga2S3, pre­pared by spin-coat­ing method. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 243–253 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.243–253

Abstract

Glassy ger­ma­ni­um and gal­li­um chalco­genides have a wide range of prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tions. Trans­paren­cy in the IR region of the spec­trum, low sen­si­tiv­i­ty to impu­ri­ties, and high chem­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty make these amor­phous mate­ri­als promis­ing for the needs of the elec­tron­ics indus­try. Chalco­genide films MnCl2-GeS2-Ga2S3 and MnS-GeS2-Ga2S3 were syn­the­sized from the solu­tions of chalco­genide glass­es in nbuty­lamine and also the spe­cif­ic elec­tro­con­duc­tiv­i­ty of films has been inves­ti­gat­ed. The depo­si­tion of amor­phous films was car­ried out accord­ing to the pre­vi­ous­ly devel­oped Baidakov–Shkolnikov method. For the mea­sure­ments of spe­cif­ic elec­tro­con­duc­tiv­i­ty val­ues the AC and DC meth­ods are used. The charge trans­fer acti­va­tion ener­gy and the pre-expo­nen­tial fac­tor were cal­cu­lat­ed using an Arrhe­niustype equa­tion. The spe­cif­ic sur­face resis­tance was deter­mined from the ratio of the prod­uct of the sur­face resis­tance of the sam­ple and the con­tact length to the dis­tance between the con­tacts. The spe­cif­ic sur­face elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty of the films was tak­en as the rec­i­p­ro­cal of the spe­cif­ic sur­face resis­tance. With in increase in the man­ganese salts con­tent in the chlo­ride and sul­phide sys­tems an increase the absolute val­ues of the elec­tro­con­duc­tiv­i­ty are observed. It was found that ger­ma­ni­um and gal­li­um chalco­genides con­cen­tra­tion rations in the glass-form­ing net­work of bonds are impor­tant for con­duc­tiv­i­ty lev­el in films. The elec­tro­con­duc­tiv­i­ty of chalco­genide glass­es and films of a sim­i­lar com­po­si­tion prac­ti­cal­ly do not dif­fer. The chalco­genide glass­es mech­a­nism of dis­so­lu­tion in aliphat­ic amines is explained the sim­i­lar elec­tro­con­duc­tiv­i­ty para­me­ters of glass­es and films.

Key­words: amor­phous chalco­genide films, spin-coat­ing method, para­me­ters of spe­cif­ic elec­tro­con­duc­tiv­i­ty chalco­genide glasses

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Epi­fano­va M.A., Epi­fanov A.V., Akim E.L. Cal­cu­la­tion of the neg­a­tive impact on water bod­ies from the pulp and paper mill based on math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ling of pol­lu­tant flow. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 254–266 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.254–266

Abstract

The mod­ern sys­tem for stan­dard­iz­ing the load on water bod­ies con­sists of three main ele­ments: 1 cal­cu­la­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal stan­dards for mark­er sub­stances for the indus­try; 2 cal­cu­la­tion of per­mis­si­ble dis­charge stan­dards for sub­stances of 1 and 2 haz­ard class­es; 3 com­par­isons of the cal­cu­lat­ed stan­dards of per­mis­si­ble dis­charges with the stan­dards of per­mis­si­ble impacts for water man­age­ment areas estab­lished on the basis of the deci­sion of the state eco­log­i­cal exper­tise. The for­mu­las giv­en in the method­ol­o­gy for cal­cu­lat­ing the per­mis­si­ble dis­charge stan­dards have a lim­it­ed range of appli­ca­tion. The paper pro­pos­es an algo­rithm for cal­cu­lat­ing the con­vec­tived­if­fu­sion trans­fer of pol­lu­tants from the waste­water dis­charges of Sil­va­mo Cor­po­ra­tion Rus into the Vuok­sa riv­er in the Leso­gorskoye reser­voir area. For the study, the main out­let of the enter­prise was cho­sen, through which puri­fied waste­water con­tain­ing resid­ual pol­lu­tants from the main pro­duc­tion and waste­water of the city of Sve­to­gorsk is dis­charged. The Vuok­sa Riv­er is extreme­ly het­ero­ge­neous in the area of waste­water dis­charge through the out­let. There­fore, the cal­cu­la­tion of the trans­fer of pol­lu­tants accord­ing to the cur­rent method for cal­cu­lat­ing the per­mis­si­ble dis­charge stan­dards ignores the formed along­shore stag­nant zones and wind cur­rents pre­vail­ing in these zones. For the cal­cu­la­tions, a com­bined mod­el of the trans­port of pol­lu­tants was pro­posed, tak­ing into account two-dimen­sion­al and three-dimen­sion­al mod­els of wind cur­rents and mod­els of con­vec­tive-dif­fu­sion trans­port and trans­for­ma­tion of sub­stances. When cal­cu­lat­ing the con­cen­tra­tion field accord­ing to the offi­cial method for cal­cu­lat­ing the per­mis­si­ble dis­charge stan­dards, the length of the pol­lu­tion spot was 15 meters, and accord­ing to the pro­posed cal­cu­la­tion algo­rithm, tak­ing into account the relief of the coastal zone and the direc­tion of wind cur­rents, 140 meters. For the release of Sil­va­mo Cor­po­ra­tion Rus with fine water into the Vuok­sa Riv­er, the results of cal­cu­lat­ing the stan­dards for per­mis­si­ble dis­charges accord­ing to the cur­rent method­ol­o­gy and based on the devel­oped com­bined mod­el of con­vec­tive-dif­fu­sion trans­port of pol­lu­tants are pre­sent­ed, which gives het­ero­ge­neous results. Accord­ing to the devel­oped allow­able mod­el, the con­cen­tra­tion of BOD in waste­water is 1.7 times high­er than the required val­ue accord­ing to the cur­rent method­ol­o­gy for cal­cu­lat­ing stan­dards, dis­charges are allowed. The appli­ca­tion of an indi­vid­ual approach to the cal­cu­la­tion of stan­dards for per­mis­si­ble dis­charges makes it pos­si­ble to deter­mine envi­ron­men­tal stan­dards for water qual­i­ty in water bod­ies and deter­mine the max­i­mum lev­els of load from a pulp and paper mill. 

Key­words: mod­el­ing, pol­lu­tion of water bod­ies, cur­rents, trans­port of pol­lu­tants, dis­charge standards

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Miduko­va M.A., Smirno­va E.G., Smolin A.S. Improv­ing of deink­ing tech­nol­o­gy of print­ing recov­ered paper. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2022, iss. 238, pp. 267–275 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2022.238.267–275

Abstract

The pos­si­bil­i­ty of improv­ing the effi­cien­cy of deink­ing «МС-7Б» grade recov­ered paper from ton­er applied on a laser print­er by dry two-stage dis­per­sion before flota­tion was inves­ti­gat­ed. Recov­ered paper was used with a dif­fer­ent lev­el of ton­er print on one side of the paper: 2.5%; 3,9%; 8,2%; 60%. The degree of ton­er prints of office recov­ered paper was deter­mined by the pro­gram «lpSquare v5.0 for Win­dows» as the ratio of the area of the print­ed area to the total area of the sheet in %. The lev­el of clean­ing recov­ered paper from ton­er emboss­ments was deter­mined using a graph­ic pro­gram that made it pos­si­ble to estab­lish the area of the black area. It has been found that the devel­oped recov­ered paper stock prepa­ra­tion tech­nol­o­gy involv­ing two-stage dry dis­per­sion and sub­se­quent flota­tion effec­tive­ly removes ton­er print area in paper sam­ples. Ton­er print area in sam­ples of paper obtained from float­ed recov­ered paper with pre­lim­i­nary two-stage dry dis­per­sion are prac­ti­cal­ly absent, unlike sam­ples of paper from recov­ered paper enno­bled with stan­dard flota­tion. Assess­ment of mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of paper sam­ples was car­ried out by chang­ing the val­ues of burst­ing and tin­sel strength. It is shown that prepa­ra­tion of recov­ered paper stock by method of flota­tion with pre­lim­i­nary dry dis­per­sion con­tributes to small increase of mechan­i­cal indices of paper sam­ples. The mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of paper sam­ples prac­ti­cal­ly does not depend on the lev­el of ton­er print area of recov­ered paper.

Key­words: recov­ered paper, dry dis­per­tion, flota­tion, opti­cal and mechan­i­cal para­me­ters, deinking

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2021 issues

Issue 237

1. FORESTRY

Guryanov M.O., Raupo­va D.E. A study of the rela­tion­ship between heights and diam­e­ters at breast height in tree stands of Scots pine in the Train­ing and Exper­i­men­tal Forestry of the Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 6–15 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.6–15

Abstract

The rela­tion­ships between heights and diam­e­ters at breast height of trees are wide­ly used in deter­min­ing of grow­ing stock and assort­ment struc­ture of stands. Numer­ous math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els are used to describe them. A com­par­a­tive analy­sis of the accu­ra­cy of six mod­els on the exam­ple of tree stands of Scots pine in the Train­ing and Exper­i­men­tal Forestry of the Leningrad region showed the close accu­ra­cy of each of them. For dif­fer­ent sam­ple plots, how­ev­er, the high­est accu­ra­cy was showed by dif­fer­ent mod­els. This neces­si­tates fur­ther research on this top­ic in order to iden­ti­fy the most applic­a­ble math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els for dif­fer­ent tree species, ages and habi­tat con­di­tions. In prac­tice are often used the tables, com­piled tak­ing into account the ratios of heights and diam­e­ters at breast height in tree stands, the main of which are tables of vol­umes of trees by height ranks and assort­ment tables. With­in the frame­work of the study, it was found that the actu­al rela­tion­ships between tree heights and diam­e­ters at breast height dif­fer from those giv­en in the tables, which is due to the indi­vid­ual fea­tures of the stand struc­ture and habi­tat con­di­tions. For this rea­son, the height ranks, deter­mined for indi­vid­ual diam­e­ter class­es often dif­fer from those found for the aver­age tree stand height and diam­e­ter at breast height. This leads to dis­crep­an­cies in the grow­ing stocks of tree stands, found tak­ing into account these two approach­es, as well as the yield and cost of assort­ments in them. Although the dif­fer­ences are insignif­i­cant, they high­light the need for fur­ther research in order to improve the accu­ra­cy of deter­min­ing the inven­to­ry para­me­ters of tree stands.

Key­words: height, diam­e­ter at breast height, Scots pine, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, assort­ment structure

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Shibanov S.A., Orlo­va L.V., Firsov G.A. Сol­lec­tion of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the genus Lar­ix Mill. (Pinaceae) in the Botan­i­cal Gar­den of the Forestry Uni­ver­si­ty (St. Peters­burg, Rus­sia). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 16–41 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.16–41

Abstract

There are 13 species and 1 hybrid of genus Lar­ix Mill., rep­re­sent­ed by 124 trees, in col­lec­tion of the Upper and the Low­er den­dro­log­i­cal gar­dens of Saint-Peters­burg State For­est-Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty, under the age from 25 till 200 years old. All of them are win­ter hardy and pro­duce cones. Three species (L. archangel­i­ca, L. decid­ua, L. sibir­i­ca) give self-sow­ing. Total­ly there are 23 taxa which have been test­ed for the peri­od of intro­duc­tion. The largest amount of species were test­ed by E.L. Wolf. Some species (L. komarovii, L. mar­iti­ma) were intro­duced here into gen­er­al cul­ti­va­tion. There are trees of old age plant­ed as ear­ly as in the XIX cen­tu­ry (71). There are 9 of old­est trees cul­ti­vat­ing since 1820 (L. archangel­i­ca, L. decid­ua, L. sibir­i­ca). The tallest tree is of L. sibir­i­ca: 34,0 m high, the most thick on trunk diam­e­ter is the tree of L. decid­ua: 102 см. The research con­firm the impor­tance of peri­od­i­cal bio­met­ri­cal mea­sure­ments and unin­ter­rupt­ed mon­i­tor­ing of all col­lec­tion. There are cer­tain trees which deserve to be includ­ed into the data base on Cham­pi­on trees on their sizes.

Key­words: Lar­ix, Pinaceae, plant intro­duc­tion, bio­log­i­cal fea­tures, Upper and Low­er Den­dro­log­i­cal Gar­dens, Saint-Petersburg

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Bon­do­ri­na I.A., Kabanov A.V., Mamae­va N.A., Khokhlache­va Ju.A. The cur­rent state of the col­lec­tion fund of the Lab­o­ra­to­ry of Orna­men­tal Plants of the Russ­ian Acad­e­my of Sci­ences and the main cri­te­ria for the for­ma­tion of large col­lec­tions in it’s com­po­si­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 42–58 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.42–58

Abstract

Col­lec­tion fund of the Lab­o­ra­to­ry of Orna­men­tal Plants (LOP) MBG RAS has been in exis­tence since 1947. Cur­rent­ly, it includes orna­men­tal peren­ni­als from 221 gen­era and 57 fam­i­lies (1039 species and vari­eties, as well as 5047 vari­eties and gar­den forms). The cur­rent pol­i­cy of form­ing col­lec­tions is main­ly aimed at cre­at­ing large and/or orig­i­nal col­lec­tions. The pur­pose of the present work is to study the quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of the mod­ern col­lec­tion fund LOP MBG RAS, as well as the struc­tur­al fea­tures of large col­lec­tions in its com­po­si­tion. The most wide­ly used meth­ods in the intro­duc­tion stud­ies are the eco­log­i­cal-phy­to­cenot­ic method and the method of gener­ic com­plex­es. The struc­ture of the species part of the col­lec­tion fund of the LOP is dom­i­nat­ed by rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the flo­ra of Europe, Asia and North Amer­i­ca, since these regions are tra­di­tion­al­ly con­sid­ered the most promis­ing donors of mate­r­i­al for the intro­duc­tion of orna­men­tal plants. The pre­dom­i­nant eco­log­i­cal groups in its com­po­si­tion are for­est, steppe and mead­ow species. When form­ing vari­etal col­lec­tions, var­i­ous approach­es are imple­ment­ed. Domes­tic breed­ing achieve­ments dom­i­nate the Syringa, Lil­i­um and Phlox col­lec­tions. The col­lec­tion of the genus Paeo­nia is aimed at cre­at­ing a sam­ple of for­eign vari­eties that rep­re­sent the his­to­ry of cul­ture selec­tion. The his­to­ry of cul­ture selec­tion in the USSR is most ful­ly pre­sent­ed on the basis of the Clema­tis col­lec­tion. The main stages of microevo­lu­tion­ary devel­op­ment of cul­ture are demon­strat­ed by the exam­ple of the gen­era Astilbe and Iris. The aspect of pre­serv­ing retro vari­eties is most ful­ly imple­ment­ed on the Heme­ro­cal­lis col­lec­tion. The selec­tion of a promis­ing assort­ment for the con­di­tions of the region is the main direc­tion of expand­ing the col­lec­tion of the genus Rosa. The aspect of select­ing the most promis­ing ear­ly-flow­er­ing vari­eties in crops with late flow­er­ing dates is most suc­cess­ful­ly imple­ment­ed for Den­dran­the­ma and Sym­phy­otrichum. The Hos­ta and Tuli­pa col­lec­tions are focused on the selec­tion of a range that is promis­ing for the con­di­tions of the cen­tral part of Rus­sia, reflect­ing the mor­pho­bi­o­log­i­cal diver­si­ty of the cul­ture. For breed­ing pur­pos­es, the resources of the Dahlia, Astilbe, and Iris col­lec­tions are used.

Key­words: MBG RAS, lab­o­ra­to­ry of orna­men­tal plants, intro­duc­tion, cul­tur­al flo­ra, cri­te­ria for the for­ma­tion of collections

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Dubenok N.N., Kuzmichev V.V., Lebe­dev A.V. Mod­el of mixed effects of height depen­dence on tree diam­e­ters in pine stands. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 59–74 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.59–74

Abstract

The main data for the stock of research results is the diam­e­ter of mea­sure­ments and heights of trees. But mea­sure­ments of the diam­e­ter at breast height are much eas­i­er to per­form than mea­sure­ments of heights, there­fore, they are lim­it­ed to mea­sur­ing the heights of 15–25 trees. The aim of the study is to select the most ade­quate sim­ple mod­el based on the mea­sure­ments of mod­el trees in pine antiq­ui­ties, which con­veys the rela­tion­ship between the height of trees and the diam­e­ter at breast height. The object of the study was pine stands of arti­fi­cial ori­gin on per­ma­nent test plots in the For­est Exper­i­men­tal Sta­tion Russ­ian State Agarar­i­an Uni­ver­si­ty – Moscow Timiri­azev Agri­cul­tur­al Acad­e­my. The work uses data from tree mea­sure­ments on 17 per­ma­nent sam­ple plots from 1934 to 2005. The age of the stands at the time of mea­sure­ments was from 50 to 125 years. As a result of 77 enu­mer­a­tions, the data array amount­ed to 1157 obser­va­tions. Both the fixed effects mod­el and the mixed effects mod­el ade­quate­ly describe the rela­tion­ship between heights and diam­e­ters of trees in pine stumps. But, as expect­ed, the first mod­el has worse qual­i­ty met­rics than the sec­ond. The mixed effects mod­el more accu­rate­ly pre­dicts heights from the fixed effects mod­el. The miss­ing heights of a large num­ber of trees on a site can be cal­cu­lat­ed accu­rate­ly using mixed effects mod­els, rather than using fixed effects mod­els or using only a fixed por­tion (mean response) of the mixed effects mod­el. The appli­ca­tion of the devel­oped mod­el should be lim­it­ed only in those con­di­tions to which the exper­i­men­tal mate­ri­als are applied.

Key­words: height, diam­e­ter at breast height, pine for­est stand, mixed effect model

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Usolt­sev V.А., Kovyazin V.F., Tse­pordey I.S. Cur­rent car­bon stor­age in forests of two ecore­gions of Rus­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 75–96 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.75–96

Abstract

Due to the glob­al warm­ing of the cli­mate, the assess­ment of the car­bon cycle in for­est ecosys­tems has become par­tic­u­lar­ly impor­tant. One method for deter­min­ing deposit­ed car­bon is based on the use of bio­mass expan­sion fac­tors (BEF) and State For­est Inven­to­ry (SFI) data. By com­bin­ing BEF mod­els with SFI data in two ecore­gions of Rus­sia – taiga and for­est-steppe – it was found that over a 20–25-year peri­od, accu­mu­lat­ing the car­bon depo­si­tion in the taiga zone is sig­nif­i­cant­ly less (5%) com­pared to the for­est-steppe zone (39%). Despite the exist­ing risks of nat­ur­al dis­as­ters in the for­est-steppe eco­tone, there is a sig­nif­i­cant increase in car­bon depo­si­tion over a quar­ter of a cen­tu­ry. This was due to the high pro­por­tion of young stands at the begin­ning of the ana­lyzed peri­od, which have increased growth in rela­tion to old stands. Com­pa­ra­ble results were obtained by the same method in dif­fer­ent ecore­gions of the plan­et (from 8% in 5 years in Chi­na to 68% in 50 years in Japan). A com­par­i­son of the results obtained by the pro­posed method and the IIASA (Aus­tria) method showed a min­i­mal dis­crep­an­cy (3%), which gives rea­son to con­sid­er the above esti­mates of car­bon depo­si­tion close to real­i­ty. How­ev­er, uncer­tain­ties remain relat­ed to the qual­i­ty of the SFI data and the car­bon depo­si­tion in the soil. 

Key­words: car­bon depo­si­tion, Russ­ian forests, taiga, for­est-steppe, expan­sion fac­tors, for­est inven­to­ry data

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Volkov V.A., Kalko G.V. Analy­sis of the poly­mor­phism of microsatel­lite loci in Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and Picea obo­vatа Ledeb pop­u­la­tions. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 97–108 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.97–108

Abstract

The process­es of gen­e­sis of conif­er­ous forests are wide­ly inves­ti­gat­ing using mol­e­c­u­lar mark­ers. Many stud­ies are based on the analy­sis of microsatel­lite loci, which are acknowl­edged as the most repro­ducible and poly­mor­phic co-dom­i­nant mol­e­c­u­lar mark­ers. This study is aimed to estab­lish the pos­si­bil­i­ty of using microsatel­lite mark­ers to deter­mine dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion between Nor­way and Siber­ian spruce (Picea abies and Picea obo­vatа). Anoth­er task of this research was to assess the degree of genet­ic iso­la­tion of region­al spruce pop­u­la­tion in the ter­ri­to­ry of Euro­pean part of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion. This study shows that using a large num­ber of microsatel­lite mark­ers allows to divide the sam­ple of spruce col­lect­ed from Euro­pean part of Rus­sia and Siberia in two genet­ic clus­ters, cor­re­spond­ing to Picea abies and Picea obo­va­ta. The microsatel­lite loci ana­lyzed in the study can be used to assess genet­ic diver­si­ty and geo­graph­ic ori­gin of spruce trees and deter­mine the ori­gin of wood and plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al of Nor­way and Siber­ian spruce.

Key­words: microsatel­lite mark­ers, SSR, frag­ment analy­sis, Picea abies, Picea obo­va­ta

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Bess­chet­nov V.P., Bess­chet­no­va N.N., Shcherbakov A.Yu. Pop­u­la­tion struc­ture of geo­graph­i­cal cul­tures of Euro­pean spruce in the esti­mates of the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of nee­dles. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 109–130 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.109–130

Abstract

The con­tent and ratio of plas­tid pig­ments in the conifers of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of dif­fer­ent pop­u­la­tions of Nor­way spruce intro­duced into the geo­graph­ic test-cul­tures in the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region were stud­ied. A spec­tropho­to­met­ric method was used to iden­ti­fy quan­ti­ta­tive esti­mates of the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of the leaf appa­ra­tus, ensur­ing the prin­ci­ple of a sin­gle log­i­cal dif­fer­ence and the basic require­ments for the orga­ni­za­tion of the exper­i­ment. Field sur­veys of plant­i­ngs and lab­o­ra­to­ry analy­ses of bio­log­i­cal sam­ples were car­ried out. The dif­fer­ences between rep­re­sen­ta­tives of Nor­way spruce pop­u­la­tions that are remote from each oth­er were revealed when they were grown togeth­er as part of geo­graph­i­cal crops accord­ing to the com­plex of indi­ca­tors of the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of annu­al nee­dles. The high­est con­tent of chlorophyll‑a (3.25±0.06 mg/g) was observed in the seed off­spring of pop­u­la­tions from the Pskov region, which is 1.26 times high­er than the cor­re­spond­ing min­i­mum (2.57±0.04 mg/g) record­ed in rep­re­sen­ta­tives of pop­u­la­tions from the Kalin­ingrad region. Sim­i­lar scales of the ratio of esti­mates of the con­tent of chlorophyll‑b were record­ed, despite the fact that the max­i­mum val­ues (1.37±0.05 mg/g and 1.37±0.06 mg/g) were observed in the ori­gin from the Kostro­ma and Kare­lian regions, and the min­i­mum val­ues (1.07±0.03 mg/g and 1.09±0.03 mg/g) were observed in rep­re­sen­ta­tives of pop­u­la­tions from the Arkhangel­sk and Kalin­ingrad regions. The sig­nif­i­cance of dif­fer­ences between the pop­u­la­tions of Nor­way spruce in all the con­sid­ered indi­ca­tors of pig­ment com­po­si­tion was con­firmed. A sim­i­lar­i­ty was found in the addi­tion of three groups of pop­u­la­tions that arose dur­ing fac­tor and clus­ter analy­sis. The clus­ter den­si­ty coef­fi­cients (the aver­age Euclid­ean dis­tance of its addi­tion) of each of them were: 6,258 units of the Euclid­ean dis­tance (for the first one); 4,374 units. (in the sec­ond); 7,818 units. (at the third) and 6,150 units. (total aver­age dis­tance). The aver­age inter-clus­ter dis­tance at the same time reached 20,414 units, which is fun­da­men­tal­ly greater than the val­ues of intra-clus­ter dis­tances and allows us to rec­og­nize the cor­rect allo­ca­tion of clus­ters. The sta­ble nature of the ratio of pop­u­la­tions of Nor­way spruce with dif­fer­ent geo­graph­i­cal ori­gin, accord­ing to the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of nee­dles, is justified.

Key­words: Nor­way spruce, geo­graph­i­cal vari­abil­i­ty, geo­graph­i­cal crops, nee­dles, pig­ment com­po­si­tion, fac­tor analy­sis, clus­ter analy­sis, pop­u­la­tion structure

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Ulitin M.M., Bess­chet­nov V.P. Sea­son­al changes in the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of nee­dles of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the genus spruce in the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 131–150 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.131–150

Abstract

We stud­ied the tax­a­tion indi­ca­tors of for­est crops of Sukachev larch, laid in 1986 on the south-west­ern bor­der of the nat­ur­al dis­tri­b­u­tion of the species in the Ser­gach­sky inter­dis­trict forestry of the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. The coor­di­nates of the first sec­tion are N 55.541378, E 45.471119; the sec­ond sec­tion is N 55.541388, E 45.471125. An assess­ment of the effec­tive­ness of their cre­ation in the spec­i­fied region was obtained. The method­olog­i­cal basis of the work­ing meth­ods was the prin­ci­ple of the only log­i­cal dif­fer­ence. The work was car­ried out by the field sta­tion­ary method. The char­ac­ter­is­tics of larch crops were giv­en based on the results of a field sur­vey. The test areas were laid in accor­dance with the cur­rent indus­try stan­dard. The favor­able for­est con­di­tions for the nat­ur­al growth of Sukachev larch and the wide oppor­tu­ni­ties for the intro­duc­tion of close­ly relat­ed species were con­firmed. Unequal vari­abil­i­ty of tax­a­tion indi­ca­tors was found. In par­tic­u­lar, in terms of trunk diam­e­ter and height, it is insignif­i­cant and is main­ly attrib­uted to the low lev­el: in the first sec­tion, 14.21% and 11.34%; in the second-17.11 and 9.16%, respec­tive­ly. Accord­ing to oth­er signs, the vari­abil­i­ty is high­er (more often the aver­age and increased lev­el) and in some cas­es reach­es a high (trunk vol­ume) and very high (crown asym­me­try coef­fi­cient) lev­el. Sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences between for­est crop plots were record­ed in most of the tax­a­tion indi­ca­tors, which were con­firmed by the analy­sis of vari­ance. The effect of their influ­ence on the gen­er­al back­ground of the phe­no­typ­ic vari­ance is not the same. By the diam­e­ter of the trunk, it is min­i­mal and amount­ed to 6.68±1.37%. The high­est esti­mates were obtained for the dis­tance to the first live knot – 30.42±1.05%. It is deter­mined that the for­est cul­tures of Sukachev larch, cre­at­ed in the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region, reach­ing a height of 14–15 m by the age of 34, form plant­i­ngs of the first class of bonitet. 

Key­words: Sukachev larch, for­est crops, tax­a­tion indi­ca­tors, vari­abil­i­ty, ANOVA

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Chuprov A.V., Nakvasi­na E.N., Prozhe­ri­na N.A. Assess­ment of growth and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of Scots pine prove­nance tests in the Arkhangel­sk region in 39-year. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 151–167 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.151–167

Abstract

For the first time for the region, the sur­vival, growth and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of scots pine cli­mates in 39-year-old prove­nance test of the state net­work (Ple­set­sk dis­trict of the Arkhangel­sk region) were stud­ied. Fea­tures of cli­mate redis­tri­b­u­tion in the col­lec­tion were traced, the best off­spring were select­ed for use for refor­esta­tion with­in the test region. It has been estab­lished that north­ern off­spring (north­ern and mid­dle sub­zones of the bore­al for­est), dif­fer­ing in the I grade of age with high liv­abil­i­ty, in the II grade of age began the process of dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion, which led to a decrease in the indi­ca­tor by almost half. By the end of grade II of age, the off­spring of prove­nance are equal­ized in height, while main­tain­ing dif­fer­ences relat­ed to ori­gin in diam­e­ter. The largest diam­e­ters of trunks have south­ern off­spring, as well as from the north­ern sub­zone of mixed forests, which dif­fer in the low­est rates of sur­vival and qual­i­ty of trunks. Direct depen­dence of H/D index with liv­abil­i­ty is estab­lished, which is con­nect­ed with increase of prove­nance growth by diam­e­ter, increase of escape and cur­va­ture of trunks, for­ma­tion of low-low­ered crowns. It has been shown that in cul­tures of the II class of age, sig­nif­i­cant cor­re­la­tion of growth and liveli­hood indi­ca­tors with the geo­graph­i­cal coor­di­nates and cli­mat­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the places of the ini­tial plan­ta­tions remains, while with the reserve the con­nec­tion is lost. Using the assess­ment approach, in units of stan­dard devi­a­tion, the best cli­mates in terms of pro­duc­tiv­i­ty (reserve) were select­ed: local mold, Pinezh­sky, Volog­da, as well as cli­mates from Kare­lia. The ini­tial plan­ta­tions of these off­spring are includ­ed in the range, lim­it­ed to 60–65° N, 36–44° E. For use in refor­esta­tion in the Arkhangel­sk region, the use of seeds from plan­ta­tions of the Urals and Siberia should be com­plete­ly exclud­ed. In the Euro­pean part of the coun­try, rec­om­mend the use of seeds har­vest­ed in three forest­ed areas: South Kare­lian, Dvin­sk-Mezen­sky and Verkhned­vin­sky, lim­it­ing the move­ment of seeds for a dis­tance of not more than 300 km. 

Key­words: prove­nance test, scots pine, prove­nance, sur­vival abil­i­ty, growth, pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, assessment 

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Ilint­sev A.S., Nakvasi­na E.N. Rut for­ma­tion after the pas­sage of log­ging machin­ery in spruce forests on bino­mi­al soils. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 168–182 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.168–182

Abstract

The ruts formed after the pas­sage of log­ging machin­ery dur­ing log­ging oper­a­tions are one of the neg­a­tive envi­ron­men­tal con­se­quences asso­ci­at­ed with dis­tur­bances of the soil and veg­e­ta­tion cov­er of defor­esta­tion, which deter­mines their fur­ther ren­o­va­tion. The neg­a­tive impact of the for­ma­tion of ruts depends on the num­ber of pass­es of machin­ery and is asso­ci­at­ed with soil and cli­mat­ic con­di­tions. We stud­ied the effect of dif­fer­ent num­ber of pass­es (4, 8, 10) of a loaded Pon­sse Buf­fa­lo King for­vad­er on a skid trail that is not cov­ered by felling residues. The exper­i­men­tal log­ging site of LLC Dvin­le­sprom is locat­ed in the water­shed between of the North­ern Dvina and Pine­ga (Arkhangel­sk region, North Taiga for­est region of the Euro­pean part of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion). The orig­i­nal site is rep­re­sent­ed by a blue­ber­ry spruce for­est of the V class of boni­ty, which grows on pod­zolic soil on bino­mi­al deposits and is wide­ly dis­trib­uted in the region. We laid the per­ma­nent account­ing pads (20  5 m) in 3 rep­e­ti­tions. We con­duct­ed a detailed study of the struc­ture of the ruts, at the bot­tom of each rut, we opened the soil and made a descrip­tion of the horizons/layers of the soil, took undis­turbed soil sam­ples from a depth of 0–10 and 10–20 cm to deter­mine the soil bulk den­si­ty and mois­ture con­tent. It was found that the num­ber of pass­es deter­mines the depth more than the width of the ruts. We iden­ti­fied 6 types of dis­tur­bances of the soil cov­er on the struc­ture of the soil at the bot­tom of the ruts, asso­ci­at­ed with mix­ing, shift­ing and removal of the gley­ing soil-form­ing par­ent soil to the day sur­face. We have giv­en the types of the struc­ture of the bot­tom of the ruts depend­ing on the num­ber of pass­es of the loaded for­warder, as well as the dif­fer­ences in the soil bulk den­si­ty and mois­ture con­tent. The soil bulk den­si­ty in the thick­ness of 0–20 cm with an increase in the num­ber of pass­es of the for­warder nat­u­ral­ly increas­es to the val­ues cor­re­spond­ing to the soil-form­ing par­ent soil. At the same time, the pro­por­tion of mois­ture in the thick­ness of 0–10 cm increas­es with an increase in the num­ber of pass­es, and in the thick­ness of 10–20 cm decreas­es. Notice­able changes in the stud­ied indi­ca­tors are achieved with an eight-fold pas­sage of a loaded for­warder, which allows us to con­sid­er this num­ber as the max­i­mum per­mis­si­ble pas­sage on pod­zolic soils on bino­mi­al deposits in the north taiga for­est area. 

Key­words: log­ging, rut for­ma­tion, num­ber of pass­es, impact, soil, recov­ery forecast

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Andronov A.V., Zverev I.A., Mikhailov O.A., Taradin G.S. A mod­el for deter­min­ing the time of point­ing a grip-cut­ting device of feller bunch­er machines on a grow­ing tree. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 183–195 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.183–195

Abstract

The research is devot­ed to find­ing an ana­lyt­i­cal math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for deter­min­ing the aim­ing time of a feller head on a grow­ing tree. As the known para­me­ters are used. The design dimen­sions of the tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment, tak­en from lay­out and kine­mat­ic dia­grams of feller-bunch­er machines, the required stump height and the aver­age dis­tance between the trees of the windrow. The search for the required mod­el can be briefly divid­ed into sev­er­al suc­ces­sive steps: find­ing the path that the hydraulic cylin­der rod of the boom dri­ve will take and by the known for­mu­la of speed of move­ment of the hydraulic cylin­der pis­ton is time to bring the boom to the tree; find­ing the way which the rod of the hydraulic cylin­der of the arm dri­ve; to find the path which the hydraulic cylin­der rod of the tilt of the feller head; find­ing the path which the hydraulic cylin­der rod for the arm actu­a­tor will take dur­ing the open­ing. The sum of the time for sup­ply­ing each of the ele­ments of tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment is the time required for the ori­en­ta­tion, which is char­ac­ter­is­tic for a non­ex­pe­ri­enced oper­a­tor. In case of an expe­ri­enced oper­a­tor the time for set­ting the feller head to the tree is deter­mined by the max­i­mum time of one of the components. 

Key­words: feller bunch­er, hydraulic cylin­der, manip­u­la­tor, arm, boom, felling head, arms of gripping

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Kurzin A.V., Evdoki­mov A.N. Pour point depres­sants for fuels based on tall oil fat­ty acid esters. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 196–203 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.196–203

Abstract

In order to expand the field of appli­ca­tion of tall oil fat­ty acids, a by-prod­uct of sul­fate pulp­ing (which main­ly con­sist of unsat­u­rat­ed C18 acids), includ­ing the pro­duc­tion of var­i­ous syn­thet­ic prod­ucts based on them, the cor­re­spond­ing eth­yl­ene gly­col and dode­cyl esters have been syn­the­sized. The pos­si­bil­i­ty of appli­ca­tion the esters as pour point depres­sants for grades of uni­ver­sal fuel oil and marine eco­log­i­cal fuel has been stud­ied. Fat­ty acids were ester­i­fied with 1‑dodecanol and eth­yl­ene gly­col in the pres­ence of a p‑toluenesulfonic acid as cat­a­lyst. The pour point of the fuels was deter­mined man­u­al­ly accord­ing to the ASTM D97 stan­dard. The pour point of eco­log­i­cal marine fuel decreased from +21 to 0 °C when using 2% dode­cyl ester of fat­ty acids as an addi­tive. It was found that the syn­the­sized esters of tall oil fat­ty acids reduce the pour point of resid­ual fuels at a lev­el com­pa­ra­ble to the use of a com­mer­cial­ly pro­duced depres­sant addi­tive, which makes it pos­si­ble to expand the feed­stock base of this type of addi­tives and reduce import pur­chas­es, as well as to use more exten­sive­ly tall oil fat­ty acids in organ­ic synthesis.

Key­words: tall oil fat­ty acids, eth­yl­ene gly­col and dode­canol esters, fuel addi­tive, pour point depressant

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Melekhov V.I., Soloviev I.I., Emelyanov A.V., Sazano­va E.V., Tyuriko­va T.V. Exper­i­men­tal study of the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the cir­cu­lar saw cut­ting unit lin­ear elec­tric dri­ve. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 204–220 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.204–220

Abstract

The cir­cu­lar saws are wide­spread in sawmill and wood­work­ing indus­try due to their high pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, sim­plic­i­ty, design reli­a­bil­i­ty, and low ener­gy con­sump­tion. Thin saws are used to increase the effec­tive yield of sawn tim­ber. The insuf­fi­cient rigid­i­ty and sta­bil­i­ty dur­ing oper­a­tion of such saws lim­it their use. Slot­ted, roller, aero­sta­t­ic and elec­tro­mag­net­ic guides are applied to increase the bend­ing stiff­ness of a cir­cu­lar saw. Most such guides cre­ate resis­tance to the rota­tion of the saw blade. Mechan­i­cal loss­es dur­ing the torque trans­mis­sion from the motor to the saw blade is one of the cir­cu­lar saws dis­ad­van­tages. Anoth­er dis­ad­van­tage of thin cir­cu­lar saws is vibra­tion of the cir­cu­lar saw blade dur­ing oper­a­tion, which reduce the qual­i­ty of wood pro­cess­ing, lead to the saw crash­es and increased noise lev­els. It is pro­posed to use a lin­ear induc­tion arc-sta­tor motor (LIASM), imple­ment­ing the cir­cu­lar saw is the rotor, to increase the reli­a­bil­i­ty of the cut­ting unit, sta­bi­lize the saw blade dur­ing oper­a­tion, and reduce the oscil­la­tions of the saw blade. The exper­i­men­tal set­up was cre­at­ed to ana­lyze the devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of a LIASM with a cir­cu­lar saw as a rotor. The aim of the work is the exper­i­men­tal eval­u­a­tion of the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el and the analy­sis of oper­at­ing and mechan­i­cal LIASM char­ac­ter­is­tics, idling and short-cir­cuit char­ac­ter­is­tics of the motor, the depen­dence of pow­er and cos ϕ on slip. The influ­ence of the saw blade elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty on the effi­cien­cy of the LIASM has been exper­i­men­tal­ly estab­lished. It was pro­posed to apply a mate­r­i­al with high elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty (cop­per) on the side sur­faces of the saw blade to increase the trac­tive effort of the dri­ve. The car­ried-out exper­i­ment showed a sig­nif­i­cant increase in the trac­tive effort for a cop­per-coat­ed saw blade. The exper­i­men­tal­ly estab­lished val­ues of the mag­net­ic induc­tion in the air gap of the LIASM showed good coin­ci­dence with the cal­cu­lat­ed results from the devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal model.

Key­words: cir­cu­lar saw, lin­ear asyn­chro­nous arc-sta­tor motor, cut­ting unit, sta­bil­i­ty of the cir­cu­lar saw

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Pobe­din­skiy V.V., Kru­chinin I.N., Lyakhov S.V., Pobe­din­skiy E.V. Intel­li­gent con­trol of the debark­er tool. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 221–241 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.221–241

Abstract

The prob­lem of improv­ing the rotary debark­ers, which are used with­out fail in all tim­ber pro­cess­ing tech­nolo­gies of the tim­ber indus­try coun­tries, is con­sid­ered. Despite the suf­fi­cient­ly devel­oped design, nev­er­the­less, the main tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tions of the machine are not equipped with mod­ern adap­tive auto­mat­ic con­trol sys­tems (ACS). Pre­vi­ous­ly, devel­op­ments based on a pneu­mat­ic hydraulic dri­ve were pro­posed using auto­mat­ic con­trol based on fuzzy log­ic. In the pro­posed auto­mat­ic con­trol sys­tem, the sta­bi­liza­tion of a giv­en press­ing force of the cut­ting tool – the debark­er is per­formed. How­ev­er, the giv­en force depends on a num­ber of tech­no­log­i­cal para­me­ters, which are char­ac­ter­ized by uncer­tain­ty, and the prob­lem of con­trol­ling the giv­en clamp­ing of the tool remains unsolved. Thus, the goal of the research was deter­mined, which was to cre­ate an intel­li­gent sys­tem for auto­mat­ic con­trol of a giv­en pres­sure of the debark­er sta­ple lifter. The fol­low­ing tasks were solved: 1) devel­op­ment of an intel­li­gent con­trol scheme for the debark­er; 2) devel­op­ment of a dia­gram of a gen­er­al­ized intel­li­gent con­trol sys­tem in the form of a neu­ro-fuzzy net­work; 3) set­ting the task of con­trol­ling the giv­en clamp­ing of the tool; 4) jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of the input and out­put vari­ables of the prob­lem (fuzzi­fi­ca­tion); 5) devel­op­ment of a fuzzy sys­tem rule base; 6) exe­cu­tion of fuzzy con­clu­sions for inter­me­di­ate and final lay­ers of the net­work in the Mat­lab envi­ron­ment; 7) imple­men­ta­tion of the mod­el of an intel­li­gent sys­tem in the Mat­lab + Simulink envi­ron­ment. The results of the work are a mod­el of an intel­li­gent con­trol sys­tem for the debark­er and its soft­ware imple­men­ta­tion in the Simulink envi­ron­ment for use in the prac­tice of design­ing rotary debarkers. 

Key­words: intel­li­gent sys­tem, fuzzy sys­tem, rotary debark­ing machine, debark­er, con­trol of the pres­sure of the debarker

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Skakovskii E.D., Tychin­skaya L.Yu., Hapanko­va A.I., Laty­she­vich I.A., Shuta­va H.G., Shysh S.N., Lam­otkin S.A. NMR analy­sis of pine tree ole­o­resin com­po­si­tion of the Pinus sub­genus. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 242–257 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.242–257

Abstract

The NMR method was used to ana­lyze ole­o­resin com­po­si­tion of eight species of Pinus sub­genus: Aus­tri­an black (P. nigra), Alleps (P. halepen­sis), moun­tain (P. mon­tana), hard (P. rigi­da), Koch (P. kochi­ana Klotsch), Mur­ray (P. mur­rayana Balf), com­mon (P. sylvestris) and Pal­las (P. nigra sub­sp. pal­lasiana) grow­ing in dif­fer­ent areas. In addi­tion, the con­tent of resin acids iso­lat­ed in 1963 from the ole­o­resins of three species of pines belong­ing to the same sub­genus: black Aus­tri­an, hooked (P. unci­na­ta) and Kulun­da (P. sylvestris ssp. Kulun­den­sis) was stud­ied. It was found that the ole­o­resin com­po­si­tion of the named pine species is well described by the pres­ence of eight resin acids (abi­et­ic, dehy­droa­bi­et­ic, isopi­mar­ic, lev­opi­mar­ic, neoa­bi­et­ic, palus­trine, pimar­ic and san­dara­copy­mar­ic) and nine monoter­penes (cam­phor, 3‑caren, limonene, myrcene, α‑pinene, β‑pinene, ter­pinolen, β‑felandreene, p‑cymol). The quan­ti­ta­tive con­tent of these resin acids depends on many fac­tors (pine species, time and place of ole­o­resin col­lec­tion, and sam­ple col­lec­tion and stor­age con­di­tions). In addi­tion, iso­mer­iza­tion and oxi­da­tion reac­tions are observed, lead­ing to a redis­tri­b­u­tion of the com­po­si­tion. In the stud­ied ole­o­resins, the con­tent of monoter­penes dif­fers great­ly, being the low­est in Alleps pine and the high­est in Scots pine. 

Key­words: ole­o­resin, resin acids, monoter­penes, com­po­si­tion, NMR spectra

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Epi­fano­va M.A., Epi­fanov A.V., Akim E.L. Algo­rithm of the cal­cu­la­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal for sev­er­al objects of tech­no­log­i­cal stan­dard­iza­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 258–271 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.258–271

Abstract

The pur­pose of the study is to devel­op an algo­rithm for cal­cu­lat­ing tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors sep­a­rate­ly by types of prod­ucts for an inte­grat­ed pulp and paper mill when dis­charg­ing waste­water after waste­water treat­ment at uni­fied indus­tri­al waste­water treat­ment plants. A bal­ance method was used for cal­cu­lat­ing the val­ues of the mass­es of pol­lu­tants formed per ton of out­put from the pulp and paper mill based on the mass­es of pol­lu­tants formed in aux­il­iary tech­no­log­i­cal process­es, tak­ing into account waste­water treat­ment at gen­er­al indus­tri­al treat­ment facil­i­ties. Tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors are set sep­a­rate­ly for prod­ucts rat­ed for bleached or unbleached pulp. If the actu­al val­ues of tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors exceed the val­ues of tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors BAT, then it is nec­es­sary to devel­op water pro­tec­tion mea­sures to achieve these indi­ca­tors and, until they are reached, to pay for the neg­a­tive impact on water bod­ies with a hun­dred­fold increas­ing coef­fi­cient. An algo­rithm and func­tion­al depen­den­cies for cal­cu­lat­ing tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors for pulp and paper mills pro­duc­ing prod­ucts con­tain­ing bleached and unbleached cel­lu­lose in the com­po­si­tion have been devel­oped. The algo­rithm is con­sid­ered on the exam­ple of a con­ven­tion­al pulp and paper mill, which pro­duces pri­ma­ry unbleached and bleached fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts, and full-cycle prod­ucts. Pri­ma­ry unbleached fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts include: conif­er­ous and decid­u­ous cel­lu­lose, ТМP, CТМP; pri­ma­ry fibrous bleached semi-fin­ished prod­ucts include: bleached soft­wood and hard­wood pulp, BCTMP; full cycle prod­ucts include: paper, card­board and their pro­cess­ing prod­ucts. The cal­cu­la­tion algo­rithm con­sists of five stages: 1 – build­ing a bal­ance sheet for cal­cu­lat­ing tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors; 2 – cal­cu­la­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors for pri­ma­ry fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts, unbleached; 3 – cal­cu­la­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors for pri­ma­ry fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts bleached; 4 – cal­cu­la­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors for full cycle prod­ucts; 5 – cal­cu­la­tion of the val­ues of tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors for each type of prod­uct, tak­ing into account clean­ing at gen­er­al pro­duc­tion treat­ment facilities.

Key­words: tech­no­log­i­cal indi­ca­tors, inte­grat­ed envi­ron­men­tal per­mit, inte­grat­ed pulp and paper mills

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5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

Zay­ats A.M., Khabarov S.P. Mod­el­ing in the OMNET ++ envi­ron­ment of con­nec­tion process­es in Wi-Fi net­works. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 272–287 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.272–287

Abstract

An approach to the devel­op­ment in the OMNeT ++ INET envi­ron­ment of the sim­plest sim­u­la­tion mod­el of the infra­struc­ture mode of Wi-Fi net­work oper­a­tion is pro­posed, which allows a detailed analy­sis of the func­tion­ing of such net­works, as well as to build and ana­lyze the time dia­gram of the inter­ac­tion of all net­work ele­ments. The devel­oped mod­el can be used as a base for the for­ma­tion of more com­plex mod­els with an arbi­trary num­ber of mobile clients, allow­ing you to deter­mine the required num­ber of access points and their loca­tions to ensure full cov­er­age of the mon­i­tor­ing area of the for­est area. 

Key­words: dis­trib­uted sys­tems, wire­less net­works, net­work programming

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Boitsov A.K., Logachev A.A., Musin H.G. Using arti­fi­cial neur­al net­works to deter­mine the prospects of using hybrid tree clones for plan­ta­tion refor­esta­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 288–298 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.288–298

Abstract

Assess­ing the prospects of using hybrid wood clones is one of the urgent tasks to improve the effi­cien­cy of plan­ta­tion sil­vi­cul­ture. One of the promis­ing ways to solve this prob­lem is the use of arti­fi­cial neur­al net­works (ANN). This research work is one of the few where ANN are used to solve such prob­lems in forestry. Bio­met­ric data from 2018 hybrid aspen clones were tak­en to train neur­al net­works and deter­mine the poten­tial use of hybrid wood clones for plan­ta­tion sil­vi­cul­ture. Dur­ing this work, two ANNs were con­struct­ed where the archi­tec­ture of the first net­work includes an input lay­er of 3 neu­rons, 1 hid­den lay­er with 6 neu­rons and an out­put lay­er of 1 neu­ron, the archi­tec­ture of the sec­ond net­work includes an input lay­er of 3 neu­rons, 2 hid­den lay­ers of 6 neu­rons and an out­put lay­er of 1 neu­ron, into which the nor­mal­ized input bio­met­ric data were loaded for learn­ing to deter­mine the prospec­tive use of hybrid wood species clones for plan­ta­tion sil­vi­cul­ture. Based on the results of this study, a com­par­i­son of the accu­ra­cy of ANN 1 and ANN 2 was made, which showed that ANN 1 was more accu­rate because its bias was 3,49% less than ANN 2. The results of this work con­firmed the promise of using ANN to eval­u­ate the use of hybrid wood clones for plan­ta­tion refor­esta­tion. Accord­ing to the eval­u­a­tion of the cal­cu­lat­ed promis­ing­ness of ANN 1 for plan­ta­tion sil­vi­cul­ture, VTI, ESCH3 and ESCH5 hybrid wood clones were iden­ti­fied. The intro­duc­tion of ANN in the forestry indus­try sim­pli­fies the eval­u­a­tion of wood bio­met­ric results, espe­cial­ly for begin­ners, which pro­vides a sub­se­quent accu­rate assess­ment of the per­spec­tive of wood species.

Key­words: plan­ta­tion forestry, hybrid wood species, arti­fi­cial neur­al net­works, neur­al net­works in forestry

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6. CHRONICLE OF SCIENTIFIC LIFE

Lukiano­va L.V. Con­stants and vari­ables of lin­guis­tic edu­ca­tion in a forestry uni­ver­si­ty (to the anniver­sary of the Russ­ian Lan­guage Depart­ment of SPbF­TU). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 237, pp. 299–315 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.237.299–315

Abstract

The arti­cle presents for the first time an attempt to sum­ma­rize the expe­ri­ence of teach­ing the Russ­ian lan­guage and oth­er philo­log­i­cal dis­ci­plines in the First For­est Russ­ian Uni­ver­si­ty from the begin­ning of the XIX cen­tu­ry to the present. The his­to­ri­og­ra­phy of lin­guis­tic edu­ca­tion at SPbF­TU relies not only on open infor­ma­tion sources, but also on recent­ly dis­cov­ered depart­men­tal and state archival mate­ri­als. The author’s ref­er­ence to the found­ed doc­u­ments allows us to clar­i­fy not only cer­tain stages in the his­to­ry of teach­ing the Russ­ian lan­guage, the main activ­i­ties of teach­ers, but also to present the bright per­son­al­i­ties of teach­ers who in dif­fer­ent years taught Russ­ian lan­guage to native and for­eign stu­dents. Already in the first decades of the exis­tence of the For­est Insti­tute, much atten­tion is paid to the actu­al lan­guage devel­op­ment and edu­ca­tion. Stu­dents of the Forestry Insti­tute study Russ­ian, are engaged in writ­ing busi­ness papers and rhetoric prac­tice. The study of the Russ­ian lan­guage in the XIX cen­tu­ry is main­ly sub­or­di­nat­ed to the prag­mat­ics of teach­ing, but knowl­edge of the native lan­guage plays an equal­ly impor­tant role for the gen­er­al cul­tur­al lev­el of the stu­dent. The change of the ide­o­log­i­cal par­a­digm, the removal of edu­ca­tion­al restric­tions, the instal­la­tion on the orga­ni­za­tion of the train­ing of pro­le­tar­i­an stu­dents after the rev­o­lu­tion of 1917 also affects the human­i­tar­i­an edu­ca­tion of new stu­dents. A spe­cial­ist of a new type, with a Marx­ist world­view, must be lit­er­ate and have a broad out­look. Despite the urgent need for lan­guage edu­ca­tion, for the prac­ti­cal teach­ing of the Russ­ian lan­guage to stu­dents and post­grad­u­ates, there was no spe­cial depart­ment of the Russ­ian lan­guage at the Forestry Acad­e­my (LTA) until the mid­dle of the twen­ti­eth cen­tu­ry. Aware­ness of the spe­cial role of the Russ­ian lan­guage in pro­fes­sion­al train­ing, in the for­ma­tion of the world out­look of for­eign stu­dents led to the cre­ation of the Depart­ment of the Russ­ian lan­guage in LTA only in Sep­tem­ber 1955. Dur­ing the peri­od that has elapsed since the for­ma­tion of the depart­ment, the staffing table, the list of fixed dis­ci­plines, goals, tasks and require­ments in the train­ing of stu­dents have been repeat­ed­ly changed. How­ev­er, teach­ing philo­log­i­cal dis­ci­plines by the staff of the Russ­ian Lan­guage Depart­ment at the Forestry Uni­ver­si­ty has always been asso­ci­at­ed with a broad con­text of human cul­tur­al devel­op­ment, with the strate­gic goal of rais­ing the lev­el of speech-think­ing cul­ture that ensures effec­tive mod­ern com­mu­ni­ca­tion of a lin­guis­tic personality.

Key­words: Russ­ian lan­guage, Russ­ian as a for­eign lan­guage, com­mu­ni­ca­tion, cul­ture of speech, rhetoric, Depart­ment of Russ­ian Lan­guage of SPbFTU

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Issue 236

1. ECOLOGY OF DENDROPHILOUS INSECTS

Belit­skaya M.N., Gri­bust I.R., Fil­imono­va O.S., Blyum K.Ya. Pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of the gall mak­ers of the main for­est-form­ing species in the stands of the Vol­gograd Region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 7–24 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.7–24

Abstract

Opti­miza­tion of the envi­ron­ment by for­est-recla­ma­tion arrange­ment entails a trans­for­ma­tion of abo­rig­i­nal com­mu­ni­ties of flo­ra and fau­na. In recent years, an increase in the quan­ti­ta­tive abun­dance of gall-form­ing arthro­pods has been observed in the pro­tec­tive for­est stands of the Vol­gograd Region. This gives a rea­son to expect fur­ther increase in the diver­si­ty and harm­ful­ness of gall-form­ing arthro­pods in the area. For the first time, stud­ies of the com­plex of gall-form­ing insects were car­ried out in the pro­tec­tive for­est strips of the arid zone of the Low­er Vol­ga region. The largest num­ber of insect species form­ing galls (25 species) is record­ed in the oak crowns. Among them, Cynipoidea pre­dom­i­nate (56.0% of the total num­ber of species of gall-form­ing oak insects). Every year rep­re­sen­ta­tives of Cynip­i­dae (Hymenoptera) are found in large num­bers: Cynips quer­cus­folii (Lin­naeus, 1758), Neu­roterus albipes (Schenck, 1863), N. anthrac­i­nus (Cur­tis, 1838), N. numis­malis (Four­croy, 1785), N. quer­cus­bac­carum (Lin­naeus, 1758) etc. The com­plex of elm gall-form­ing insects includes 11 species, and in the crowns of these trees gall aphids are more diverse (44%, respec­tive­ly). The per­ma­nent inhab­i­tants of the foliage are: Colopha com­pres­sa (Koch, 1856) (Hemiptera, Pem­phigi­dae), Erio­so­ma lanug­i­nosum (Har­tig, 1839) and E. ulmi (Lin­naeus, 1758) (Hemiptera, Aphi­di­dae), Janetiel­la lemeei (Kief­fer, 1904) and Phy­se­mo­ce­cis ulmi (Kief­fer, 1909) (Diptera, Cecidomyi­idae). The tax­o­nom­ic diver­si­ty of aphids in the pro­tec­tive for­est plant­i­ngs hov­er around 24.4% of the total diver­si­ty of these pests. The quan­ti­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of gall-form­ing agents vary wide­ly across biotopes. Based on the field data, we cal­cu­lat­ed and ana­lyzed the infor­ma­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics of gall-form­ing com­mu­ni­ties troph­i­cal­ly relat­ed to the main for­est-form­ing species (Ulmus and Quer­cus). The vari­abil­i­ty of entropy char­ac­ter­is­tics will allow to deter­mine the adap­tive capa­bil­i­ties of a group of gall-form­ing insects and pre­dict the dynam­ics of pest devel­op­ment in plant­i­ngs of dif­fer­ent species com­po­si­tion and design para­me­ters. In the pres­ence of a wide vari­abil­i­ty in the abun­dance of galls, the trend of depen­dence on the num­ber of breeds, the share of the main breed and the row (width) of the for­est strip is clear­ly expressed.

Key­words: pro­tec­tive plant­i­ngs, gall-form­ing insects, den­si­ty of galls, entropy

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Levchenko I.S., Mar­tynov V.V. Bio­log­i­cal aspects of spruce bud scale Physok­er­mes piceae (Schrank, 1801) (Hemiptera: Coc­ci­dae) in the steppe zone of Ukraine. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 25–48 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.25–48

Abstract

Spruce bud scale Physok­er­mes piceae (Schrank, 1801) is a dan­ger­ous pest of nat­ur­al spruce forests and man-made ameni­ty plan­ta­tions. In the steppe zone of Ukraine spruce is rep­re­sent­ed exclu­sive­ly by intro­duced species, there­fore this bud scale has the sta­tus of an invad­er. From its ini­tial inva­sion in 1983 until 2020, four increas­es in abun­dance of spruce bud scale last­ing for 2–3 years have been observed. Despite this, there were no pre­vi­ous stud­ies focused on the biol­o­gy of this pest in the steppe zone of Ukraine. This work is based on the mate­ri­als col­lect­ed in 2018–2020 in 17 mod­el areas of city green spaces in Don­bass, locat­ed with­in the steppe zone of Ukraine. The study focused on the num­ber of species of the genus Physok­er­mes in the region, their phe­nol­o­gy, troph­ic pref­er­ences, dis­tri­b­u­tion pat­tern in the food plant crown, and the spread through­out urban plan­ta­tions. In the researched area the genus Physok­er­mes is rep­re­sent­ed by one species, name­ly P. piceae. Bio­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of the spruce bud scale in the Ukraine’s steppe is only insignif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent from the data report­ed for the for­est and for­est-steppe zones. This fact is indica­tive of the nat­u­ral­iza­tion of this phy­tophagous insect in the researched area. How­ev­er, a num­ber of dif­fer­ences were not­ed in the dis­tri­b­u­tion of the spruce bud scale along the host plant. Show­ing no con­fine­ment to the crown lay­ers and expo­si­tions, the stud­ied bud scale goes deep into the crown and under­goes tran­si­tion to feed­ing on a 3‑, 4‑, and 5‑year growth, which is prob­a­bly asso­ci­at­ed with high sum­mer tem­per­a­tures and low air humid­i­ty. In the col­lec­tion of the Donet­sk Botan­i­cal Gar­den, P. piceae dam­aged Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., P. obo­va­ta Ledeb., P. ori­en­tal­is (L.) Peterm. and P. pun­gens Engelm with vary­ing inten­si­ty. The study has iden­ti­fied a group of unsus­cep­ti­ble species, name­ly Picea asper­a­ta Mast., P. engel­man­nii Par­ry ex Engelm., P. koraien­sis Nakai., and P. omori­ka (Pan­cic) Purk. In Don­bass, P. piceae is found in all types of the city green plant­i­ngs with spruce. Despite the phy­tophagous insec­t’s pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty, we observed no over­all decay and loss of orna­men­tal char­ac­ter­is­tics in spruce in green spaces of the steppe zone of Ukraine.

Key­words: spruce bud scale, Physok­er­mes piceae, bio­log­i­cal aspects, troph­ic pref­er­ences, spruce, steppe zone of Ukraine, Donbass

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Soukho­vol­sky V.G., Taraso­va O.V., Kovalev A.V. Hid­den para­me­ters of time series of the for­est insects’ pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics and pat­terns of for­ma­tion of insect com­plex­es. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 49–68 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.49–68

Abstract

The paper con­sid­ers approach­es to the use of some addi­tion­al (hid­den) para­me­ters to ana­lyze pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics of for­est insects. The study presents the analy­sis of data on the pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics of phyl­lophagous insects of Scots pine obtained dur­ing a long-term con­tin­u­ous mon­i­tor­ing (1979–2016) of five phyl­lophagous species on the ter­ri­to­ry of the Kras­no­tu­ran­sk pine for­est (south of Kras­no­yarsk Ter­ri­to­ry), data on abun­dance dynam­ics of insects in for­est stands in Switzer­land (Oberen­gadin val­ley), and data on abun­dance dynam­ics of the Siber­ian silk­worm Den­drolimus sib­sir­i­cus Tschetv. in the taiga forests of Siberia. To ana­lyze the fea­tures of the pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics we used the rank dis­tri­b­u­tion of the long-term den­si­ty of species in a par­tic­u­lar habi­tat, the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the dis­tri­b­u­tion of indi­vid­u­als on trees, con­sid­ered from the point of view of the mod­el of sec­ond order phase tran­si­tions, as well as the para­me­ters of autore­gres­sive equa­tions for the dynam­ics of the pop­u­la­tion, with the account of the order of autore­gres­sion, the sign of the mod­el coef­fi­cients, and the sta­bil­i­ty mar­gin. It is shown that the indi­ca­tors of com­pe­ti­tion between species in a com­mu­ni­ty are weak­ly relat­ed to the changes in pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty in the com­mu­ni­ty, and the com­pe­ti­tion coef­fi­cient b can be con­sid­ered as an inde­pen­dent indi­ca­tor of the state of the com­mu­ni­ty. The use of the hid­den para­me­ter b makes it pos­si­ble to esti­mate the com­pe­ti­tion between species in the insect com­plex in the Kras­no­tu­ran­sk pine for­est and between species in the com­plex of the species of insects in the larch forests of the Alps. Using a phase tran­si­tion mod­el of the sec­ond kind, it is shown that the dis­per­sal of the species on the account­ing units (trees) on the tri­al plot is of a group nature and, there­fore, the pest has an increased effect on some trees. The pos­si­bil­i­ty of using autore­gres­sive equa­tions to describe the dynam­ics of the pop­u­la­tions of cer­tain species is con­sid­ered. It is shown, that AR-mod­els describe well enough the dynam­ics of the pop­u­la­tion size in var­i­ous nat­ur­al bound­aries. Coef­fi­cients of AR-equa­tions and the val­ues of the sta­bil­i­ty mar­gin of these equa­tions can be con­sid­ered hid­den para­me­ters of dynam­ics. The «hid­den» pat­terns of the pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics char­ac­ter­ize the long-term dynam­ics of the num­ber of for­est insect com­mu­ni­ties. The long-term prop­er­ties of insect pop­u­la­tions are con­sid­ered with the help of these “hid­den” para­me­ters (not direct­ly mea­sured). These para­me­ters must be tak­en into account when assess­ing the type of species dynam­ics. With the help of “hid­den” indi­ca­tors, it is pos­si­ble to obtain addi­tion­al infor­ma­tion about the prop­er­ties and dynam­ics of the stud­ied populations. 

Key­words: for­est insects, ento­mo­com­plex, pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics, mod­el­ing, ranks, dis­tri­b­u­tions, autore­gres­sion, stability

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Fedo­to­va Z.A. Diver­si­ty, troph­ic asso­ci­a­tions, dis­tri­b­u­tion, and evo­lu­tion­ary fea­tures of inquiline gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyi­idae). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 69–100 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.69–100

Abstract

For the first time, a review of gall midges-inquilines, devel­op­ing togeth­er with gall­form­ers, among which gall midges dom­i­nate is pro­vid­ed. In the world, 197 species of gall midges of 41 gen­era have been iden­ti­fied, in the galls of which 177 species of inquiline gall midges from 27 gen­era have been found. They are found on plants of 243 species of 160 gen­era of 53 fam­i­lies and 20 orders. The core of the gall-form­ing fau­na is Cecidomyi­inae – 118 species (59.9%) from 26 gen­era (63.4%), and the core of the inquiline fau­na is Lasiopteri­nae: 63 species (32.0%) from 15 gen­era (36.6%). Ten com­mon gen­era were iden­ti­fied, in which there are both inquilines and gall-for­m­ers. The pro­por­tion of inquilines in these gen­era is more than a third of the species, for Macro­labis – 39.1% (25 out of 64) and Camp­toneu­romyia - 86.7% (13 out of 15). Gall­form­ers and inquilines are pre­dom­i­nant­ly nar­row oligophages, spe­cif­ic in respect to the genus or fam­i­ly of the host plant, pre­dom­i­nant­ly Fabaceae. Among gall-for­m­ers, the share of spe­cif­ic gen­era is 61.0% (25 out of 41), while among inquilines is 37.0% (10 out of 27). Host plants of the Rosids sub­class are rep­re­sent­ed by 124 species (51.0%), 88 gen­era (55.0%) from 28 fam­i­lies (46.2%), most of which are trees and shrubs. Inquiline gall midges have been found in all zoo­geo­graph­ic regions; how­ev­er no com­mon species have been found. They dom­i­nate in the Palaearc­tic (118 species, 66.7% of 177) and Neotrop­i­cal (40 species, 22.6%) regions. In the Nearc­tic region there are only 15 (8.5%) species. In the Palaearc­tic, inquiline species have been iden­ti­fied in 19 gen­era (70.4% of 27), of which 7 are endem­ic. In the Neotrop­i­cal region, the inquilines belong to 7 gen­era (25.9%), with no endemics found. The core of the fau­na with an abun­dance of endem­ic and wide­spread gen­era of inquilines formed in the Palaearc­tic region. In the gall midges, inquiline gall midges pre­dom­i­nate, but inquilines devel­op from oth­er tax­o­nom­ic groups : insects (with a pre­dom­i­nance of Cynip­i­dae) and fun­gi. Inquilines present the poten­tial for their grad­ual tran­si­tion to gall for­ma­tion and pos­si­ble spe­ci­a­tion dur­ing the assim­i­la­tion of galls and plants of oth­er species. In the galls of gall midges, inquilines active­ly influ­ence the for­ma­tion of galls and the devel­op­ment of the host lar­vae, con­tribute to their feed­ing, inhib­it or lead to death.

Key­words: com­plex­es of gall midges, spe­cif­ic gen­era, inquilines, gall­form­ers, endemics, host plants, evolution

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Shchurov V.I., Zamo­ta­jlov A.S. Para­me­ters of the sea­son­al cycle of Cory­thucha arcu­a­ta (Say, 1832) (Het­eroptera: Tingi­dae) in the plains and foothills of the North­west­ern Cau­ca­sus. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 101–128 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.101–128

Abstract

Devel­op­ment of the first gen­er­a­tion of Cory­thucha arcu­a­ta in the cli­mate of the foothills and low­lands of the North­west Cau­ca­sus starts in the ear­ly May. With a nat­ur­al day length and the thresh­old for post-dia­pause ima­go devel­op­ment of 11 °C, it requires 333–404 degree-days and at least 43 days. The death of the over­win­tered females in this zone is observed by the end of June, coin­cid­ing with the reduc­tion of the total por­tion of females to 2–7%. In the high­lands ima­goes are dis­pers­ing in June as well, sur­viv­ing until July on wil­lows and birch trees. Peak of the first-gen­er­a­tion ima­go out­come occurs at the end of June. Migra­tion of fer­til­ized females of the first gen­er­a­tion to new for­age plants is fol­lowed by mass egg lay­ing (i.e. begin­ning of the sec­ond gen­er­a­tion). Dur­ing the for­ma­tion of large nests in the foothills, the flight of bugs is observed even in tree­less high­lands. Devel­op­ment of the pread­ult stages of the sec­ond gen­er­a­tion (with­out chang­ing feed plants) takes place start­ing at mid-June. Meta­mor­pho­sis requires 361–430 degree-days and takes at least 16–23 days. The peak of the emer­gence of the sec­ond gen­er­a­tion ima­goes at the end of July coin­cides with their dis­per­sal, which is also dom­i­nat­ed by females. The third gen­er­a­tion devel­ops in August. It requires 329–350 degree-days and takes 19–28 days. The peak of the emer­gence of the G3 ima­goes falls on the first third of Sep­tem­ber. It is pre­ced­ed by an ear­li­er emer­gence of males, deter­mined by their mass local and region­al migra­tions since the end of August. The fourth gen­er­a­tion is oblig­at­ed and devel­ops (with­out chang­ing feed plants) from the end of August to the end of Sep­tem­ber. It requires at least 378 degree-days and takes at least 26 days. Late nymphs result­ing from female immi­grant of the third gen­er­a­tion (on new trees) give ima­goes only by mid-Octo­ber. The last migra­tion of bugs is observed in ear­ly to mid-Octo­ber. Ima­goes of the third and fourth gen­er­a­tions with the pre­dom­i­nance of females hiber­nate in the oak forests of the foothills and low-moun­tain. In the mid­lands they may be accom­pa­nied by the over­win­ter­ing immi­grants of the sec­ond gen­er­a­tion, with the pre­dom­i­nance of males, formed in September. 

Key­words: the oak lace bug, North­west­ern Cau­ca­sus, the sea­son­al rhythm, effec­tive tem­per­a­tures sum, ima­go migration

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2. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES OF FOREST PATHOLOGY

Senasho­va V.A., Shilk­i­na E.A., Safrono­va I.Ye. Phy­topath­o­gen­ic micromycetes asso­ci­at­ed with conifers in Mid­dle Siberia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 129–151 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.129–151

Abstract

Microor­gan­isms asso­ci­at­ed with plants, includ­ing conifers, play an impor­tant role in their life, form­ing micro­bial com­mu­ni­ties of the phyl­los­phere, rhi­zo­plane, and rhi­zos­phere. Con­ven­tion­al­ly, the com­po­si­tion of such com­plex­es can be divid­ed into path­o­gen­ic and sapro­troph­ic parts. For spe­cial­ists involved in refor­esta­tion, the knowl­edge of the species diver­si­ty of pathogens that cause dis­eases of seedlings of conifers is essen­tial for cor­rect­ing agrotech­ni­cal mea­sures and con­trol­ling the qual­i­ty of plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al. The goal of this research is to study the species diver­si­ty of path­o­gen­ic micromycetes of conifers in the Mid­dle Siberia ter­ri­to­ry, both in arti­fi­cial and nat­ur­al plant­i­ngs. Such long-term stud­ies found rep­re­sen­ta­tives of 36 gen­era belong­ing to dif­fer­ent tax­o­nom­ic groups: Lopho­der­mi­um Chevall., Lopho­der­mel­la Höhn., Cycla­neusma DiCos­mo, Pere­do et Minte, Grem­me­nia Korf., Hypo­der­mel­la Tubeuf, Lir­u­la Dark­er, Sarea Fr., Her­potrichia Fucke, Grem­me­niel­la M. Morelet, Coleospo­ri­um Lév., Chrysomyxa Unger, Melamp­so­ra Castagne, Melamp­sorel­la J. Schröt., Puc­cini­as­trum G.H. Otth., Cronar­tium Fr., Typhu­la (Pers.) Fr., Mucor Fre­sen., Rhi­zosphaera L. Man­gin et Har, Pestalo­tia De Not., Scle­rophoma Höhn. (teleo­morph – Sydowia Bres.), Stagonospo­ra (Sacc.) Sacc. (= Hen­der­so­nia Berk.), Lecanos­tic­ta Syd., Doth­istro­ma Hul­bary, Meria Vuill.( teleo­morph – Rhab­do­cline Syd.), Phoma Sacc., Didymel­la Sacc., Alternar­ia Nees, Cla­dospo­ri­um Link, Rhi­zoc­to­nia DC., Botry­tis P. Miche­li ex Pers., Sep­to­ri­oides Quaed­vl., Verkley et Crous, Epic­oc­cum Link, Tri­chothe­ci­um Link., Cylin­dro­car­pon Wol­lenw. (teleo­morph – Neonec­tria Wol­lenw). The iden­ti­fied pathogens cause pre­ma­ture death of the assim­i­la­tion appa­ra­tus, dis­rupt the activ­i­ty of the root and vas­cu­lar sys­tems, and reduce the qual­i­ty of conif­er­ous plants seeds.

Key­words: phy­topath­o­gen­ic micromycetes of conifers, Mid­dle Siberia, for­est nurseries

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Var­entso­va E.Yu., Shury­gin S.G. Dam­age to the tree stands of the Ela­gin Island of St. Peters­burg (Rus­sia) caused by fun­gal pathogens (Agari­comycetes Dow­eld) and the effect of water regime on their dis­tri­b­u­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 152–162 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.152–162

Abstract

The gen­er­al weak­en­ing and dry­ing out of trees in the green stands of St. Peters­burg in recent years has raised seri­ous con­cerns. The major­i­ty of old-growth trees in par­tic­u­lar has mechan­i­cal dam­ages to the trunks and roots that are the gate­ways for the phy­topathogen infec­tion. The most com­mon are wood-destroy­ing fun­gi that cause stem and root rot, which leads to a decrease in the mechan­i­cal strength of wood that results in the occur­rence of wind­blow and wind­break when the affect­ed trees become a threat to vis­i­tors and the prop­er­ty. The great­est harm in stands is caused by the hon­ey agar­ics, a col­lec­tive fun­gi group belong­ing to agari­comycetes. The goal of the study is to exam­ine the caus­es of tree dam­age by the hon­ey agar­ics in the stands of Ela­gin Island, iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of the influ­ence of the hydro­log­i­cal regime on the devel­op­ment of the pathogen, and devel­op­ment of pro­pos­als for the improve­ment of stand­ing tim­bers. To detect foci of the hon­ey agar­ics and the degree of its influ­ence on the con­di­tion of trees, explorato­ry and detailed sur­veys were car­ried out. Par­tic­u­lar atten­tion was paid to the com­pi­la­tion and analy­sis of the car­to­graph­ic mate­r­i­al on the loca­tion of the main foci of the pathogen. The occur­rence of the hon­ey agar­ics was record­ed in the areas with dif­fer­ent lev­els of ground water. It was found that devel­op­ment of the root rot also depends on the flood­ing of the trees’ roots due to water regime dete­ri­o­ra­tion in the soils of Ela­gin Island. The foci are locat­ed in the areas of exces­sive soil mois­ture and coastal zones. The rea­sons for the water stag­na­tion on the island have been clar­i­fied. The pro­posed mea­sures to improve the stands of the island should include not only phy­tosan­i­tary mea­sures but also efforts to improve the grow­ing con­di­tions of trees with­out chang­ing the his­tor­i­cal appear­ance of the park.

Key­words: tree stands, root rot, hon­ey agar­ics (Agari­comycetes), san­i­tary con­di­tion cat­e­go­ry, ground water lev­els, water regime

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3. MONITORING AND CONTROL OF INSECTS PESTS

Meshko­va V. L., Kuch­eryavenko T.V., Skryl­nyk Yu.E., Zinchenko O.V., Bory­senko A.I. Begin­ning of the spread of Agrilus pla­nipen­nis Fair­maire (Coleoptera: Bupresti­dae) on the ter­ri­to­ry of Ukraine. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 163–184 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.163–184

Abstract

The goal of the research was to reveal the fea­tures of the spread of the emer­ald ash bor­er (EAB) in the stands of the Luhan­sk region dur­ing the first year after its detec­tion. The stands with the pres­ence of the com­mon ash (Frax­i­nus excel­sior) and the green ash (Frax­i­nus penn­syl­van­i­ca) in the for­est fund of Staro­bel­skoe, Beloku­rakin­skoe, and Sva­tovskoe For­est and Hunt­ing Enter­pris­es, locat­ed to the west of the points of the first detec­tion of EAB in the Luhan­sk region, were exam­ined. The EAB was found in almost all stands with the pres­ence of green ash in the com­po­si­tion, which com­pris­es 11.1% of the forest­ed area. Dur­ing 2020, the EAB spread over a dis­tance of 32–52 km from the first detec­tion point. The south­ern­most point where it was reg­is­tered is near Melo­vat­ka, and the west­ern­most – is near Dontsov­ka. Tak­ing into account the ten­den­cy of EAB to spread in the south­west­ern direc­tion, we can expect its inva­sion to the Kharkiv and Donet­sk regions. EAB inhab­its main­ly green ash, and in com­mon ash it prefers sprouts, trees in the stands with low rel­a­tive stock­ing den­si­ty, and trees at the edges and along the perime­ter of small forests or for­est belts. The mean den­si­ty (±S.E.) of EAB lar­vae in pop­u­lat­ed branch­es does not dif­fer sig­nif­i­cant­ly for green ash and com­mon ash (0.6±0.07 and 0.7±0.09 larvae/dm2 , respec­tive­ly). How­ev­er, the pro­por­tion of EAB col­o­nized branch­es of green ash (91.4±3.12%; n = 45) is sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er than that of com­mon ash (76.1±6.29%; n = 82). The exit holes of EAB in the trees of com­mon ash were not found. Mat­u­ra­tion feed­ing of EAB was reg­is­tered only in the trees of green ash. The pres­ence of EAB gal­leries and lar­vae in the trees of the 1st and the 2nd cat­e­gories of health con­di­tion (healthy-look­ing and weak­ened trees accord­ing to the San­i­tary Rules in the Forests of Ukraine) indi­cates the aggres­sive­ness of EAB. The dynam­ics of the health con­di­tion of EAB col­o­nized trees, as well as the sur­vival of its lar­vae are to be inves­ti­gat­ed fur­ther, espe­cial­ly for the com­mon ash, which pro­por­tion in the stands of the region is about 36.9% of for­est-cov­ered area. 

Key­words: Emer­ald ash bor­er (EAB), Frax­i­nus excel­sior, Frax­i­nus penn­syl­van­i­ca, spread, pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty, health condition

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Pono­marev V.I., Mami­tov A.M., Ashimov K.S. The influ­ence of the dis­tance between traps on the results of pheromone mon­i­tor­ing of the gyp­sy moth Lyman­tria dis­par (L.) (Lep­i­doptera: Ere­bidae) in the South­ern Kyr­gyzs­tan moun­tain region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 185–197 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.185–197

Abstract

Since one of the main goals of pheromone mon­i­tor­ing of for­est insects is mon­i­tor­ing of the pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of the tar­get species, cor­re­la­tions between catch effi­cien­cy of pheromone traps and pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty began to be ana­lyzed imme­di­ate­ly after their wide­spread use in the for­est pro­tec­tion prac­tice. The absolute major­i­ty of authors that car­ried out such analy­sis, not­ed the absence of a direct cor­re­la­tion between pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty and the results of pheromone mon­i­tor­ing of the gyp­sy moth Lyman­tria dis­par (L.). In the moun­tain­ous con­di­tions of South­ern Kyr­gyzs­tan, dur­ing the many years of pheromone mon­i­tor­ing (2001–2007), a high catch rate of males in traps was record­ed, regard­less of the pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty. The goal of this study was to deter­mine the effect of the trap lay­out and the dis­tance between them on the results of pheromone mon­i­tor­ing. Three groups of trap lines were set up with a dis­tance of 200–250 m between the traps in a group. The first line of traps was set up in the belt of the pis­ta­chio light for­est (800‑1200 m above sea lev­el), the sec­ond line was set up in the zone of mixed stands (1200–1600 m above sea lev­el), and the third line was set up in the wal­nut belt (1600–2000 m above sea lev­el). The ele­va­tion dif­fer­ence between the low­est and the high­est trap was more than 700 m, and the dis­tance between these extreme traps was more than 10 km. The results of this mon­i­tor­ing show that with sta­ble air flows, males in the mass can trav­el up to two kilo­me­ters to a point source of the pheromone. Some males can trav­el up to 4 km. Males are capa­ble of trav­el­ing long way, as indi­cat­ed by the appear­ance of males in the upper­most traps of the upper zone dur­ing the begin­ning of their sum­mer flight at the low­er zone. The results of this study con­firm our ear­li­er con­clu­sion about the sig­nif­i­cant influ­ence of sta­ble air flows on the results of pheromone mon­i­tor­ing. Under these con­di­tions the dis­tance of 2 km or less between traps leads to sig­nif­i­cant decrease in the objec­tiv­i­ty of mon­i­tor­ing results.

Key­words: gyp­sy moth, pheromone mon­i­tor­ing, sta­ble air flows, cor­re­la­tion with pop­u­la­tion density

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Shoro­ho­va M.A., Berezin G.V., Kapit­sa E.A., Shoro­ho­va E.V. Char­ac­ter­is­tics of coarse woody debris in the «Vepssky For­est» reserve, a ref­er­ence of primeval mid­dle bore­al forests. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 198–211 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.198–211

Abstract

Devel­op­ing sus­tain­able for­est man­age­ment strat­e­gy tar­get­ed to pre­serve bio­di­ver­si­ty and for­est ecosys­tem func­tions in man­aged forests requires knowl­edge of the char­ac­ter­is­tics of coarse woody debris in primeval (ref­er­ence) forests. Nat­ur­al dis­tur­bances such as fires, wind­throws, and insect out­breaks cause sig­nif­i­cant tree stand mor­tal­i­ty and con­se­quent­ly lead to the high input of coarse woody debris (CWD) [in primeval forests]. The study was car­ried out in 2020 in the «Vepssky For­est» reserve, which is sit­u­at­ed in the east­ern part of Leningrad region, Rus­sia. The data were col­lect­ed from 74 per­ma­nent cir­cu­lar sam­ple plots (0.1 ha each). The tree stands were vari­able in terms of tree age struc­ture, species com­po­si­tion, site type, and stage of suc­ces­sion­al dynam­ics. The stocks and diver­si­ty of CWD were eval­u­at­ed in primeval for­est ecosys­tems of the «Vepssky For­est» reserve. The vol­ume of CWD var­ied from 30 to 532 m³ ha–1, and aver­aged 195 m³ ha–1. The high­est amounts of CWD were found in the for­est stands of Myr­tillo­sum type (mean 231 m³ ha–1). Nor­way spruce (Picea abies) CWD in the sec­ond and third decay class­es had the high­est share of all CWD volume.

Key­words: dead wood, primeval for­est, nat­ur­al dis­tur­bances, wind­throws, bio­di­ver­si­ty, snags, downed logs

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Baranchikov Yu.N. What one can’t do, can be done togeth­er: joint project of the Russ­ian Acad­e­my of Sci­ences and the Fed­er­al Forestry Agency on devel­op­ment and imple­men­ta­tion of the Siber­ian moth mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, iss. 236, pp. 212–227 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.236.212–227

Abstract

The opti­mized mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem of the Siber­ian moth Den­drolimus sibir­i­cus Tch­etverikov (Lep­i­doptera: Lasio­camp­i­dae) was devel­oped dur­ing the imple­men­ta­tion of the For­est Resources and Tech­nolo­gies (FOREST) inter­na­tion­al project fund­ed by the Unit­ed States Agency for Inter­na­tion­al Devel­op­ment (USAID) in 2001–2005. It includes suc­ces­sive stages of for­est pathol­o­gy zon­ing of the sub­jects of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion, indi­vid­ual forestry enter­pris­es, orga­ni­za­tion of pheromone mon­i­tor­ing of sparse Siber­ian moth pop­u­la­tions and, only when the pop­u­la­tion growth is record­ed by the means of traps (above 100 male moths / trap / sea­son) – tran­si­tion to cater­pil­lar sam­pling. In the course of the project, the tech­nol­o­gy for pheromone mon­i­tor­ing of the pest was devel­oped for the first time (a pheromone ana­logue was syn­the­sized, a dis­penser, trap and fix­ing insec­ti­ci­dal strip were cre­at­ed, a method­ol­o­gy of account­ing and a deci­sion-mak­ing algo­rithm was rec­om­mend­ed). The project financed the cre­ation of a three-vol­ume hand­book “Dis­eases and Pests in Russ­ian Forests”, sub­se­quent­ly pub­lished by the Forestry Agency of Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion. The mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem test­ed and imple­ment­ed in the course of the project in the Tom­sk, Irkut­sk, and Sakhalin Dis­tricts, Kras­no­yarsk, Khabarovsk, Pri­morskiy krays and the Repub­lic of Bury­a­tia serves as a vivid exam­ple of fruit­ful coop­er­a­tion between sci­en­tists of the Russ­ian Acad­e­my of Sci­ences and forestry uni­ver­si­ties with forestry practitioners.

Key­words: Siber­ian moth, Den­drolimus sibir­i­cus, mon­i­tor­ing, pheromone traps, coop­er­a­tion of departments

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Issue 235
1. FORESTRY

Tsu­vare­va N.A., Buy Dinh Dyk, Mel­nichuk I.A., Selikhovkin A.V. Mon­i­tor­ing the state of St. Peters­burg tree plan­ta­tions: mod­ern and tra­di­tion­al approach­es. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 6–21 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.6–21

Abstract

It is pro­posed to use the Tree Talk­er mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem in com­bi­na­tion with tra­di­tion­al meth­ods of phy­topatho­log­i­cal and ento­mo­log­i­cal mon­i­tor­ing to ensure time­ly detec­tion of changes in the state of plan­ta­tions in St. Peters­burg and iden­ti­fy key fac­tors of envi­ron­men­tal stress. Diverse depart­men­tal affil­i­a­tion and a wide species com­po­si­tion of the city’s plan­ta­tions, as well as the pres­ence of numer­ous envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors that neg­a­tive­ly affect the con­di­tion of trees, the appear­ance of inva­sive pathogens and pests cre­ate poor­ly pre­dictable sit­u­a­tions. The emer­gence of inva­sive pests and pathogens, such as the causative agent of the Dutch elm dis­ease, the Ascomycete fun­gi Ophios­toma novo-ulmi and its spread­ers – the sap­wood bark bee­tles, anoth­er Ascomycete, the Hymenoscy­phus frax­ineus s fun­gus, and the Emer­ald ash bor­er Agrilus pla­nipen­nis in includ­ing due to late detec­tion of these pathogens and pests. In the con­text of the dis­uni­ty of the man­age­ment sys­tem of urban plant­i­ngs due to dif­fer­ent depart­men­tal affil­i­a­tion, mosa­ic loca­tion, species diver­si­ty and speci­fici­ty of the species com­po­si­tion of woody plants, as well as require­ments for prompt deci­sion-mak­ing, the use of Tree Talk­er tech­nolo­gies becomes very promis­ing. These tech­nolo­gies allow for the prompt receipt, trans­mis­sion and analy­sis of data on the dai­ly and sea­son­al dynam­ics of phys­i­o­log­i­cal para­me­ters, the resis­tance of trees to wind loads, tak­ing into account the species, age and size. Inte­gra­tion of the obtained data allows us to eval­u­ate the effec­tive­ness of plant­i­ngs in gen­er­al in terms of cre­at­ing a micro­cli­mate, the dynam­ics of ver­ti­cal devi­a­tions, and the effec­tive­ness of san­i­tary and recre­ation­al activ­i­ties. As a result, obtain­ing oper­a­tional infor­ma­tion allows us to time­ly detect unfa­vor­able changes both in indi­vid­ual trees and in the struc­ture of plant­i­ngs and to ana­lyze the caus­es of these changes, espe­cial­ly in rela­tion to the emer­gence of bio­log­i­cal threats to the plan­ta­tion – the spread of dan­ger­ous pathogens and the repro­duc­tion of pests.

Key­words: mon­i­tor­ing of green spaces, Tree Talk­er tech­nolo­gies, opti­miza­tion of the mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem, plant sustainability

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Kulko­va A.V., Bess­chet­no­va N.N., Bess­chet­nov V.P. Sea­son­al changes in the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of nee­dles of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the genus spruce in the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 22–39 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.22–39

Abstract

We stud­ied the nature and scale of sea­son­al changes in the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of nee­dles of dif­fer­ent spruce species (Picea A. Dietr.) under the con­di­tions of intro­duc­tion to the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region, and revealed the con­tent and bal­ance of pho­to­syn­thet­ic plas­tid pig­ments. The objects of the study were 13 species of spruce belong­ing to abo­rig­ines and exotics: Nor­way spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.); Siber­ian spruce (Picea obo­va­ta Ledeb.); Glen spruce (Picea glehnii (F. Schmidt) Mast.); white spruce (Picea glau­ca (Moench) Voss); Drag­on spruce (Picea asper­a­ta Mas­ters); black spruce (Picea mar­i­ana Mill., Brit­ton, Sterns & Poggen­burg); sil­ver prick­ly spruce (Picea pun­gens Engelm., f. argen­tea); blue prick­ly spruce (Picea pun­gens Engelm., f. glau­ca Regel); Ser­bian spruce (Picea omori­ka (Pančić) Purk.); Engel­man spruce (Picea engel­man­nii Par­ry ex Engelm.); Blue spruce (Picea pun­gens engelm.); Ayan spruce (Picea jezoen­sis (Siebold & Zucc.) car­rière); Kore­an spruce (Picea koraien­sis Nakai). Sam­pling was car­ried out in a ran­dom­ized man­ner, fol­low­ing the prin­ci­ple of a sin­gle log­i­cal dif­fer­ence. A spec­tropho­tome­ter SF-2000 was used. It was found that the con­tent and ratio of plas­tid pig­ments in conifers is dynam­ic through­out the year. The effec­tive­ness of the influ­ence of the phas­es of sea­son­al plant devel­op­ment on the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the pig­ment com­po­si­tion is deter­mined: by the con­tent of chlorophylla-18.86±0.32%; by the con­tent of chlorophyll-b-21.26±0.31%; by the sum of chlorophylls-16.13±0.33%; by carotenoids – 37.43±0.25%; by the pro­por­tion of chlorophyll‑a – 39.74±0.24% and the pro­por­tion of chlorophyll‑b – 39.74±0.24%. The effect of inter­spe­cif­ic dif­fer­ences in the con­tent and ratio of dif­fer­ent forms of chloro­phyll and carotenoids is sig­nif­i­cant and suf­fi­cient­ly equal­ized at a max­i­mum of 23.56±0.91%. With Gen­er­al trends in sea­son­al dynam­ics, rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the spruce genus have a notice­able species-spe­cif­ic pig­ment composition.

Key­words: spruce, nee­dles, pig­ment com­po­si­tion, chlorophyll‑a, chlorophyll‑b, carotenoids, ANOVA

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Babaev R.N., Bess­chet­no­va N.N., Bess­chet­nov V.P. Lig­ni­fi­ca­tion of xylem of dif­fer­ent birch species dur­ing intro­duc­tion in the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp.40–56 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.40–56

Abstract

Intro­duc­tion as one of the tra­di­tion­al areas of prac­ti­cal activ­i­ty in forestry remains rel­e­vant at the present stage. Hav­ing a wide range of use­ful fea­tures and prop­er­ties, rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the genus birch (Betu­la L.) are sub­ject to diverse research. The pur­pose of this study was to obtain a com­par­a­tive assess­ment of var­i­ous species includ­ed in the tax­o­nom­ic sys­tem of the genus birch, accord­ing to the degree of lig­ni­fi­ca­tion of xylem. The object of the study was the plant­i­ng of 10 species of birch pre­sent­ed in the intro­duc­tion col­lec­tion of the Botan­i­cal gar­den of Nizh­ny Nov­gorod state Uni­ver­si­ty. N.I. Lobachevsky. The sub­ject of the study was the vari­abil­i­ty of the degree of xylem lig­ni­fi­ca­tion in intro­duced and native birch species. The pri­ma­ry sam­pling unit in the exper­i­ment was a one-time record­ing of tem­po­rary prepa­ra­tions of cross-sec­tions from the aver­age part of the annu­al growth, which, after stain­ing and fix­a­tion, were viewed using a Micmed‑2 micro­scope. Lig­ni­fi­ca­tion of fiber in the walls of xylem cells was detect­ed using a qual­i­ta­tive reac­tion of phloroglu­cin to lignin. Addi­tion­al­ly, an exper­i­men­tal analy­sis of the tim­ing of leaf fall in the stud­ied objects was per­formed. Dur­ing the analy­sis of the degree of lig­ni­fi­ca­tion of xylem cells in annu­al shoots of birch species with­in the exper­i­men­tal area, their het­ero­gene­ity in the val­ues of the stud­ied indi­ca­tors was estab­lished, regard­less of the species. The min­i­mal num­ber of non-woody xylem cells indi­cat­ed that the plants were more pre­pared for the unfa­vor­able win­ter peri­od and ear­li­er leaf fall. The dif­fer­ences were revealed against a lev­eled envi­ron­men­tal back­ground in the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region and were con­firmed by the results of one-fac­tor and two-fac­tor analy­sis of variance.

Key­words: birch, intro­duc­tion, xylem, cell lignification

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Sam­sono­va I.D., Kon­drat­ev A.S. Eval­u­a­tion of the state of for­est pro­tec­tion from fires in Nov­gorod region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 57–70 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.57–70

Abstract

For­est fires are among the main envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors of the neg­a­tive impact on the for­est and the eco­log­i­cal sit­u­a­tion. An increase in the num­ber of for­est fires occurs due to numer­ous dis­tur­bances by the pop­u­la­tion, glob­al cli­mate change, and envi­ron­men­tal degra­da­tion. Forests of the Nov­gorod region, locat­ed ter­ri­to­ri­al­ly between two agglom­er­a­tions, are an indis­pens­able envi­ron­men­tal fac­tor. Ensur­ing fire safe­ty in forests of forestry enter­pris­es is one of the most impor­tant state tasks. The pur­pose of the research is to assess the state of for­est pro­tec­tion from fires in the Nov­gorod region using effec­tive fire pre­ven­tion mea­sures. Forests of the Nov­gorod region are char­ac­ter­ized by an aver­age degree of nat­ur­al fire haz­ard. The ter­ri­to­ry of the region belongs to low-vis­i­bil­i­ty regions, and the dynam­ics of for­est fires is asso­ci­at­ed with weath­er con­di­tions. Forests in the region are rep­re­sent­ed by pine and spruce stands locat­ed in the north­east and the very south of the region, in which the pro­por­tion of young frogs is 31.6%. Dam­age to arrays by harm­ful insects and dis­eases, adverse weath­er con­di­tions, recre­ation­al loads and emis­sions of indus­tri­al enter­pris­es increase the fire haz­ard in forests. The effi­cien­cy of using the For­est Guard sys­tem allowed elim­i­nat­ing 85.5% of fires dur­ing the first day, while the num­ber of large fires for the peri­od 2009–2017 was elim­i­nat­ed. decreased to 4 pcs, and the aver­age area of fires was 1.7 ha. The devel­oped car­to­graph­ic mate­r­i­al for the dis­tri­b­u­tion of for­est land in the Nov­gorod Region accord­ing to the degree of forestry burn­abil­i­ty and mon­i­tor­ing zones allows for the fire-pre­ven­tion of the facil­i­ty and pro­vides real infor­ma­tion for oper­a­tional work. The com­plex of pro­posed and used fire pre­ven­tion mea­sures is char­ac­ter­ized as a reli­able and effec­tive method for reduc­ing the num­ber of fires in forests.

Key­words: for­est areas, for­est fires, caus­es of occur­rence, mon­i­tor­ing, fire haz­ard, burn­ing ability

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Tetyukhin S.V., Pavskaya M.V. Gen­er­al assess­ment of nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion by the pre­vail­ing species, types of for­est and types of grow­ing con­di­tions on the ter­ri­to­ry of the Lisin­sky part of the Leningrad Region Train­ing and Exper­i­men­tal Forestry. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 71–83 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.71–83

Abstract

The aim of the study was to study nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion in the mid­dle taiga of the taiga for­est zone of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion on the basis of mass for­est man­age­ment data, which reflects infor­ma­tion about the progress of pre­lim­i­nary refor­esta­tion. The task was solved with the help of an elec­tron­ic data­base of the research object, which includes the infor­ma­tion nec­es­sary for the over­all assess­ment of the under­growth of eco­nom­i­cal­ly valu­able breeds. The assess­ment of nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion was car­ried out on the basis of the renew­al assess­ment scale. From the gen­er­al elec­tron­ic data­base of data, all nat­ur­al-ori­gin selec­tions were select­ed at the age of the pre­dom­i­nant breed of the main tier old­er than the 4th age class, i.e. conif­er­ous over 80 years old and soft­leaved over 40 years old. The total sam­ple size was 6,533 allot­ments with an area of 16,814. 2 hectares. In gen­er­al, on 32.7% of the area of tax­a­tion allot­ments, there is a com­plete absence of under­growth of eco­nom­i­cal­ly valu­able breeds. The struc­ture of the breed com­po­si­tion of the under­growth is char­ac­ter­ized by almost com­plete dom­i­nance of spruce under­growth. Opti­mal con­di­tions for the nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion of spruce are cre­at­ed in blue­ber­ry forests (99.8% occur­rence) and in acid forests-98.4% occur­rence. The max­i­mum per­cent­age of under­growth with a rat­ing of good for the wood species pre­vail­ing in the allot­ment (35% of all allot­ments with the ado­les­cent) was found in the pine forests of the acidic for­est type in fresh sub-forests. 

Key­words: nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion, elec­tron­ic data­bas­es, for­est lands, undergrowth

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Phan Thanh Quyet, Nguyen Trong Tai, Alek­seev A.S., Lyu­bi­mov A.V., Sergee­va V.L., Chernikhovskii D.M. Appli­ca­tion of remote sens­ing meth­ods and GIS tech­nolo­gies for the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of lands in the Pushkin dis­trict of St. Peters­burg. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 84–102 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.84–102

Abstract

GIS tech­nolo­gies and meth­ods of auto­mat­ed clas­si­fi­ca­tion of remote sens­ing data are active­ly used in many coun­tries in for­est inven­to­ry, for­est man­age­ment plan­ning and assess­ment of the state and char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests. The objec­tives of the study were to devel­op a method­ol­o­gy and con­duct an auto­mat­ed clas­si­fi­ca­tion of land cat­e­gories for a large admin­is­tra­tive-ter­ri­to­r­i­al unit based of remote sens­ing meth­ods and GIS­tech­nolo­gies. The object of the study was the ter­ri­to­ry of the Pushkin dis­trict of St. Peters­burg. On the ter­ri­to­ry of the Pushkin dis­trict are locat­ed a sig­nif­i­cant num­ber of green zones (parks, squares, gar­dens, for­est belts), some of which are includ­ed in the list of mon­u­ments pro­tect­ed by UNESCO. Also on the ter­ri­to­ry of the dis­trict are locat­ed indus­tri­al enter­pris­es, large indus­tri­al zones, agri­cul­ture is devel­oped. Lansat‑8 satel­lite images and a set of maps for the study area were used as ini­tial mate­ri­als. GIS ArcGIS and Map­In­fo, pro­grams ENVI and Trim­ble eCog­ni­tion were used to col­lect, visu­al­ize and process data. Field work on the selec­tion of ref­er­ence (train­ing) sam­ples includ­ed the selec­tion of sam­ple plots in nature, pho­tog­ra­phy, and deter­mi­na­tion of coor­di­nates. The Land­sat images were clas­si­fied accord­ing to the results of two main oper­a­tions – auto­mat­ed inter­pre­ta­tion by the max­i­mum like­li­hood method and deter­mi­na­tion of the veg­e­ta­tion indices of the land cat­e­gories class­es. After per­form­ing field ver­i­fi­ca­tion, as well as per­form­ing pro­cess­ing and aggre­ga­tion oper­a­tions, the final the­mat­ic map of the class­es of land cat­e­gories in the Pushkin region was formed and the final tables of the dis­tri­b­u­tion of areas by munic­i­pal­i­ties were obtained. The pre­sent­ed method­ol­o­gy, asso­ci­at­ed with the pro­cess­ing and inter­pre­ta­tion of remote sens­ing mate­ri­als by means of GIS tech­nolo­gies, can be con­sid­ered as a mod­ern tool for land­scape analy­sis, state (nation­al) for­est inven­to­ry, and var­i­ous types of ter­ri­to­ry monitoring.

Key­words: geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tems, remote sens­ing data, auto­mat­ed clas­si­fi­ca­tion, land cat­e­go­ry, NDVI index

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Smirnov A.P., Smirnov A.A., Bogachev P.V. Nat­ur­al resump­tion of pine trees on the cut­tings of the Mid­dle Pri­an­garya due to the pecu­liar­i­ties of for­est soil. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 103–118 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.103–118

Abstract

Stud­ies of the sub­se­quent resump­tion were car­ried out on the cut­tings of 5–15-year-olds in the North­ern Forestry of The Ust-Ilim dis­trict of Irkut­sk region. The focus was on the growth of the pine tree as the most com­mon and most exploit­ed conif­er­ous breed. The soil exca­va­tions mea­sured the thick­ness of the A1 humus hori­zon and the for­est lit­ter A0, as well as the gran­u­lo­met­ric com­po­si­tion of the upper min­er­al hori­zons of the soils. The absence of a sig­nif­i­cant cor­re­la­tion between the den­si­ty of the pine grow­er with the ratio of the thick­ness of A1/A0 of the osolode-made red-brown longsea­son-per­mafrost soils of the region, formed in con­di­tions of sharp con­ti­nen­tal­i­ty of the cli­mate, the pre­dom­i­nance of evap­o­ra­tion over pre­cip­i­ta­tion, the wealth of the moth­er breed exchange cal­ci­um, mag­ne­sium and sodi­um. There is a high inverse cor­re­la­tion of the num­ber of the growth of pine with the “weight­ing” of the gran­u­lo­met­ric com­po­si­tion of soils from the sandy loam to the aver­age loam. The largest num­ber of teenagers (3–5 thou­sand ex./ha) was found in the orig­i­nal pines with the soils of the supine, less often – light­ly coglin­ish mechan­i­cal com­po­si­tion. On the soils of light- and medi­um-sougling pines are much small­er, in the teenage part of the birch and aspen dom­i­nate. The growth of pine is prac­ti­cal­ly absent on rel­a­tive­ly rich loamy soils in the orig­i­nal firs, spruce trees, larch. The A1/A0 ratio, due to the pecu­liar­i­ties of soil for­ma­tion in the research area, does not play a deci­sive role in the suc­cess of the sub­se­quent resump­tion of pine cuttings.

Key­words: cut­ting down, the num­ber of sub­se­quent resump­tion of pine, the thick­ness of the upper hori­zons of soils, the gran­u­lo­met­ric com­po­si­tion of soils 

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Safonov A.V., Krestyano­va M.A., Suvorov S.A., Danilov D.A. Assess­ment of the imple­men­ta­tion of the new for­est care rules by the exam­ple of Tikhvin­sk forestry. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 119–136 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.119–136

Abstract

For­est thin­ning is a com­plex of forestry mea­sures aimed at improv­ing the qual­i­ta­tive and quan­ti­ta­tive indi­ca­tors of the stand, the for­ma­tion of high­ly pro­duc­tive, sus­tain­able and eco­nom­i­cal­ly valu­able stands, by remov­ing sick, dam­aged, fal­low trees, as well as trees of unde­sir­able species in young stands, stumps and mid­dle-aged stands. The work presents a com­par­i­son of the nor­ma­tive indi­ca­tors for the two rules of for­est main­te­nance, the main dif­fer­ence of which is the approach to the allo­ca­tion of the max­i­mum allow­able felling stock, based on the analy­sis of the absolute, for the new stan­dard, and the rel­a­tive, for the old, com­plete­ness of the stand. The eval­u­a­tion and com­par­i­son of class­es of mar­ketabil­i­ty, per­cent of the har­vest­ed stock and its dis­tri­b­u­tion across the plots were made in order to iden­ti­fy the dif­fer­ences and pecu­liar­i­ties of the approach­es of the two nor­ma­tive approach­es under con­sid­er­a­tion. By results of the car­ried out analy­ses it was revealed dif­fer­ence of the for­est inven­to­ry data to real qual­i­ta­tive and quan­ti­ta­tive indi­ca­tors of a stand on the major­i­ty of plots, the big dif­fer­ence between class­es of mar­ketabil­i­ty on the con­sid­ered stan­dards that in turn leads to dis­tinc­tions in an exit on stocks of busi­ness and wood, and as their qual­i­ta­tive dis­tinc­tion, and inten­si­ty of thin­ning of a canopy that is caused by the above-named fea­tures on allo­ca­tion of the max­i­mum allow­able cut stock. In con­nec­tion with the above stat­ed, it is nec­es­sary to devel­op region­al norms of for­est tend­ing on the basis of received long-term obser­va­tions on per­ma­nent tri­al areas with a full cycle of con­duct­ed for­est tend­ing and, if nec­es­sary, to make cor­rec­tions, the pos­si­bil­i­ty of which is fun­da­men­tal­ly exclud­ed by the exist­ing scheme of devel­op­ment and intro­duc­tion of nor­ma­tive documents.

Key­words: cut­ting care, forestry, for­est care rules

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Zhuk K.D., Ugryu­mov S.A., Svoikin F.V. Sta­tis­ti­cal eval­u­a­tion of the dimen­sion­al char­ac­ter­is­tics of tim­ber prod­ucts using data from stm-files of mul­ti­op­er­a­tion for­est machines. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 137–149 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.137–149

Abstract

In a mar­ket econ­o­my the effi­cien­cy of tim­ber enter­pris­es is large­ly deter­mined by the com­pli­ance char­ac­ter­is­tics of the tim­ber tech­ni­cal capa­bil­i­ties of pro­cess­ing equip­ment and tech­nolo­gies in Gen­er­al. In the process of har­vest­ing wood in large vol­umes with the use of high-per­for­mance equip­ment, there is a need for sta­tis­ti­cal pro­cess­ing of the obtained data sets for each con­trolled para­me­ter. Sta­tis­ti­cal pro­cess­ing meth­ods require com­plex cal­cu­la­tions, so there is a need to cre­ate a uni­fied soft­ware tool for sta­tis­ti­cal analy­sis of data sam­ples of var­i­ous vol­umes with a suf­fi­cient set of cal­cu­lat­ed sta­tis­ti­cal para­me­ters. The aim of the work is the sta­tis­ti­cal pro­cess­ing of the dimen­sion­al char­ac­ter­is­tics of a batch of tim­ber har­vest­ed in the con­di­tions of the mid­dle taiga of the Komi Repub­lic, using spe­cial­ly devel­oped soft­ware. In the study, were stud­ied para­me­ters of the har­vest­ed tim­ber – length and stem taper, length of seg­ments, the aver­age diam­e­ter of the logs obtained from the mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem-mea­sur­ing wheel har­vesters are of the mid­dle class har­vester John Deere 1270G 8W, work­ing at log­ging in the win­ter pro­cure­ment peri­od. Pro­cess­ing of the received data arrays was car­ried out using spe­cial­ly devel­oped soft­ware stat­sProg, writ­ten in the Python pro­gram­ming lan­guage. The devel­oped soft­ware allows you to process any numer­i­cal data arrays, with sub­se­quent cal­cu­la­tion of sta­tis­ti­cal para­me­ters and check­ing the dis­tri­b­u­tion for nor­mal­i­ty. Sta­tis­ti­cal eval­u­a­tion of a batch of tim­ber har­vest­ed in the mid­dle taiga of the Komi Repub­lic using the wheel har­vester John Deere 1270G 8W showed a large vari­abil­i­ty in size char­ac­ter­is­tics, which is explained by the nat­ur­al and cli­mat­ic con­di­tions of wood growth, includ­ing the prepa­ra­tion of mixed breeds, as well as the devel­op­ment of sort­ings tak­ing into account their qual­i­ty and cut­ting out defec­tive places.

Key­words: tim­ber, dimen­sion­al and qual­i­ta­tive para­me­ters, data set, sta­tis­ti­cal pro­cess­ing, soft­ware, logs, harvester.

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Bazarov S.M., Belenkii Yu.I., Svoikin F.V., Svoikin V.F., Balde T.M.D. Sys­tem analy­sis of the dynam­ics of the har­vester head of wheel har­vester. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 150–164 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.150–164

Abstract

The main con­cepts of sys­tem analy­sis as an inte­gral part of the the­o­ry of sys­tems are becom­ing an inte­gral part of sci­en­tif­ic and tech­ni­cal research in the forestry com­plex: integri­ty and con­nec­tiv­i­ty in the inter­nal func­tion­al space-time, built by the tar­get func­tions of the sys­tem and its ele­ments. Each branch of the nation­al econ­o­my has its own ideas of the con­cept of a sys­tem of var­i­ous struc­tur­al lev­els from max­i­mum to min­i­mum and the cor­re­spond­ing intra-sys­tem func­tion­al space-time. In the forestry indus­try, com­plex­es of machines and equip­ment that car­ry out tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of tim­ber pro­duc­tion can be con­sid­ered as meso-sys­tem struc­tures, then the tech­ni­cal oper­a­tions of the machines and equip­ment them­selves can be attrib­uted to the micro lev­el. In this arti­cle, from the sys­temic point of view, a sin­gle func­tion­al time of the inter­nal con­nec­tiv­i­ty of the flow of pro­duc­tion oper­a­tions with the har­vester head of the wheel har­vester is built. At present, the tech­no­log­i­cal effi­cien­cy of machines and equip­ment is deter­mined sta­tis­ti­cal­ly on aver­age in exter­nal time. An increase in labor pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of forestry equip­ment com­plex­es is pos­si­ble only on the obser­vance of the basic prin­ci­ple of sys­tem opti­miza­tion: in a sys­tem con­sist­ing of inter­con­nect­ed inter­act­ing sub­sys­tems, the opti­mum for the entire sys­tem is not a func­tion (for exam­ple, the sum) of the opti­ma of the sub­sys­tems includ­ed in the sys­tem. This prin­ci­ple can be regard­ed as the the­o­rem of the opti­ma of the sys­tems approach. Deter­mi­na­tion of the tech­no­log­i­cal effi­cien­cy of the har­vester head of the wheel har­vester in the func­tion­al time of the con­nec­tiv­i­ty of the per­formed tech­ni­cal oper­a­tions in com­par­i­son with the aver­age sta­tis­ti­cal approach reveals a more infor­ma­tive pic­ture of the dynam­ics of the process and reveals the pos­si­bil­i­ties of bet­ter orga­ni­za­tion of labor. In the arti­cle, the dynam­ics of the work of the har­vester head of the wheel har­vester is inves­ti­gat­ed in the rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the three-stage con­nec­tiv­i­ty of the oper­a­tions of tim­ber pro­duc­tion. In the first stage, the felling of wood takes place and the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of obtain­ing gen­er­al wood raw mate­r­i­al is deter­mined; in the sec­ond stage, there are two super­po­si­tion process­es for obtain­ing assort­ments and wood waste, there­fore, the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of the result­ing wood waste, assort­ments and total wood raw mate­ri­als is deter­mined here; in the third stage, the woody crown mate­r­i­al is obtained. The con­struct­ed sys­tem­at­ic approach reveals the integri­ty and uni­ty of the dynam­ic oper­a­tions of the har­vester head of the wheel har­vester by deter­min­ing the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of both each oper­a­tion and their super­po­si­tion in the func­tion­al time of the tech­no­log­i­cal process.

Key­words: cycle, pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, super­po­si­tion, time, integri­ty, har­vester head, wheel harvester

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Peskov I.A., Posy­panov S.V. Jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of the forces required for lev­el­ing ends of float­ing pack­aged raft­ing units. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 165–178 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.165–178

Abstract

When imple­ment­ing the con­cept that ensures the eco­nom­ic acces­si­bil­i­ty of remote for­est resources, it is envis­aged to raft small-sized pack­ages of round tim­ber into bilevel units at the points of exit from shal­low-water sec­tions of rivers to deep-water ones. The spec­i­fied raft is assumed in spe­cial devices, which pro­vide the lev­el­ing ends of raft­ing units to increase the eco­nom­ic indi­ca­tors of fur­ther trans­porta­tion and the reli­a­bil­i­ty of main­tain­ing integri­ty. To sub­stan­ti­ate the para­me­ters of the device, infor­ma­tion is need­ed on the required forces for lev­el­ing ends of float­ing pack­ages and bilevel units of them. It was found that to obtain it requires addi­tion­al research. The expe­di­en­cy of a com­mon method­ol­o­gy for bilevel units and their con­stituent pack­ages is obvi­ous, from which research should be start­ed. To obtain the depen­dence for cal­cu­lat­ing the force required for lev­el­ing ends of the float­ing pack­ages, a the­o­ret­i­cal method based on the elas­tic the­o­ry was used. In this case, the float­ing pack­age was con­sid­ered as a flex­i­ble shell filled with two types of gran­u­lar media with dif­fer­ent bulk den­si­ty. The bound­ary of the media runs along the sur­face of the water. The strap­ping line, that is, the flex­i­ble cas­ing, is a com­bi­na­tion of frag­ments of two elas­tics with dif­fer­ent char­ac­ter­is­tics. Using para­met­ric equa­tions describ­ing the shape of elas­tic and depen­dences for deter­min­ing pres­sures in bulk media, we obtained the required ana­lyt­i­cal depen­dence and its sim­pli­fied ver­sion for prac­ti­cal cal­cu­la­tions. The cal­cu­la­tion results accord­ing to the pro­posed for­mu­la exceed the results cal­cu­lat­ed accord­ing to the for­mu­la obtained ear­li­er using anoth­er algo­rithm of actions with­out con­sid­er­ing the pres­sure of the straps by 70% with a pack­age shape fac­tor of 1.5, that is, with a strong pres­sure of the straps and by about 10% – with a coef­fi­cient of 2.5, that is, their weak pres­sure. This allows us to con­sid­er the results of the study reli­able, the use of the method­ol­o­gy used for the cor­re­spond­ing study of bilevel units is expe­di­ent. It was found that at a fixed den­si­ty of tim­ber, the most sig­nif­i­cant effect on the force of lev­el­ing ends is changes in the ratio of the height of the pack­age to the aver­age diam­e­ter of tim­ber, its shape fac­tor and vol­ume. The influ­ence of the first two fac­tors in the ana­lyt­i­cal for­mu­la is con­sid­ered by a fac­tor, the val­ue of which in prac­ti­cal cal­cu­la­tions can be deter­mined from the pro­posed graphs or approx­i­mat­ing dependences.

Key­words: tim­ber raft­ing, round tim­ber, raft­ing units, lev­el­ing ends 

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Zubo­va O.V., Silet­skiy V.V. Inves­ti­ga­tion of the process of struc­ture for­ma­tion of a mate­r­i­al from a mix­ture of nepheline sludge and crushed stone with the addi­tion of cement. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 179–186 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.179–186

Abstract

The the­o­ret­i­cal and exper­i­men­tal jus­ti­fi­ca­tion of the use of crushed stone road sur­faces rein­forced with nepheline sludge and cement for cov­er­ing for­est ter­mi­nals is giv­en. The pur­pose of this study is to select the most durable, tech­no­log­i­cal­ly advanced and cost-effec­tive mate­r­i­al for load­ing plat­forms and tem­po­rary stor­age ware­hous­es for tim­ber due to the increas­ing fre­quen­cy of mul­ti-stage wood removal. The results of the study showed that the result­ing mate­r­i­al has high strength and water resis­tance, meets the require­ments of GOST for coat­ing mate­ri­als, includ­ing load­ing points. Rec­om­men­da­tions on the dosages of the com­po­nents of the mix­ture are given.

Key­words: nepheline sludge, crushed stone, for­est roads, tim­ber load­ing point, cement concrete

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Vino­gradov A.Yu., Zubo­va O.V., Par­fen­ov E.A. Cal­cu­la­tion of ero­sion scour of cohe­sive soil. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 187–195 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.187–195

Abstract

The analy­sis of exist­ing meth­ods for assess­ing soil ero­sion in hydraulic engi­neer­ing and cul­verts, show­ing that the deter­mi­na­tion of the depth and rate of ero­sion is car­ried out with­out tak­ing into account the phys­i­cal prop­er­ties of cohe­sive soils. Thus, these para­me­ters are esti­mat­ed using empir­i­cal rela­tion­ships and with sig­nif­i­cant errors. Exper­i­men­tal data on ero­sion of cohe­sive soils prove that the large spe­cif­ic sur­face area and hydrophilic­i­ty of clay par­ti­cles lead to decom­paction and the removal of soil microag­gre­gates into the flow. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el is pro­posed for cal­cu­lat­ing the depth of ero­sion of cohe­sive soils depend­ing on the shear stress in the soil. Tak­ing into account the adhe­sion indi­ca­tors and the angle of inter­nal fric­tion in this mod­el will avoid errors in the calculations.

Key­words: water ero­sion, soil ero­sion, cohe­sive soils, strength char­ac­ter­is­tics of soils

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Borovlev A.O., Skryp­nikov A.V., Vysot­skaya I.A., Bryukhovet­skiy A.N., Nikitin V.V. Com­bi­na­tions of curved seg­ments of the plan and lon­gi­tu­di­nal pro­file of for­est roads. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 196–207 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.196–207

Abstract

Annu­al eco­nom­ic loss­es due to the unsuc­cess­ful design of the route of the tim­ber haul road cause enor­mous dam­age to enter­pris­es and sec­tors of the econ­o­my. There­fore, an increase in the effi­cien­cy of road con­struc­tion pro­duc­tion is asso­ci­at­ed with the improve­ment of cal­cu­la­tion meth­ods for the design and con­struc­tion of tim­ber high­ways. With the increase in traf­fic inten­si­ty on for­est roads, it became nec­es­sary to opti­mal­ly design the geo­met­ric ele­ments of the roads. The basis for the for­ma­tion of the future road is its route, and the out­line of this route large­ly deter­mines the tech­ni­cal qual­i­ties of the future road. The work exam­ines and ana­lyzes var­i­ous com­bi­na­tions of curvi­lin­ear sec­tions of the plan and the lon­gi­tu­di­nal pro­file of the route of tim­ber trans­port roads. The main rea­sons for the often obtained unsuc­cess­ful com­bi­na­tion of plan curves and lon­gi­tu­di­nal pro­file are insuf­fi­cient study of visu­al clar­i­ty and smooth­ness, as well as insuf­fi­cient expe­ri­ence of prac­ti­cal use in design orga­ni­za­tions of the known prin­ci­ples of spa­tial design of tim­ber haul roads. The aim of the study is to ana­lyze, which will make it pos­si­ble to deter­mine the typ­i­cal com­bi­na­tions of the route in plan and pro­file and their fre­quen­cy found in the projects of tim­ber haul­ing roads and their fre­quen­cy and to esti­mate, in a first approx­i­ma­tion, the cor­re­spon­dence of these com­bi­na­tions of visu­al clar­i­ty and smooth­ness. In the work var­i­ous com­bi­na­tions of typ­i­cal sec­tions of the plan and pro­file and their vari­ants are sys­tem­atized, indi­ca­tors of the degree of mutu­al coor­di­na­tion of the curves of the plan and the lon­gi­tu­di­nal pro­file are obtained. The stud­ies car­ried out gave a gen­er­al idea of the types of com­bi­na­tions of plan and pro­file curves and their fre­quen­cy in projects of tim­ber trans­port roads.

Key­words: log­ging high­ways, curved sec­tions of the route plan, route profile

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3. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIOTECHNOLOGY

Leonovich A.A. Physic­o­chem­i­cal aspects of cre­at­ing wood-based pan­els of low com­bustibil­i­ty. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 208–220 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.208–220

Abstract

Using the con­cepts of inhi­bi­tion of the com­bus­tion of a wood com­plex and the for­ma­tion of wood-based pan­els dur­ing hot press­ing, the author’s idea of the main aspects of cre­at­ing plates of reduced com­bustibil­i­ty is pre­sent­ed. Approach­es to solv­ing the prob­lem are giv­en, the func­tions of effec­tive fire retar­dants are revealed, includ­ing their fix­a­tion in wood com­po­nents, the tem­per­a­ture range of acti­va­tion, and the vari­abil­i­ty of the acid­i­ty of the medi­um. The para­me­ters of the test results are ana­lyzed to assess the effec­tive­ness of phos­pho­rus-con­tain­ing fire retar­dants for wood com­pos­ite mate­ri­als (wood part­cle board, fiber­board end oth­er). The devel­op­ment of the result in the direc­tion of a “strong” solu­tion and self-review of sci­en­tif­ic research is proposed

Key­words: wood board, fire retar­dant, flam­ma­bil­i­ty, strength, swelling binder

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Nikono­va N.N., Hur­shkainen T.V., Kuchin A.V. Math­e­mat­i­cal plan­ning of exper­i­ments to opti­mize the extrac­tion of extrac­tive sub­stances from nee­dles of Pinus sylvestris. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 221–237 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.221–237

Abstract

The pre­sent­ed work is devot­ed to the deter­mi­na­tion of the opti­mal con­di­tions for the iso­la­tion of the sum of extrac­tives from wood green­ery (WG) of Pinus sylvestris by the method of emul­sion extrac­tion. The envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly emul­sion method for the extrac­tion of plant raw mate­ri­als in an aque­ous-alka­line medi­um is not infe­ri­or to the tra­di­tion­al meth­ods of extract­ing low mol­e­c­u­lar weight com­po­nents and makes it pos­si­ble to effec­tive­ly iso­late both hydrophilic and hydropho­bic com­pounds. The object of this study is log­ging waste – woody green­ery of Pinus sylvestris – a source of nat­ur­al bio­log­i­cal­ly active sub­stances that have prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tion. The deter­mi­na­tion of the opti­mal con­di­tions for the extrac­tion of WG pine by the emul­sion method in this study was car­ried out by the response sur­face method using a rotat­able com­po­si­tion­al uni­form plan of the sec­ond order, which includ­ed 13 exper­i­ments with all pos­si­ble com­bi­na­tions of the lev­els of two stud­ied fac­tors: the con­cen­tra­tion of an aque­ous solu­tion of NaOH and the hydro­mod­ule – ratio of the vol­ume of water-alka­line solu­tion to the mass of raw mate­ri­als. Analy­sis of the research results showed that in a giv­en range of vari­a­tion of fac­tors, the great­est influ­ence on the yield of extrac­tive sub­stances is exert­ed by the hydro­mod­ule, with an increase of which to 10: 1, the yield increas­es, then an equi­lib­ri­um con­cen­tra­tion is estab­lished in the “raw mate­r­i­al – extrac­tant” sys­tem. The opti­mal con­di­tions for emul­sion extrac­tion of WG pine were estab­lished: con­cen­tra­tion of an aque­ous solu­tion of NaOH – 5%, hydro­mod­ule 10:1. Under opti­mal con­di­tions, the yield of extrac­tive sub­stances was 9,84% of the weight of the dry raw mate­r­i­al, which is com­pa­ra­ble with the results obtained by tra­di­tion­al meth­ods of raw mate­r­i­al extrac­tion with organ­ic solvents.

Key­words: wood green­ery, Pinus sylvestris, extrac­tives, emul­sion method, math­e­mat­i­cal planning

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Shapo­val­o­va I.O., Vurasko A.V., Ageev M.A. Cata­lase activ­i­ty of nat­ur­al and syn­the­sized on tech­ni­cal cel­lu­los­esil­i­con diox­ide. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 238–255 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.238–255

Abstract

The influ­ence of the prop­er­ties of nat­ur­al and syn­the­sized sil­i­con diox­ide on tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from rice and oat husks on the cata­lase activ­i­ty of diox­ide­con­tain­ing mate­ri­als is esti­mat­ed. Tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from the husk was obtained by the oxida­tive-organo­sol­vent method. The fix­a­tion of sil­i­con diox­ide on cel­lu­lose was car­ried out by the sol-gel method using tetraethoxysi­lane. The prop­er­ties of the obtained diox­ide-con­tain­ing mate­ri­als were inves­ti­gat­ed by X‑ray dif­frac­tion analy­sis, nitro­gen ther­mal des­orp­tion method, induc­tive­ly cou­pled plas­mae­mis­sion spec­troscopy. The cata­lase activ­i­ty of the diox­ide-con­tain­ing mate­ri­als was eval­u­at­ed by the mod­el reac­tion of Н2О2 decom­po­si­tion. In the course of the work, the fol­low­ing sam­ples of cel­lu­lose were obtained: one from rice husks with an ash con­tent of 0.3 to 33.5%; one from oat and rice husks with­out min­er­al com­po­nents. The sol-gel method was used to obtain mate­ri­als with a con­tent of syn­thet­ic sil­i­con diox­ide from 0 to 47.2% based on rice husk and from 0 to 44.3% based on oat husk. It was estab­lished that the amount of fixed sil­i­con diox­ide by the sol-gel method does not depend on the ori­gin of the tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose. The sil­i­con diox­ide remain­ing in the tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose is in an amor­phous state. The max­i­mum spe­cif­ic sur­face area (20.4 m2/g) is achieved at the lim­it­ing sil­i­con diox­ide con­tent (30.3%). The sil­i­con diox­ide syn­the­sized on tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose by the sol-gel method is in a crys­talline state, with the max­i­mum spe­cif­ic sur­face area being 18.5 m2/g for a diox­ide-con­tain­ing mate­r­i­al based on OH, and 15.7 m2/gfor a diox­ide-con­tain­ing mate­r­i­al based on RH; It was found that diox­ide-con­tain­ing mate­r­i­al with nat­ur­al sil­i­con diox­ide pos­sess­es the cata­lase activ­i­ty. This cata­lase effect can be explained by the pres­ence of impu­ri­ties in the form of met­als, which are accu­mu­lat­ed in the min­er­al com­po­nent of plant raw mate­ri­als dur­ing the veg­e­ta­tion. Cel­lu­lose sam­ples with syn­the­sized sil­i­con diox­ide do not have cata­lase activ­i­ty, inde­pen­dent­ly from spe­cif­ic sur­face area and SiO2 content.

Key­words: organo­sol­vent delig­ni­fi­ca­tion, sil­i­con diox­ide, cata­lase activ­i­ty, grain husks, sol-gel method, spe­cif­ic sur­face area

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Shishkin A.I., Strogano­va M.S. Iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of com­pa­ra­bil­i­ty indi­ca­tors of the pulp mill dis­charged treat­ed efflu­ents qual­i­ty with the tech­no­log­i­cal para­me­ters of the pro­duc­tion nature inten­si­ty. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 256–269 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.256–269

Abstract

In accor­dance with the changes in envi­ron­men­tal leg­is­la­tion the issue of min­i­miz­ing the nature inten­si­ty of sul­fate-pulp pro­duc­tion, which affects the ecosys­tem of the lake, is inex­tri­ca­bly linked with the study of the trans­for­ma­tion and trans­for­ma­tion of pol­lu­tants in the water, tak­ing into account the hydro­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of the reser­voir. The nat­ur­al inten­si­ty of pulp pro­duc­tion is deter­mined by the quan­ti­ty and qual­i­ty of the raw mate­ri­als used – wood, wood chips, chem­i­cal reagents, water; the tech­no­log­i­cal process of pro­duc­tion of pulp, paper, card­board, as well as by-prod­ucts such as tur­pen­tine, tal­low oil and effi­cien­cy and applied envi­ron­men­tal tech­nolo­gies for the man­age­ment of dis­charges, emis­sions and waste of pro­duc­tion and con­sump­tion. The tasks of reduc­ing the neg­a­tive impact of sul­fate­cel­lu­lose pro­duc­tion on the aquat­ic ecosys­tem were solved. Togeth­er with the lab­o­ra­to­ry of the envi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion depart­ment of the pulp mill, a num­ber of lab­o­ra­to­ry stud­ies of treat­ed and untreat­ed waste water after cook­ing of dif­fer­ent grades of pulp were car­ried out in the sum­mer-autumn peri­od of 2020 in order to imple­ment the pro­ce­dure for rationing waste water of the pulp and paper mill accord­ing to the cri­te­ria of region­al envi­ron­men­tal tech­nol­o­gy inten­si­ty. A mod­el is pre­sent­ed for study­ing the trans­for­ma­tion of pol­lu­tants in treat­ed and untreat­ed waste­water from sul­fate-pulp pro­duc­tion at var­i­ous dilu­tions with nat­ur­al water. Tar­get and rep­re­sen­ta­tive indi­ca­tors of alka­line-con­tain­ing waste­water are pre­sent­ed, tak­ing into account the best avail­able tech­nolo­gies (BAT) in the field of pulp pro­duc­tion. The para­me­ters of the bio­chem­i­cal oxi­da­tion kinet­ics were stud­ied at five water dilu­tion mul­ti­plic­i­ties sim­u­lat­ing the ini­tial and main dilu­tion zones. The main char­ac­ter­is­tics of the pro­duc­tion and ter­ri­to­r­i­al com­plex were mea­sured with­in the frame­work of the tasks of envi­ron­men­tal rationing. 

Key­words: reduc­tion of nature inten­si­ty, sul­fate-pulp pro­duc­tion, trans­for­ma­tion of pol­lu­tants, coef­fi­cient of bio­chem­i­cal oxi­da­tion, mod­el dilu­tion of wastewater

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Evstigneyev E.I., Gri­nenko E.V., Vasiliev A.V. Obtain­ing hydro­gels of tech­ni­cal lignins. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 235, pp. 270–291 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.235.274–295

Abstract

Poten­tio­met­ric titra­tion, IR-spec­troscopy of 13С sol­id-state NMR spec­troscopy, and chem­i­cal analy­sis were used to study the gela­tion of tech­ni­cal lignins (oxi­dized hydrol­y­sis, Kraft, sodi­um, and lig­no­sul­fonates) and Pep­per lignin in inter­ac­tion with met­al salts: CaCl2, Mg(NO3)2,FeSO4, Co(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2, Fe(NO3)3, CuSO4, AgNO3. It has been estab­lished that com­pounds that are salts of a weak base and a strong acid have the abil­i­ty to gela­tion; the met­al cation has a stan­dard poten­tial above a cer­tain val­ue, has mod­er­ate hydrol­y­sis abil­i­ty, and the cation hydrox­ide formed in the hydrol­y­sis reac­tion has a rel­a­tive­ly low sol­u­bil­i­ty. Dur­ing gel for­ma­tion, a com­pound of the com­po­si­tion R–COO–Mez+OOC–R z = 2,3 is formed. A scheme of inter­mol­e­c­u­lar bonds at the point of lignin hydro­gel for­ma­tion is pro­posed, accord­ing to which adja­cent lignin mol­e­cules bind to each oth­er by three types of bonds: ion­ic between car­boxyl groups of lignin and met­al cations, coor­di­na­tion between met­al cations and water mol­e­cules includ­ed in the coor­di­na­tion sphere, and hydro­gen con­nect­ing all the com­po­nents of the sys­tem into a sin­gle whole. Lignin hydro­gels have a high sorp­tion abil­i­ty with respect to heavy met­als such as lead, iron and cop­per, which, depend­ing on the con­tent of acid groups in lignin and the molar mass of the sor­bate, is ~ 25–50% by weight of lignin. This opens up the pos­si­bil­i­ty of using a new type of lignin hydro­gels for waste­water treat­ment of chem­i­cal plants. 

Key­words: lignin hydro­gel, oxi­dized hydrol­y­sis lignin, met­al salts, car­boxyl groups, acid-base titration

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Issue 234
1. FORESTRY

Lebe­dev A.V., Kuzmichev V.V. Changes in the bio­mass of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees in Europe since 1940. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 6–22 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.6–22

Abstract

Scots pine is one of the main for­est-form­ing species in Europe, and its wood is wide­ly used in the tim­ber indus­try. When eval­u­at­ing car­bon-deposit­ing func­tions, the con­ver­sion rations are assumed to be con­stant over time. Recent stud­ies show that the ongo­ing cli­mat­ic changes have a sig­nif­i­cant impact on the growth of trees and wood prop­er­ties. There­fore, the pur­pose of this study is to iden­ti­fy long-term trends in the change in the bio­mass of Scots pine tree frac­tions in Europe since 1940. To test the hypoth­e­sis about the influ­ence of the cal­en­dar year on the bio­mass of tree frac­tions, regres­sion analy­sis was per­formed using lin­ear mixed-effect mod­els. The per­formed sta­tis­ti­cal­ly analy­sis made it pos­si­ble to reveal a sig­nif­i­cant effect (p 0.05) of the cal­en­dar year only on the bio­mass of the trunks in the bark. The changes are most pro­nounced for trees in young and mid­dle-aged stands, where the for­ma­tion of the great­est radi­al growth occurs. For large-sized trunks, accord­ing to the sim­u­la­tion results, the bio­mass of the stems in the bark is not traced. In the com­ing decades, as a result of ongo­ing cli­mate change, the decline in bio­mass and wood den­si­ty of lar­ge­sized stems should inten­si­fy. The revealed changes in bio­mass are accom­pa­nied by a decrease in wood den­si­ty, which occurs as a result of an increase in the struc­ture of the annu­al growth of loos­er and less dense ear­ly wood. Thus, in the con­text of accel­er­at­ing growth rates of woody plants, the vol­ume of trunks and wood stock should not be direct­ly con­vert­ed into deposit­ed car­bon, con­sid­er­ing the his­tor­i­cal val­ues of con­ver­sion rations. This should also be con­sid­ered when mon­i­tor­ing, mod­el­ing and using car­bon and bio­mass in forests in the face of glob­al change.

Key­words: bio­mass, trees, Scots pine, Europe, cli­mate change, mixed effects model

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Usolt­sev V.А., Tse­pordey I.S., Kovyazin V.F., Ura­zo­va А.F., Bornikov А.V. Bio­mass of gen­er­a­tive sphere of Scots pine and droop­ing birch in the pol­lu­tion gra­di­ent from the Karabash cop­per smelter on the Ural. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 23–52 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.23–52

Abstract

For­est pol­lu­tion strong­ly affects their bio­log­i­cal pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, but the con­tri­bu­tion of the gen­er­a­tive sphere to it is rarely stud­ied. Our study of the bio­mass of gen­er­a­tive organs of trees and stands of Scots pine and droop­ing birch was per­formed dur­ing one grow­ing sea­son in the pol­lu­tion gra­di­ent from the Karabash cop­per smelt­ing plant in the south­ern Urals. It is stat­ed the max­i­mum bio­mass of gen­er­a­tive organs of pine and birch at the lev­el of both a tree and a stand, falls on the buffer part of the pol­lu­tion gra­di­ent, in which the tree stand, accord­ing to the phe­nom­e­non of hys­tere­sis, pass­es from one sta­ble state to anoth­er one, and the same buffer zone accounts for the max­i­mum vari­abil­i­ty of the bio­mass of gen­er­a­tive organs. The result­ing pat­tern, com­mon to the two species, indi­cates an increased adap­tive response of trees and stands to pol­lu­tion in the buffer zone in terms of the mass of the gen­er­a­tive sphere and one can sup­pose it reflects the well known phe­nom­e­non of horme­sis in biol­o­gy. This assump­tion requires in-depth stud­ies of the impact of pol­lu­tion on the gen­er­a­tive sphere of for­est communities.

Key­words: Scots pine, droop­ing birch, cop­per smelter emis­sions, gen­er­a­tive sphere bio­mass, bio­mass vari­abil­i­ty, pol­lu­tion gra­di­ent, buffer zone, hys­tere­sis, hormesis

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Ermako­va M.V. Struc­ture of young growth of pine in var­i­ous eco­topes of the Trans-Urals region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 53–64 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.53–64

Abstract

The results of study of spa­tial and age struc­ture of pine on slash-cutover and cutover of young growth of pine of cow­ber­ry-shrub pine for­est of the Trans-Urals region are con­sid­ered. It has been shown that the under­growth of pine on slash-cutover in com­par­i­son with cut­ting dif­fers by a sig­nif­i­cant­ly small­er diam­e­ter at the mid­dle of the trunk height, but dif­fers by a sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er growth rate in height. The rel­a­tive height of the under­growth on the slash-cutover was 31.5–37.3% high­er than that of the under­growth on the cutover. This is due to the sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er den­si­ty of under­growth on slash-cutover com­pared to cutover. It has been estab­lished that most of the resump­tion as pine on both slash-cutover and cutover was con­cen­trat­ed in the areas adja­cent to three sides of the for­est. With a decrease in sources of insem­i­na­tion (adjoin­ing two sides of the for­est), the den­si­ty of under­growth decreased marked­ly. In turn, in open areas on slash-cutover and cutover, the num­ber of under­growth was the small­est. The young growth of pine is char­ac­ter­ized by a reg­u­lar (ran­dom) with a tran­si­tion to a scat­tered (uni­form) type of place­ment on the slash-cutovers. In cutovers, the main place­ment type is group. On slash-cutovers, the main part of the trees belonged to the resump­tion, which appeared for 2–3 years after fires and sub­se­quent felling. The resump­tion, which appeared both for the next year and for 4–5 years after the removal of the wood­land, was insignif­i­cant. For 6‑year after the fire and felling, the resump­tion com­plete­ly ceased. On cutovers, the main part of the trees belonged to the resump­tion, which appeared for 4–5 years after felling. How­ev­er, although to a much less­er extent, the resump­tion of pine on the cutovers, took place in sub­se­quent years. The pat­tern of change in the age struc­ture of under­growth for cut-offs is well approx­i­mat­ed by the poly­no­mi­al equa­tion of the 4th order, and on the cut-offs of the 5th order.

Key­words: pine, young growth, slash-cutover, cutover, structure

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Smirnov A.P., Smirnov A.A., Bogatchev P.V. Fea­tures of sub­se­quent for­est regen­er­a­tion on the cut­tings of south-west Kare­lia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 65–79 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.65–79

Abstract

The aim of the study is to reveal the fea­tures of the sub­se­quent refor­esta­tion of conifers on the log­ging of Kare­lia in con­nec­tion with the com­pe­ti­tion of live native cov­er, hard­wood, under­growth. In terms of the num­ber of wood and shrub plants on almost all cut­tings the first three places are occu­pied by birch, aspen and under­growth, and birch quan­ti­ta­tive­ly pre­dom­i­nates. The under­growth is most­ly rep­re­sent­ed by a rip­ple. The suc­cess of the sub­se­quent resump­tion of pine and spruce on the cut­tings of the south-west of Kare­lia is asso­ci­at­ed with com­pe­ti­tion for light and soil resources with herbs (grains), hard­woods and under­growth. The growth of com­pet­ing veg­e­ta­tion, pri­mar­i­ly birch trees, occurs espe­cial­ly active­ly in drained habi­tats with rel­a­tive­ly fer­tile soils (types of wood­lands, fresh blue­ber­ries and cran­ber­ries). Accord­ing to the orig­i­nal types of for­est and the com­po­si­tion of the tree, deter­min­ing the effec­tive fer­til­i­ty of the soil, it is pos­si­ble to con­fi­dent­ly pre­dict the suc­cess of the sub­se­quent nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion of the main rocks on the cut­tings. How­ev­er, in the vast major­i­ty of the Kare­lia for­est, the amount of conifers that have fol­lowed the resump­tion is insuf­fi­cient to form conif­er­ous trees with­out addi­tion­al for­est activ­i­ties. In the absence of a pargn of pine and ate pre-resump­tion suf­fi­cient for nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion the amount of adul­ter­ous breed is inher­ent in the fol­low­ing orig­i­nal types of for­est: pine white ‑ness (pine), spruce cran­ber­ries moist (spruce; pine), spruce fresh (spruce togeth­er with pine). On the cut­ting of oth­er orig­i­nal types of for­est, a com­bi­na­tion or arti­fi­cial refor­esta­tion is required, with the log­ging of care in young people. 

Key­words: for­est types, cut­tings, for­est regen­er­a­tion, pro­ject­ed coat­ing of herbs, thick­ness of undergrowth

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Danilov D.A., Yakovlev A.A. Dis­tri­b­u­tion of mixed conif­er­ous stands in the Luzh­sko-Volkhovsky land­scape dis­trict. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 80–101 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.80–101

Abstract

Mixed wood­lands with a pre­dom­i­nance of pine and spruce occu­py ter­ri­to­ry with opti­mal for­est-grow­ing con­di­tions, unlike mon­odom­i­nant plan­ta­tions. Con­di­tion­al­ly clean wood­lands are in most cas­es short­ened to extreme habi­tat con­di­tions or due to the cre­ation of for­est crops. Among mixed wood­lands with a pre­dom­i­nance of conifers, unam­bigu­ous­ly only conif­er­ous-decid­u­ous, name­ly spruce-decid­u­ous wood­lands, are asso­ci­at­ed with anthro­pogenic effects on the geo­graph­i­cal land­scape. In each indi­vid­ual land­scape, an excel­lent dis­tri­b­u­tion of the types of conif­er­ous plan­ta­tions along the cov­ered area will be formed, depend­ing on soil and hydro­log­i­cal con­di­tions. The assess­ment of the spa­tial dis­tri­b­u­tion of mixed conif­er­ous trees in dif­fer­ent types of for­est allows to give an accu­rate eco­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tic and assess­ment of the land­scape and to assess its anthro­pogenic vari­a­tion. The arti­cle con­sid­ers the dis­tri­b­u­tion fea­tures of mixed wood­lands with a pre­dom­i­nance of pine and spruce in the most rep­re­sent­ed types of for­est in the main land­scapes of the Luga-Volkhov land­scape dis­trict of the Leningrad region. An analy­sis of land­scapes was car­ried out on the dis­tri­b­u­tion of for­est-cov­ered area accord­ing to soil-hydro­log­i­cal con­di­tions and the main gen­er­al­ized groups of for­est types. The pres­ence of a com­plex of hilly-moraine, stone, oze tracts alter­nat­ing with swampy basins and lakes in almost all the land­scapes con­sid­ered allows us to con­clude that the con­flu­ence of mixed conif­er­ous wood­lands is asso­ci­at­ed with the fac­tor of the tran­si­tion forms of relief from one land­scape group to anoth­er. The typo­log­i­cal con­flu­ence of conif­er­ous poly­dom­i­nant wood­lands is nat­ur­al for a green-haired series of for­est types of this land­scape district. 

Key­words: land­scapes, soil-hydro­log­i­cal con­di­tions, types of for­est, mixed tree pine and spruce, indices and cor­re­la­tion coefficients

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Kovyazin V.F., Demi­do­va P.M., Ivano­va E.A. Agro­chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of soils of land plots of the Park «Tikhiy Otdykh» of Saint Peters­burg. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 102–117 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.102–117

Abstract

The arti­cle is devot­ed to the cur­rent prob­lem of form­ing the sta­bil­i­ty of Park stands grow­ing on soils with dif­fer­ent phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal prop­er­ties. The char­ac­ter­is­tic agro­chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soils of the Park «Tikhiy Otdykh» of St. Peters­burg are giv­en. For each agro­chem­i­cal indi­ca­tor of the soil, the­mat­ic maps were devel­oped using mod­ern geo­graph­i­cal infor­ma­tion sys­tems (GIS) at a scale of 1:10000 using the Auto­CAD soft­ware pack­age. Using this com­plex, the areas of land with dif­fer­ent phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil are cal­cu­lat­ed. At present, this prob­lem of urban gar­den and Park objects is poor­ly stud­ied and requires fur­ther research. These results pre­sent­ed in the arti­cle are devot­ed to this topic.

Key­words: park, land, agro­chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of soils, cartogram

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Nguyen Huu Cuong, Averyanov L.V., Egorov A.A. Pro­tect­ed plant species in Nam Dong con­ser­va­tion area (Thanh Hoa province, North­ern Viet­nam). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 118–133 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.118–133

Abstract

The study of the diver­si­ty of pro­tect­ed flo­ra in the Nam Dong Nature Reserve (North Viet­nam) was car­ried out as part of the study of the ter­ri­to­ry’s flo­ra in 2015–2019. The study was car­ried out on 7 pro­files, laid down from the low­est heights to the high­est point of the stud­ied ter­ri­to­ry, in such a way that it would cov­er the max­i­mum pos­si­ble num­ber of habi­tats on the slopes of dif­fer­ent expo­sures. Floris­tic stud­ies have made it pos­si­ble to clar­i­fy the com­po­si­tion of rare and pro­tect­ed plant species of the ter­ri­to­ry that have inter­na­tion­al or nation­al con­ser­va­tion sta­tus. Such plants in the reserve include 88 species (6.71% of all local flo­ra) belong­ing to 51 fam­i­lies (28.33% of 180 flo­ra fam­i­lies). Pro­tect­ed species belong to 3 divi­sions of vas­cu­lar plants: Poly­po­di­o­phy­ta – 5 species (5.68%), Pino­phy­ta – 10 (11.36%), Mag­no­lio­phy­ta – 73 (82.95%). Of these, 57 species are list­ed in the IUCN (IUCN), includ­ing EN (endan­gered) – 7 (7.95%), VU (vul­ner­a­ble) – 11 (12.50%), NT (near-threat­ened) – 7 (7.95%), LC (least con­cern) – 32 (36.36%), DD (requir­ing addi­tion­al research) – 2 (2.27%); 43 species are pro­tect­ed in accor­dance with the Red Book of Viet­nam (2007), includ­ing EN – 11 (12.50%), VU – 32 (36.36%); 18 species – in accor­dance with the Decree on of the Gov­ern­ment on man­age­ment of endan­gered, pre­cious and rare for­est plants and ani­mals (2006). 37 species includ­ed in the IUCN list are not pro­tect­ed in Viet­nam. How­ev­er, 10 species from this list with the sta­tus EN, VU, NT, can form a resource base for their rein­tro­duc­tion in the ter­ri­to­ry where the species have dis­ap­peared or are at the stage of com­plete extinction

Key­words: bio­di­ver­si­ty, pro­tect­ed plants, Red book, Nam Dong Con­ser­va­tion Area, Vietnam

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Nguyen Quynh Trang, Sakharo­va S.G., Priy­atkin N.S., Zhi­gunov A.V. . X‑ray analy­sis of seed qual­i­ty of Eucom­mia ulmoides Oliv. of dif­fer­ent geo­graph­i­cal ori­gin. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 134–151 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.134–151

Abstract

The results of X‑ray stud­ies of Eucom­mia ulmoides Oliv. seeds, which are char­ac­ter­ized by very deep dor­man­cy, are pre­sent­ed. The exper­i­ments were car­ried out on seeds of dif­fer­ent geo­graph­ic ori­gins: Rus­sia (Kropotkin, North Cau­ca­sus) and the Repub­lic of Viet­nam (Laitau province). Seeds in the North Cau­ca­sus were col­lect­ed from the sur­face of the earth in Feb­ru­ary and there­fore under­went nat­ur­al strat­i­fi­ca­tion under the snow cov­er, while seeds in Laitau province were col­lect­ed from trees after they matured and stored in a dry, non-strat­i­fied state until analy­sis. The types of iden­ti­fied hid­den seed defects are described. The data of indi­vid­ual X‑ray char­ac­ter­is­tics of each inves­ti­gat­ed seed («para­met­ric pass­port») are giv­en. Based on the pres­ence of defects, it can be con­clud­ed that seeds from the Laityau province should have bet­ter sow­ing qual­i­ties com­pared to seeds from Kropotkin. Dif­fer­ences in the bio­met­ric para­me­ters of two-year-old eucom­mia seedlings of dif­fer­ent geo­graph­ic ori­gin are not sig­nif­i­cant. How­ev­er, the ger­mi­na­tion rate of seeds from Kropotkin is much high­er than their Laiteau. This can be explained by the vary­ing degrees of nat­ur­al readi­ness of the seeds for sow­ing. The results of X‑ray analy­sis of strat­i­fied seeds of E. ulmoides from Kropotkin coin­cide with the results of their ger­mi­na­tion. How­ev­er, it is not pos­si­ble to assess the via­bil­i­ty of euko­mia seeds not sub­ject­ed to strat­i­fi­ca­tion based on the results of deter­min­ing their good qual­i­ty by the X‑ray method. To obtain the ger­mi­na­tion of seeds cor­re­spond­ing to the poten­tial of their sow­ing qual­i­ties (accord­ing to the per­formed X‑ray analy­sis) for Eucom­mia seeds, a long-term (at least 3–4 months) cold strat­i­fi­ca­tion is recommended.

Key­words: Eucom­mia ulmoidesseeds, micro­fo­cus X‑ray of seeds, hid­den defects of seeds, qual­i­ty of seeds, bio­met­ric para­me­ters of seedlings, stratification

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Nguyen Trоng Tаi Аpplicаtiоn оf geоin­fоr­mаtiоn tech­nоlо­gies tо creаte hyp­sо­met­ric mаp оf the Lisin­sky reseаrch аnd trаin­ing grоund. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 152–165 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.152–165

Abstract

The arti­cle devel­ops a method­ol­o­gy for the com­pi­la­tion and analy­sis of hyp­so­met­ric maps based on the use of geoin­for­ma­tion tech­nolo­gies. It is estab­lished that the heights above sea lev­el in the stud­ied area are from 34 to 102 m, there is a grad­ual gen­er­al decrease in alti­tude in the direc­tion from the north­west to the south­east, as well as the flow of most of the rivers flow­ing here. The sta­tis­ti­cal analy­sis of the obtained results, the dis­tri­b­u­tion of areas in the study area height above sea lev­el, it is shown that the areas with alti­tudes of 60–75 m above sea lev­el is more than 52% of all the stud­ied area. The pro­posed method of draw­ing up and ana­lyz­ing hyp­so­met­ric maps using dig­i­tal ter­rain mod­el­ing and GIS tech­nolo­gies can serve as a tool for mod­ern land­scape analy­sis. The method allows you to cre­ate a dynam­ic and visu­al sys­tem for pre­sent­ing spa­tial data about land­scapes. A num­ber of oper­a­tions (build­ing hor­i­zon­tals, deter­min­ing areas, per­form­ing sta­tis­ti­cal cal­cu­la­tions, pre­sent­ing maps) are per­formed much more effi­cient­ly than with tra­di­tion­al «man­u­al» pro­cess­ing. Hyp­so­met­ric maps pro­vid­ed by GIS, allow you to per­form var­i­ous types of analy­sis in the study area in con­junc­tion with oth­er spa­tial data (remote sens­ing, for­est maps, GIS data inven­to­ry). Such an analy­sis can be used to assess the land­scape char­ac­ter­is­tics of the stud­ied ter­ri­to­ry, iden­ti­fy and clar­i­fy nat­ur­al bound­aries, and plan eco­nom­ic activ­i­ties based on the land­scape approach. For exam­ple, the reclas­si­fi­ca­tion of the hyp­so­met­ric map lay­er with dif­fer­ent steps (5, 10, 20 m, etc.) allows you to spec­i­fy the bound­aries of land­scape facies and tracts. A set of spa­tial data, includ­ing hyp­so­met­ric maps, can be used to cre­ate and present land­scape-mor­pho­log­i­cal maps. Land­scape­mor­pho­log­i­cal maps are a long-term sci­en­tif­ic basis for con­duct­ing mul­ti­di­rec­tion­al farm­ing and nature man­age­ment in the stud­ied ter­ri­to­ry. They can serve as a basis for mon­i­tor­ing the state and use of forests and for­est land. On the basis of land­scape­mor­pho­log­i­cal maps, it is pos­si­ble to con­duct a con­tin­u­ous assess­ment and inven­to­ry of nat­ur­al resources: land, air, water, plant and ani­mal populations.

Key­words: hyp­sо­met­ric mаp, fоrest lаnd, GIS, SRTM, DEM, height above sea lev­el, lаnd­scаpe mаp

2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

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Zhuk K.D., Svoikin F.V., Ugryu­mov S.A. Soft­ware for graph­i­cal rep­re­sen­ta­tion and dynam­ic cal­cu­la­tion of the out­put of fin­ished prod­ucts from a sep­a­rate part of the tree trunk. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 166–181 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.166–181

Abstract

The prob­lem of ful­ly account­ing for the con­trol of the size and qual­i­ty char­ac­ter­is­tics of wood obtained in the process of log­ging is one of the main aspects in the con­di­tions of mar­ket rela­tions for log­ging enter­pris­es and is a fac­tor in reg­u­lat­ing pro­duc­tion costs. The con­trol and mea­sure­ment sys­tem of mod­ern mul­ti­op­er­a­tion machines stores infor­ma­tion on the size para­me­ters of har­vest­ed wood in files with var­i­ous exten­sions. Cur­rent­ly, there is no domes­tic soft­ware that would allow you to dynam­i­cal­ly ana­lyze the vol­ume of a sin­gle tree trunk, there are only soft­ware pack­ages that allow you to eval­u­ate the har­vest­ed prod­ucts as a whole. The pur­pose of the work is to cre­ate soft­ware for graph­i­cal rep­re­sen­ta­tion and dynam­ic cal­cu­la­tion of the vol­ume of har­vest­ed wood by mul­ti-oper­a­tion for­est machines of prod­ucts, includ­ing for oper­a­tional account­ing of the dimen­sion­al para­me­ters of wood har­vest­ed from any part of the tree trunk. The devel­oped soft­ware is writ­ten in the Python pro­gram­ming lan­guage in PyCharm Com­mu­ni­ty pro­gram­ming envi­ron­ment. The devel­oped soft­ware allows you to per­form dynam­ic cal­cu­la­tion of the vol­ume of har­vest­ed wood by mul­ti-oper­a­tion for­est machines of prod­ucts, includ­ing for oper­a­tional account­ing of the dimen­sion­al para­me­ters of wood har­vest­ed from any part of the tree trunk, as well as graph­i­cal­ly present the results in a con­ve­nient form for analy­sis. Using the devel­oped pro­gram will allow you to quick­ly ana­lyze the size and qual­i­ty char­ac­ter­is­tics of har­vest­ed wood with the devel­op­ment of cor­rec­tive tech­no­log­i­cal solu­tions in the log­ging process­es, which helps to reduce oper­at­ing costs and the cost of har­vest­ing wood, increase pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and prof­it for tim­ber com­pa­nies from pro­duc­tion and eco­nom­ic activities.

Key­words: soft­ware, stm file, for­est machines, log­ging, size and qual­i­ty char­ac­ter­is­tics, dynam­ic calculation

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Mya­sis­chev D.G., Gor­ba­tov S.P., Vashutkin А.S., Lorents А.S. Ser­vice-life pre­dic­tion of new­ly-designed brake gears hav­ing in con­sid­er­a­tion inno­va­tion engi­neer­ing con­cepts. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 182–197 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.182–197

Abstract

Spe­cif­ic ratio­nal prob­lems were brought to con­sid­er­a­tion in order to val­i­date design para­me­ters and char­ac­ter­is­tics, par­tic­u­lar­ly behav­ior of brake sys­tems and their com­po­nents, for gain­ing max­i­mum per­for­mance of forestry vehi­cles, there­by pro­vid­ing safe oper­a­tion and max­i­mum out­put effi­cien­cy of the machin­ery con­cerned. The exper­i­men­tal study results have been gen­er­al­ized to improve effi­cien­cy of trans­port-pro­cess­ing vehi­cle brake sys­tems for pre­dict­ing ser­vice life of new­ly designed brake gears hav­ing in con­sid­er­a­tion inno­va­tion engi­neer­ing con­cepts sub­ject to the inven­tion. Accord­ing to the inven­tion “Method of com­pressed air cir­cu­la­tion with air fed to the brake gear fric­tion sur­faces dur­ing brak­ing and its embod­i­ment”, it is offered to pro­vide air cir­cu­la­tion in the wheel brake gear dur­ing brak­ing so that air is charged to the brake gear fric­tion sur­faces with a brake gear block and drum mov­ing close to each oth­er. Some com­plex exper­i­men­tal stud­ies were held in order to iden­ti­fy pos­si­ble pos­i­tive effects for imple­ment­ing such tech­ni­cal deci­sion. The exper­i­men­tal study results were ana­lyzed for demon­strat­ing improve­ment of forestry vehi­cle brake per­for­mance. The heuris­tic approach was offered for solv­ing the prob­lem gen­er­al­ized in order to improve forestry vehi­cle brake per­for­mance. The first sim­i­lar­i­ty the­o­rem was applied as a work­ing hypoth­e­sis. Tak­ing into account the pre­vi­ous­ly offered the­o­ries of sim­i­lar­i­ty of brake block behav­ior when test­ing on a bench and on a vir­tu­al loader, it was pos­si­ble to pre­dict ser­vice life of the brake gear sub­ject to the above tech­ni­cal deci­sion. As a result, the method of ser­vice life pre­dic­tion of new­ly-designed brake gears hav­ing in con­sid­er­a­tion inno­va­tion engi­neer­ing con­cepts sub­ject to the inven­tion was provided.

Key­words: brake effi­cien­cy, drum brake, test bench exper­i­ment, opti­miza­tion, the­o­ry of sim­i­lar­i­ty, brake ser­vice life extension

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Leonovich A.A., Glazuno­va M.G. On the para­me­ters of the assess­ment of sub­stances to reduce the flam­ma­bil­i­ty of wood boards. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 198–207 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.198–207

Abstract

The method­olog­i­cal prob­lem of fast and low-cost selec­tion of antiprenes for fire pro­tec­tion of wood-based pan­els is being solved. Peeled veneer was impreg­nat­ed with phos­pho­rus-con­tain­ing com­pounds based on HEDPA (diacid) and ami­dophos­phate KM (trib­a­sic acid) at a rate less than required for fire pro­tec­tion. Spec­i­mens 800 × 56 mm were test­ed on a semi­cir­cle device under con­di­tions of sup­pressed com­bus­tion due to the increas­ing heat removal as the com­bus­tion edge passed along a semi­cir­cle with a radius of 254 mm. The para­me­ters of the test results are ana­lyzed to assess the effec­tive­ness of fire retar­dants. It is con­clud­ed that the method is suit­able for the ini­tial assess­ment of fire retar­dants and selec­tion for the final and cer­ti­fied fire haz­ard test. 

Key­words: chip­board, fire tests, flam­ma­bil­i­ty, flame retardants

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Demin V.А., Ipa­to­va Е.U., Pakhuchaya L.М. The IR Fouri­er spec­troscopy of pine wood, struck with red belt fun­gus (Fomi­top­sis pini­co­la). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 208–216 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.208–216

Abstract

Сhanges of the Scots pine wood (Pínus sylvéstris) with­in a sin­gle tree trunk caused by its bio­log­i­cal destruc­tion made by red belt fun­gus Fomi­top­sis pini­co­la (Schw. ex Fr.) Karst were stud­ied by use of the IR Fouri­er spec­troscopy method. The wood was cut in Syk­tyvdin region of the Komi Repub­lic. From the trunk about 36 сm in diam­e­ter a sam­ple was sawed about 15 cm thick. Three sam­ples were select­ed for spec­tra: 1 – light brown non-destruc­t­ed wood from the cen­tre of the trunk, 2 – dark brown, adja­cent to the com­plete­ly destroyed wood; 3 – from the periph­ery of the trunk not clear­ly affect­ed by rot. The research was made by use of spec­trom­e­ter Pres­tige-21 pro­duced by Shi­madzu com­pa­ny in the field of the wave num­bers 4000–400 сm–1 with a res­o­lu­tion of 4 cm–1 (20 scans). Absorp­tion spec­tra were exam­ined by using a dif­fu­sion reflec­tor (DR). It is shown that bio destruc­tion of the wood fiber of pine is reflect­ed on the IR Fouri­er spec­tra. Changes are observed in the absorp­tion spec­trum that char­ac­ter­ize the valence oscil­la­tions of hydrox­yl, meth­yl­ene, car­bonyl groups, and skele­tal oscil­la­tions of the aro­mat­ic ring. A deep destruc­tion of wood in the cen­tre of the trunk is accom­pa­nied by a bath­wa­ter drift (1734 сm–1 to 1719 сm–1) and a sig­nif­i­cant increase in the absorp­tion band of the valence oscil­la­tions of car­bonyl groups (1719 сm–1), as well as change of the spec­tra con­tour of the absorp­tion from ~1719 to ~1100 cm–1. In the spec­trum of the dis­rupt­ed wood, the inten­si­ty of the absorp­tion bands in this area decreas­es, and in the spec­tra of the sam­ples from the periph­ery and the cen­ter of the trunk that have pre­served the mor­pho­log­i­cal struc­ture of the wood increas­es. There is a sig­nif­i­cant increase in the absorp­tion band in the dis­rupt­ed wood 1601 сm–1, that becomes big­ger than, band inten­si­ty max­i­mum 1508 сm–1, that is not typ­i­cal for the IR spec­trum of healthy conif­er­ous wood, in which the ratio of the inten­si­ty of these absorp­tion bands is the opposite.

Key­words: scots pine, IR Fouri­er DO spec­troscopy (FTIR), red belt fun­gus (fomi­top­sis pini­co­la), dis­rup­ture of wood poly­mers, absorp­tion bands, valence oscil­la­tions, hydrox­ylic, car­bonylic, meth­yl­ene groups, aro­mat­ic structures

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Pavlov N.A., Spit­syn A.A., Minich M.I., Bakhti­yaro­va A.V. Towards qual­i­ty char­coal bri­quettes. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 217–231 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.217–231

Abstract

The work inves­ti­gat­ed the char­ac­ter­is­tics and prop­er­ties that affect the oper­a­tional capa­bil­i­ties of char­coal bri­quettes used for hookah smok­ing. A com­par­a­tive analy­sis of char­coal bri­quettes from coconut, birch and pine raw mate­ri­als. The main raw mate­r­i­al for the pro­duc­tion of hookah bri­quettes is coconut coal, which is an expen­sive raw mate­r­i­al. The paper pro­pos­es to replace coconut coal with birch, which is eco­nom­i­cal­ly fea­si­ble. To obtain coal sam­ples, pyrol­y­sis of coconut, birch and pine was car­ried out. The obtained sam­ples were fur­ther inves­ti­gat­ed by the TGA and DTG meth­ods, mois­ture, ash, and non-volatile car­bon con­tent were deter­mined. A study sim­u­lat­ing the work­ing con­di­tion of the bri­quette was car­ried out, which made it pos­si­ble to deter­mine the most impor­tant char­ac­ter­is­tics of the char­coal bri­quette used for hookah smok­ing. It is revealed that the main oper­a­tional char­ac­ter­is­tics are: the smell and dura­bil­i­ty of the bri­quette in work­ing con­di­tion, the nature of the destruc­tion under intense expo­sure to air. The influ­ence of the fol­low­ing fac­tors on the qual­i­ty of bri­quettes was deter­mined: raw mate­ri­als for coal, frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion of coal, type of binder, amount of binder, press­ing pres­sure. The obtained birch char­coal bri­quettes are not infe­ri­or to coconut bri­quettes in a num­ber of char­ac­ter­is­tics, which allows to reduce the cost of pro­duc­ing char­coal bri­quettes when using birch raw mate­ri­als instead of coconut. The prospect of using birch coal as a sub­sti­tute for coconut coal is revealed, and a for­mu­la for obtain­ing the final prod­uct is also proposed.

Key­words: coal, char­coal bri­quette, hookah’s smok­ing, starch

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Bogolit­syn K.G., Moska­lyuk E.A., Kos­to­gorov N.M., Shulgi­na E.V., Ivanchenko N.L. Char­ac­ter­is­tics of local waste­water qual­i­ty in the sul­phate pro­duc­tion of fibre semi-fin­ished prod­ucts. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 232–249 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.232–249

Abstract

The main direc­tion of the devel­op­ment of eco­nom­ic is har­mo­niza­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal and eco­log­i­cal solu­tions with the intro­duc­tion of the best avail­able tech­nolo­gies as stat­ed by the Fed­er­al law “On envi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion” and leg­isla­tive acts of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion. The pro­duc­tion of cel­lu­lose, paper, and card­board is one of the most water-con­sum­ing indus­tries and due to the for­ma­tion of the sig­nif­i­cant vol­umes of waste­waters con­tain­ing var­i­ous chem­i­cal com­po­nents have a neg­a­tive impact on the envi­ron­ment. There­fore, the aim of the cre­at­ing of a sys­tem of the effec­tive eco­log­i­cal and ana­lyt­i­cal con­trol of waste­waters’ qual­i­ty at all stages of tech­no­log­i­cal pro­duc­tion; their purifi­ca­tion and release into nat­ur­al waters remains the most in demand and urgent. In the present arti­cle the prin­ci­ples of cre­ation of the sys­tem in-house con­trol of an inte­grat­ed pulp and paper mill pro­duc­ing the card­board based on the gen­er­al­ized indi­ca­tors of local efflu­ents’ qual­i­ty. The spe­cif­ic fea­tures of the for­ma­tion and char­ac­ter­i­za­tion of the com­po­si­tion of waste­waters from cel­lu­lose sul­fate pro­duc­tion with the joint evap­o­ra­tion of the “black” and “red” liquors.

Key­words: eco­log­i­cal and ana­lyt­i­cal con­trol, waste­waters, liquor, gen­er­al­ized (inte­gral) indicators

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Vurasko A.V., Per­vo­va I.G., Shapo­val­o­va I.O. Met­als con­tent in plant bio­mass and plant-based mate­ri­als. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 250–266 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.250–266

Abstract

The assess­ment of plant bio­mass for the con­tent of met­als-eco­tox­i­cants in trees of the urban envi­ron­ment (birch, aspen, apple) and the bio­mass of cere­al crops and pulp (tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose) from it was car­ried out. As the bio­mass of cere­al crops, the fol­low­ing were stud­ied: buck­wheat hulls, oat straw (Chelyabin­sk region, 2018); fruit husks and rice straw (Krasnodar Ter­ri­to­ry, 2019). The deter­mi­na­tion of the met­al con­tent was car­ried out by the titri­met­ric method, opti­cal emis­sion spec­trom­e­try (ICP-OES) and mass spec­trom­e­try (ICP-MS) meth­ods with induc­tive­ly cou­pled plas­ma. The oxida­tive­organo­sol­vent method of delig­ni­fi­ca­tion was used. It has been estab­lished that the sur­face of the leaves of trees locat­ed along the roads sorbs lead com­pounds with an excess of the max­i­mum allow­able con­cen­tra­tion (MAC) by 1.1–2.6 times; Cu com­pounds – by 6.8–14.2 times; for zinc the con­cen­tra­tion is below the MAC val­ues. Dur­ing hot extrac­tion of leaf bio­mass, it was estab­lished that the excess of the con­tent of sol­u­ble lead com­pounds is 2.6–2.7 times of the MAC, for zinc com­pounds – con­cen­tra­tions is below the MAC val­ues. No accu­mu­la­tion of cop­per com­pounds was detect­ed. Dur­ing delig­ni­fi­ca­tion of non-woody plant raw mate­ri­als, due to the accu­mu­la­tion effect, the com­pounds of Fe, Zn, Pb, Sr, As, Cr, Cd are most sus­cep­ti­ble to con­cen­tra­tion. The great­est amount of pol­lu­tants is con­tained in buck­wheat hulls, as well as in pulp from them; dur­ing delig­ni­fi­ca­tion of rice hulls the con­cen­tra­tion for all pol­lu­tants was decreas­ing. A high­er con­tent of heavy met­als, both in the bio­mass of cere­als and in pulp from it, was observed in the plants of the Chelyabin­sk region, com­pared with the Krasnodar Ter­ri­to­ry; Min­er­al com­po­nents and met­als are more effec­tive­ly removed from raw mate­ri­als with an ini­tial­ly high ash con­tent (fruit shells and rice straw). Appar­ent­ly, most of the heavy met­als are locat­ed in the min­er­al com­po­nent, and not in the cell wall. Cel­lu­lose-con­tain­ing mate­ri­als obtained from fruit shells and straw of cere­al crops should not be rec­om­mend­ed for food use with­out addi­tion­al research. 

Key­words: pol­lu­tants, eco­tox­i­ca­tion, heavy met­als, organo­sol­vent delig­ni­fi­ca­tion, bio­mass, tree foliage, fruit shells, straw, cereals

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Shkol’nikov E.V. Kinet­ics and mech­a­nism of lin­ear crys­tal growth in As2Se3 glass. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2021, is. 234, pp. 267–282 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2021.234.267–282

Abstract

The influ­ence of small addi­tions of tin and lead on the kinet­ic para­me­ters of isother­mal bulk crys­tal­liza­tion of glass­es based on As2Se3. The kinet­ics of main­ly sur­face crys­tal­liza­tion of As2Se3 glass used in elec­tron­ic engi­neer­ing and fiber IR optics has been stud­ied by dif­fer­en­tial scan­ning calorime­try and microscopy. The influ­ence of the super­cool­ing val­ue ∆T on the mech­a­nism and kinet­ic para­me­ters of crys­tal­liza­tion of As2Se3 glass is not suf­fi­cient­ly stud­ied, The the­o­ret­i­cal analy­sis of the exper­i­men­tal depen­dences of the lin­ear growth rate of As2Se3 crys­tals on the tem­per­a­ture and vis­cos­i­ty of the As2Se3 glass has been per­formed. In the tem­per­a­ture range 240–345 °С (over­cool­ing 135°–30°), a dis­lo­ca­tion mech­a­nism has appeared to be prob­a­ble for the lin­ear growth of spherulites and the sur­face crys­tal­lized lay­er in the bulk As2Se3 glass. For indi­vid­ual crys­tals with dis­lo­ca­tion-free faces in As2Se3 spherulites, the lamel­lar (plate-like) growth mech­a­nism with sur­face two dimen­sion­al nucle­ation (2Dsg mod­el) appeared to be prob­a­ble. The lin­ear growth rate in glass As2Se3 at 240–345°C can be the­o­ret­i­cal­ly cal­cu­lat­ed, if we intro­duce the prob­a­bil­i­ty fac­tor f (Т∆T) to the Turnball–Cohen for­mu­la of the growth on the steps of screw dis­lo­ca­tions and assume the free acti­va­tion ener­gy for the crys­tal growth ∆Ga” (T) to be equal to the kinet­ic bar­ri­er at the vis­cous flow of the glass ∆Gη # (T) in the Heir­ing equation.

Key­words: mea­sure­ment and the­o­ret­i­cal analy­sis of the rate of isother­mal crys­tal growth, the effect of over­cool­ing on the mech­a­nism of lin­ear crys­tal growth in glasses

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2020 issues

Issue 233
1. FORESTRY

Guryanov M.O., Antonov O.I., Dzhikovich Ju.V. Depen­dence of size and weight indices of Euro­pean spruce tree branch­es on their phy­to­coenot­ic state. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 6–18 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.6–18

Abstract

The study of crown struc­ture is an impor­tant ele­ment of both eco­log­i­cal and sil­vi­cul­tur­al research. Inten­sive refor­esta­tion involves reg­u­lar thin­ning and mul­ti-stage prun­ing for get­ting high qual­i­ty knot-free tim­ber. At the same time, the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of the work is relat­ed to the quan­ti­ta­tive para­me­ters of the crown: the num­ber of liv­ing and dry branch­es in a whorl, branch diam­e­ters, the num­ber of whorls, etc. As a result of stud­ies car­ried out in arti­fi­cial stands of spruce of dif­fer­ent ages, the quan­ti­ta­tive and weight para­me­ters of crowns in trees of dif­fer­ent growth class­es were estab­lished. It was also found that the inten­si­ty of branch growth, as well as the process of clear­ing the trunk from branch­es, large­ly depend on the phy­to­cenot­ic posi­tion of trees.

Key­words: Euro­pean spruce, quan­ti­ta­tive and weight para­me­ters, mod­el­ing of the crown structure

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Thanh Tran Trung, Gryazkin A.V., Belyae­va N.V., Kazi I.A., Bespalo­va V.V., Syrnikov I.A. Com­par­a­tive assess­ment of the struc­ture and stocks of wood and non­wood resources of birch and spruce forests. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 19–38 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.19–38

Abstract

The pur­pose of this work is to make a com­pre­hen­sive assess­ment of resources, com­pare their struc­ture and reserves deposit­ed in the most com­mon type of birch and spruce forests in the Leningrad region. The rel­e­vance of the work is due to the grow­ing inter­est of researchers in the diver­si­ty of for­est resources. Com­par­a­tive data on the main types of resources in birch and spruce forests, which are most com­mon in the Leningrad region, are pre­sent­ed. Com­par­a­tive data on the main types of resources in birch and spruce forests, the most com­mon in these con­di­tions, are pre­sent­ed. The objects of study in the com­po­si­tion of birch blue­ber­ry 65% of birch and 21% of spruce, and the spruce blue­ber­ry on the con­trary, 68% of the spruce and 12% birch. Reserves of birch bark and spruce bark are deter­mined by vol­ume and weight method. The yield of berries and stocks of resource species was eval­u­at­ed on cir­cu­lar account­ing plat­forms with a radius of 1.785 m. Stocks of tar­get species of plants were deter­mined by the method of cuts. The yield of berries is a one-time col­lec­tion dur­ing their mat­u­ra­tion. The inten­si­ty of juice pro­duc­tion and juice pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of birch trees were deter­mined exper­i­men­tal­ly, tak­ing into account the diam­e­ter of the trunks, crown devel­op­ment and age of the trees. Prices by resource type used as of 2019. It is shown that the cost of wood in the birch for­est is 200840 rubles/ha, and in the spruce for­est – 239926 rubles/ha. The total rev­enue from the sale of the reg­is­tered types of resources in the birch for­est may amount to about 1.4 mil­lion rubles/ha, and in the spruce for­est – more than 940 thou­sand rubles/ha. The cost of record­ed resources in the birch for­est, depend­ing on the sea­son, ranges from 414362 to 1359100 rubles/ha, and in the spruce for­est – from 348138 to 947454 rubles/ha per year. At the same time, on aver­age for a year, blue­ber­ry birch can bring income of 2643 rubles/ha due to wood, and spruce – 2666 rubles/ha. There­fore, the main part of the resources of the for­est area is not wood, but non – wood resources, or by-prod­ucts of the for­est. The results obtained can be used when updat­ing the nor­ma­tive doc­u­men­ta­tion on for­est man­age­ment, when devel­op­ing a project for the devel­op­ment of a for­est plot, when draw­ing up a lease agree­ment for a for­est plot. 

Key­words: for­est area, for­est type, birch stand, spruce stand, raw resources. 

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Usolt­sev V.А., Kovyazin V.F., Tse­pordey I.S. Increas­ing con­tri­bu­tion of cli­mate vari­ables to the expla­na­tion of Quer­cus spp. sin­gle-tree bio­mass vari­abil­i­ty in Eura­sia as relat­ed to mod­el devi­a­tion from allom­e­try. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 39–59 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.39–59

Abstract

For­est ecosys­tems, as sinks of atmos­pher­ic car­bon, play an impor­tant role in reduc­ing CO2 emis­sions and pre­vent­ing annu­al tem­per­a­tures from ris­ing. We attempt­ed to mod­el Quer­cus spp. sin­gle-tree bio­mass using the data from 500 sam­ple trees dis­trib­uted along the trans-Eurasian hydrother­mal gra­di­ents. Today, sev­er­al mod­els of the bio­mass of trees and stands have been pro­posed, includ­ing both mor­pho­log­i­cal-struc­tur­al char­ac­ter­is­tics of trees and stands, and cli­mate indi­ca­tors as inde­pen­dent vari­ables. The mod­els make it pos­si­ble to pre­dict changes in bio­mass due to shifts in cli­mate trends, but do not show the con­tri­bu­tion of cli­mate vari­ables to the expla­na­tion of bio­mass vari­abil­i­ty, which depends on both the species of the tree and stand, and the struc­ture of a mod­el. The mod­els designed show to what extent the devi­a­tion from the clas­si­cal allo­met­ric mod­el caused by the inclu­sion of addi­tion­al inde­pen­dent vari­ables, increas­es the con­tri­bu­tion of cli­mate vari­ables to the expla­na­tion of bio­mass vari­abil­i­ty. The mod­el shows the great­est con­tri­bu­tion when it includes age, stem diam­e­ter, tree height, and their com­bined effect. The 3Dinterpretation of the «best» mod­el showed a pro­peller-shaped depen­dence of the com­po­nents of oak tree bio­mass on tem­per­a­tures and pre­cip­i­ta­tion, the shape of which is a mir­ror image of a sim­i­lar depen­dence for the bio­mass of trees of two-nee­dled pines and larch­es. This may be due to the func­tion­ing traits of leaved and conif­er­ous species.

Key­words: tree bio­mass, bio­mass com­po­nents, relat­ed mod­els, struc­tur­al inde­pen­dent vari­ables, cli­mat­ic inde­pen­dent vari­ables, the con­tri­bu­tion of cli­mate vari­ables to the expla­na­tion of bio­mass variability

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Danilov D.A., Shes­takov V.A., Shes­tako­va T.A., Enders O.O. Suc­ces­sion­al stages of restora­tion of woody veg­e­ta­tion on posta­gro­genic lands of the Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 60–80 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.60–80

Abstract

Restora­tion of tree com­mu­ni­ties on posta­groge­nous soils on bino­mi­al sed­i­ments in the Ore­dezh­sky plateau of the Luzh­sko-Ore­dezh­sky land­scape of the Leningrad Region was car­ried out. The method of account­ing sites and test areas for the account­ing of renew­able and mature stands was applied. A selec­tion was made for the stages of veg­e­ta­tion restora­tion by a num­ber of orna­men­tal-shrub­by, shrub-mead­ow, decid­u­ous conif­er­ous and ripe conif­er­ous trees with spruce or pine dom­i­nance. It is shown that with the growth and devel­op­ment of tree com­mu­ni­ties there is a change of species com­po­si­tion from ores and mead­ow veg­e­ta­tion in liv­ing ground cov­er to the preva­lence of for­est species and their com­plete replace­ment in mature conif­er­ous stands. The role of spring field fire impact on the intro­duc­tion of conifers under the canopy of leafy com­mu­ni­ties is empha­sized. It is shown that the dis­tance from the source of the moth­er tree holds back the for­ma­tion of an enclosed tree canopy under deposit con­di­tions. It has been estab­lished that in mature stands on posta­groge­nous old growth lands the share of spruce or pine depends on the par­ti­cle size dis­tri­b­u­tion of the under­ly­ing hori­zon. In posta­groge­nous soils on the sandy hori­zon pine will pre­vail. As the par­ti­cle size dis­tri­b­u­tion becomes heav­ier to the loamy hori­zon, spruce will dom­i­nate. Pos­si­ble pre­dict­ed scheme of devel­op­ment of woody com­mu­ni­ties under con­di­tions of posta­gro­genic soils on soils formed on bino­mi­al sed­i­ments has been con­struct­ed. Lack of infor­ma­tion and dis­per­sion of data on the course of the for­est for­ma­tion process on for­mer agri­cul­tur­al lands on bivalve soils does not allow form­ing a sci­en­tif­i­cal­ly ground­ed sys­tem of mea­sures for ratio­nal for­est man­age­ment on these areas. 

Key­words: post-agro­genic lands, soils on bino­mi­al sed­i­ments, nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of decid­u­ous species, pine and spruce under­growth, mature pine and spruce stands, pro­jec­tive grass cover

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Mamaev N.A., Bui Dinh Dyk, Selikhovkin A.V. The sec­ond out­break of the poplar leafmin­er Phyl­lono­ryc­ter pop­uli­foliel­la in St. Peters­burg. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 81–94 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.81–94

Abstract

Pop­u­la­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics, mor­tal­i­ty fac­tors, and food pref­er­ences of the moth Phyl­lono­ryc­ter pop­uli­foliel­la (Tre­it­shke, 1833) (Lep­i­doptera: Gracil­lari­idae) min­ing leaves of poplar in St. Peters­burg were stud­ied under con­di­tions of the sec­ond out­break of this pest in the his­to­ry of the urban plant­i­ngs in St. Peters­burg. In dif­fer­ent dis­tricts of St. Peters­burg, sam­ple plots were estab­lished with dif­fer­ent inten­si­ty of dam­age by the poplar leafmin­er, vary­ing from 5.2 to 21.7 mines per leaf. On each sam­ple plot, in the first days after the begin­ning of the flight of the first gen­er­a­tion adults (the first ten days of August), two branch­es were cut in the low­er part of the crown from each test tree, on which mines of at least 50 leaves were col­lect­ed and ana­lyzed to estab­lish the caus­es of death and the pro­por­tion of the sur­viv­ing indi­vid­u­als. With one excep­tion, all sam­ple plots were rep­re­sent­ed by one poplar species – the Berlin poplar Pop­u­lus × bero­li­nen­sis. This species was most inten­sive­ly dam­aged by Ph. pop­uli­foliel­la. Out­break in 2017–2019 was ini­tial­ly local­ized in the Nevsky Dis­trict and then grad­u­al­ly spread through­out the city, hav­ing the pro­nounced mosa­ic char­ac­ter, how­ev­er, the rea­sons for the mosa­ic dis­tri­b­u­tion of the out­break are unclear. The den­si­ty of the pest pop­u­la­tion has increased sig­nif­i­cant­ly in the Nevsky Dis­trict over the past years. Devel­op­ment of the moth is most suc­cess­ful on trees with a high pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of the pest. Sev­en or more adult moths emerge from one leaf in such areas (36–52% of the lar­vae that begun to devel­op), while at a low­er den­si­ty (on aver­age, 5–11 mines per leaf), the emer­gence was 8 and 19%, respec­tive­ly. This find­ing allows us to assume the lead­ing role of the state of for­age trees in the devel­op­ment of the poplar leafmin­er. Con­tri­bu­tion of the oth­er fac­tors affect­ing lar­val mor­tal­i­ty was not pos­si­ble to evaluate.

Key­words: out­break, spread­ing, Phyl­lono­ryc­ter pop­uli­foliel­la, Berlin poplar, pop­u­la­tion density

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Alek­seev A.S., Cher­nov I.M., Niki­forchin I.V., Ivano­va E.A. Tree stands of Scots pine and Nor­way spruce state assess­ment using hemi­spher­i­cal pho­tog­ra­phy by Fish-eye lens and sub­se­quent analy­sis of the dig­i­tal images. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 95–110 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.95–110

Abstract

On the exam­ple of pure and mixed stands of conif­er­ous species with a pre­dom­i­nance of Scots pine and Nor­way spruce, a search study was con­duct­ed to deter­mine the state of stands based on dig­i­tal hemi­spher­i­cal shoot­ing of the for­est canopy from bot­tom to top with a Fish-eye lens and sub­se­quent pro­cess­ing of the images obtained. The research was car­ried out on 25 test areas laid down accord­ing to the Euro­pean method of mon­i­tor­ing the state of forests ICP-Forests. On the test areas land­based method to iden­ti­fy indi­ca­tors of the sta­tus of the for­est as the aver­age defo­li­a­tion of upper 1/3 part of the trees, defo­li­a­tion of all trees and the class of dam­age of for­est stands. At the same test areas, images of the tree canopy were obtained with a Fish-eye hemi­spher­i­cal lens, which were processed using the Gap Light Ana­lyz­er open access pro­gram. Using regres­sion and vari­ance analy­sis meth­ods, sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant rela­tion­ships were estab­lished between indi­ca­tors of the state of stands and their leaf area index with deter­mi­na­tion coef­fi­cient from 79,8 to 87,4%. The results obtained allow us to devel­op a method­ol­o­gy for assess­ing the state of stands, which are usu­al­ly deter­mined visu­al­ly with a high degree of sub­jec­tiv­i­ty, by measuring. 

Key­words: Scots pine and Nor­way spruce stands, sam­ple plot, crown defo­li­a­tion, dam­age class, hemi­spher­i­cal sur­vey, Fish-eye lens, regres­sion analy­sis, vari­ance analysis

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Pahucha­ja L.M., Pahuchiy V.V. Species diver­si­ty of phy­to­cenoses on the drained for­est lands of South Timan. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 111–125 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.111–125

Abstract

The pur­pose of the study is to deter­mine the species com­po­si­tion of phy­to­cenoses at for­est drained area of the Komi Repub­lic poor­ly stud­ied in field of for­est dran­age – in the ter­ri­to­ry of South Timan, to iden­ti­fy the pres­ence of rare and pro­tect­ed species here, to assess their con­di­tion and to give rec­om­men­da­tions for pro­tec­tion. Stud­ies were car­ried out in the Troit­sk-Pecho­ra and Ukhta fore­stries of the Komi Repub­lic at sites whose drainage was car­ried out in 1972–1989. The descrip­tion of veg­e­ta­tion and species com­po­si­tion of phy­to­cenoses was per­formed on exper­i­men­tal sites laid down to assess the for­est effi­cien­cy of for­est drainage and by route method. Dur­ing the work, geob­otan­i­cal and floris­tic meth­ods were used. The names of species and fam­i­lies are giv­en in the sum­ma­ry of S.K. Cherepanov. 112 species were iden­ti­fied at the research sites, includ­ing 93 species of vas­cu­lar plants belong­ing to 38 fam­i­lies, 13 species of moss, 6 species of lichens. The most rep­re­sent­ed fam­i­lies are rosaceae – about 11%, heather – 8%, lute – 7%, pine – 6% and mead­ow grass – 6% of the total num­ber of species. Berries and edi­ble herbs are rep­re­sent­ed by 21 species, med­i­c­i­nal plants – 42 species. Rare and pro­tect­ed species of plants includ­ed in the Red Book of the Repub­lic of Komi are found in the drained areas and in near­ly to them: Pinus sibir­i­ca du Tour, Dry­opteris fil­ix-mas (L.) Shott, Ado­nis sibir­i­ca Patrin ex Ledeb., Thal­ic­trum aqui­legi­foli­um L., Paeo­nia anom­ala L., Chrisos­ple­ni­um tetran­drum (Lund ex Malm­gr.), Ham­mar­bia palu­dosa (L.) O. Kuntze, Lobaria pul­monar­ia (L.) Hoffm. Visu­al assess­ments indi­cate a good or sat­is­fac­to­ry con­di­tion of these species and adapt­abil­i­ty to the place growth con­di­tions. There are no dis­ap­peared or pos­si­bly dis­ap­peared species at the research sites. The rar­i­ty sta­tus of cer­tain species includ­ed in the Red Book of the Repub­lic of Komi and not­ed at the research sites for the peri­od from 1998 to 2019. increased (Ham­mar­bia palu­dosa (L.) O. Kuntze), decreased (Paeo­nia anom­ala L.) or and increased, and decreased (Lobaria pul­monar­ia (L.) Hoffm.). This indi­cates the advis­abil­i­ty of mon­i­tor­ing the num­ber of rare and pro­tect­ed species, includ­ing in the con­di­tions of reg­u­lat­ing the water regime by meth­ods of for­est drainage. Data on the species com­po­si­tion of phy­to­cenoses can be used to devel­op a regime for the pro­tec­tion of rare plant species in phy­to­cenoses on the drained for­est lands of South Timan in the Komi Republic. 

Key­words: Komi Repub­lic, South Timan, for­est drainage, species diver­si­ty, rare and pro­tect­ed plant species.

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Andronov A.V., Zverev I.A. Inves­ti­ga­tion of the para­me­ters deter­min­ing the val­ue of the shift pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of a feller-bunch­ers. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 126–138 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.126–138

Abstract

The study presents results of exper­i­men­tal mea­sure­ments of aim­ing a tree, its’ cap­ture and cut­ting for a feller-bunch­er shear felling head. The study obtains dis­tri­b­u­tion laws of feller-bunch­ers’ pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and para­me­ters deter­min­ing the cycle time for pro­cess­ing a sin­gle tree. The paper presents regres­sion rela­tion­ship between the shift capac­i­ty and the machine trav­el­ling time between the belts.

Key­words: feller-bunch­ers, shift capac­i­ty, dis­tri­b­u­tion law, sta­tis­ti­cal analysis

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Khitrov E.G., Andronov A.V., Nes­tero­va E.V. Solu­tion of the Boussinesq’s prob­lem in eval­u­at­ing ratio between shear stress and con­tact pres­sure. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 139–151 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.139–151

Abstract

Solu­tion of fun­da­men­tal Boussinesq’s prob­lem is wide­ly used in tech­ni­cal sci­ences and allows effec­tive­ly solv­ing a wide range of prob­lems in forestry sci­ence. On its basis, it is pos­si­ble to obtain prac­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant results in the field of assess­ing the dis­tri­b­u­tion of stress­es aris­ing in processed mate­r­i­al under the influ­ence of a work­ing body. The pur­pose of our study is to ana­lyze the results of cal­cu­la­tions and estab­lish the ratio of the max­i­mum val­ue of the shear stress and the aver­age pres­sure over the con­tact patch of the work­ing body with the mate­r­i­al being processed. The the­o­ret­i­cal basis of the work is formed by the equa­tions for the dis­tri­b­u­tion of nor­mal and tan­gen­tial stress­es aris­ing in an elas­tic half-space when a rigid cone is pressed into it. As a result of the analy­sis of the results of the­o­ret­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions, it was shown that the char­ac­ter of the nor­mal stress dis­tri­b­u­tion over the depth of the deformed mas­sif of mate­r­i­al is approx­i­mat­ed with high accu­ra­cy by a qua­drat­ic func­tion (based on the obtained approx­i­mate func­tion, the aver­age pres­sure over the con­tact patch of the inden­ter with the mas­sif and the nor­mal stress over the depth of the mas­sif were com­pared). In this case, as shown by the results of cal­cu­la­tions, the func­tion of the shear stress dis­tri­b­u­tion in the deformed mas­sif has the extremum. Com­par­i­son of the obtained data on the val­ue of the extremum of the shear stress func­tion with the val­ue of the approx­i­mate nor­mal stress func­tion at the inter­face of the inden­ter con­tact with the deformable mass is per­formed. As a result, it is shown that the max­i­mum shear stress in absolute val­ue is 11–12% of the aver­age con­tact pres­sure. The cal­cu­la­tions were car­ried out with vary­ing Pois­son’s ratio of the mas­sif mate­r­i­al; the estab­lished ratio remains prac­ti­cal­ly unchanged.

Key­words: nor­mal stress, shear stress, aver­age con­tact pres­sure, for­est soils, wood mate­ri­als, crushing

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Chuprakov V.O., Posy­panov S.V. Research find­ings of an relo­cat­able small size pon­toon pier inter­ac­tion with the aquat­ic medi­um dur­ing its tow­ing. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 152–165 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.152–165

Abstract

Appli­ance of the relo­cat­able small-sized pon­toon­piers allows to use the log­ging machin­ery for load­ing of the round wood at the sites of ship­ment. It enables to increase vol­umes of the tim­ber trans­porta­tion vol­umes using rel­a­tive­ly unex­pen­sive water trans­port and pro­vides bet­ter access to the raw wood resources placed at the remote wood stands. It is sug­gest­ed that the mobile pon­toon piers will be replaced from one load­ing site at the small-scale shal­low riv­er to anoth­er, using the small-sized tug­boats. In order to make pro­jec­tions of these tow­ing oper­a­tions, the reli­able infor­ma­tion regard­ing water resis­tance to the pon­toons motion is need­ed, tak­ing into con­sid­er­a­tion the low depths con­di­tions. The named cir­cum­stances jus­ti­fy neces­si­ty of the men­tioned research. As a part of the the­o­ret­i­cal study, the fac­tors affect­ing the resis­tance of water to uni­form veloc­i­ty motion of a pon­toon were char­ac­ter­ized. The cor­re­spond­ing depen­dence was pre­sent­ed in the sym­bol­i­cand dimen­sion­less forms. The rea­sons for exclu­sion of the Reynolds num­ber and fix­ing of the of a pon­toon under­wa­ter body pat­terns were jus­ti­fied. The result­ing sym­bol­ic form estab­lish­es depen­dence of water resis­tance coef­fi­cient from rel­a­tive depth and the Froude num­ber. Based upon the devel­oped equa­tion, the mod­el exper­i­ments were pro­ceed­ed. The regres­sion mod­el for cal­cu­la­tion of the resis­tance coef­fi­cient and con­se­quent­ly, using the New­ton equa­tion, the force of hydraulic drag – was devel­oped. Vari­a­tion of the tow­ing speed (relat­ed to water) from 0.5 to 1.5 m/sec. and, con­se­quent­ly, increase of the Froude num­ber, lead to 20…25% raise of the coef­fi­cient of resis­tance. The rel­a­tive depth decrease from 4.0 to 1.5 caus­es 110…120% increase of the men­tioned coef­fi­cient. Such a suf­fi­cient impact of shal­low­ness is explained by increase of the rel­a­tive veloc­i­ty in the after­body zone of a pon­toon. The acquired infor­ma­tion allows to improve plan­ning of tow­ing oper­a­tions dur­ing relo­ca­tion of the pon­toon piers from one load­ing site to another. 

Key­words: round wood, relo­cat­able pier, water resis­tance, ship­ping, tim­ber loading

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Zubo­va O.V., Silet­skiy V.V. Improv­ing the tech­nol­o­gy of con­struc­tion of a lon­gi­tu­di­nal drainage sys­tem. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 166–176 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.166–176

Abstract

There’re pre­sent­ed results of stud­ies of the lon­gi­tu­di­nal drainage of for­est roads in the Leningrad region. The pur­pose of this study is to devel­op mea­sures to improve the oper­a­tion of side ditch­es of for­est roads. The study showed that the lack of main­te­nance of the lon­gi­tu­di­nal drainage sys­tem has a neg­a­tive impact not only on the roadbed, but also has a dev­as­tat­ing effect on the for­est road as a whole. An alter­na­tive mate­r­i­al is pro­posed – a mix­ture of sludge and soil for use in the con­struc­tion of a lon­gi­tu­di­nal drainage sys­tem, as well as an alter­na­tive method for con­struct­ing a ditch using a mix­ture of sludge and soil. The use of the pro­posed tech­nol­o­gy and mate­r­i­al will increase the dura­bil­i­ty of the struc­ture due to strong mono­lith­ic crys­tal struc­tures formed dur­ing the inter­ac­tion of nepheline sludge and local soils.

Key­words: a mix­ture of sludge and soil, for­est roads, cul­verts, ditch­es, lon­gi­tu­di­nal drainage

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Bazarov S.M., Belenkii Yu.I., Svoikin F.V., Svoikin V.F., Balde T.M.D. Sys­tem analy­sis of the wheel forwarder’s tech­no­log­i­cal effi­cien­cy on the unload­ing oper­a­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 177–188 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.177–188

Abstract

Sys­tem analy­sis allows you to build a sin­gle func­tion­al space – the time of pro­duc­tion oper­a­tions for dif­fer­ent lev­els of con­nec­tiv­i­ty of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es. The Scan­di­na­vian tech­nol­o­gy is based on a com­plex of «har­vester + for­warder» machines con­nect­ed by a pro­duc­tion cycle. Mod­ern har­vester are main­ly sin­gle­mod­ule (sin­gle-grip): all oper­a­tions (felling wood, prun­ing branch­es, buck­ing and mea­sur­ing, sub-sort­ing) are per­formed with a sin­gle har­vester head locat­ed at the end of the manip­u­la­tor. Tree felling begins with bring­ing the felling head to the tree, medi­um trees are felled with one cut. When cut­ting down the main use, the felling remains are put on a skid­ding road under the machine. Under the new trend, felling residues are col­lect­ed for the pro­duc­tion of fuel wood. For har­vester, we note the fol­low­ing four phas­es (sub-oper­a­tions) of work: 1 – mov­ing from one Park­ing lot to anoth­er, 2 – bring­ing the felling head to the tree, cut­ting and felling, 3 – delimb­ing and buck­ing, 4 – sub-sort­ing. In the sec­ond phase of oper­a­tion, the cut­ting time and vol­ume of wood deter­mine the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of tree pro­duc­tion. In the third phase, the time of cut­ting branch­es and their vol­ume deter­mine the pro­duc­tion capac­i­ty of sec­ondary raw mate­ri­als; the buck­ing time and the amount of sort­ing deter­mine the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of sort­ing pro­duc­tion. Thus, the work of the felling head can be con­sid­ered for­warder a two-step process, as a sys­tem of sub-oper­a­tions asso­ci­at­ed with a sin­gle func­tion­al time of pro­duc­tion of a unit of labor (1 m³ of wood mate­r­i­al). This total func­tion­al time ulti­mate­ly deter­mines the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of sec­ondary raw mate­r­i­al pro­duc­tion and sort­ing for each tree. In the «harvester+forwarder» cycle, the pro­duc­tion capac­i­ty of wood mate­r­i­al from each tree is deter­mined based on the total func­tion­al time: the work­ing time of the felling head and the wait­ing time for the selec­tion of wood from the for­warder. A sys­tem­at­ic approach to eval­u­at­ing the tech­no­log­i­cal effi­cien­cy of forestry machines in the cycle of their con­nec­tiv­i­ty pro­vides a more infor­ma­tive pic­ture of the dynam­ics of con­nec­tiv­i­ty of pro­duc­tion process­es as a sin­gle space-time struc­ture. This makes it pos­si­ble to for­mu­late tech­no­log­i­cal effi­cien­cy more objectively.

Key­words: time, per­for­mance, cycle, oper­a­tion, stages

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Leon­tiev L.L., Lobok I.L., Ivanov-Omskiy V.I., Smolin A.S. Hydro­gen bond­ing sys­tems in birch bark. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 189–198 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.189–198

Abstract

A com­par­i­son was made of the hydro­gen bond sys­tems in the out­er and inner lay­er of birch bark, as well as a com­par­i­son of high-qual­i­ty paper with a sam­ple of pure pulp. The range of fre­quen­cies under study from 3000 to 3700 cm–1 is lim­it­ed by the absorp­tion region by hydrox­yl OH groups, the fre­quen­cies of which are most sen­si­tive to the occur­rence of H bonds. To esti­mate the para­me­ters of H‑bonds, the absorp­tion bands of OH groups were decon­volved by Gauss­ian com­po­nents. In order to cor­rect­ly iso­late the absorp­tion by hydrox­yl groups, the entire frag­ment, which includes absorp­tion bands of both meth­yl­ene and hydrox­yl groups, is ini­tial­ly decon­volved. In the future, only the para­me­ters of the decon­vo­lu­tion con­tours relat­ed to hydrox­yl groups were ana­lyzed. It was assumed that each com­po­nent of decon­vo­lu­tion can be asso­ci­at­ed with a cer­tain type of hydro­gen bond. The fre­quen­cy shift of the com­po­nents of the decon­vo­lu­tion was deter­mined rel­a­tive to the nat­ur­al fre­quen­cy of vibra­tions of the iso­lat­ed hydrox­yl group, which is there­fore not cov­ered by a hydro­gen bond. To deter­mine the ener­gy of hydro­gen bonds, we used lit­er­a­ture data on the cor­re­la­tion of the hydro­gen bond ener­gy with a fre­quen­cy shift. The rel­a­tive den­si­ty of hydro­gen bonds was esti­mat­ed by the ratio of the area of the con­tours of deconvolution. 

Key­words: Fouri­er trans­form IR spec­troscopy, hydro­gen bond­ing sys­tem, birch bark, capac­i­tor paper, cel­lu­lose, decon­vo­lu­tion to Gauss­ian con­tours, H‑bond den­si­ty, H‑bond energy

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Viunkov S.N., Vasi­lyev V.V. Study of a com­po­nent of the urea-formalde­hyde resin, is insol­u­ble in water. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 199–207 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.199–207

Abstract

A method of chem­i­cal analy­sis of a com­po­nent of urea-formalde­hyde resin (UFR) which is insol­u­ble in water has been devel­oped. The resin was syn­the­sized at the molar ratio of the start­ing com­po­nents urea : formalde­hyde = 1 : 2, tem­per­a­ture 90 °С, ini­tial pH = 7,0…8,0 pH in acidic stage 4,0…4,3. For iso­la­tion of the water-insol­u­ble com­po­nent, UFR was mixed with a large amount of water. The pre­cip­i­tate was washed with water and dis­solved in a 40% potas­si­um iodide solu­tion. In the result­ing solu­tion, hydrox­ymethyl groups and free formalde­hyde were oxi­dized with iodine in an alka­line medi­um. Excess of iodine was titrat­ed with a solu­tion of sodi­um thio­sul­fate. As a result of the reac­tion, a white flake-like pre­cip­i­tate was formed, which was fil­tered out and ana­lyzed. The total con­tent of formalde­hyde and urea was deter­mined in the sam­ple. To do this, the ana­lyzed com­po­si­tion was placed in a round-bot­tomed flask equipped with a direct con­denser and a drop­ping fun­nel. A mea­sured amount of 45% phos­phor­ic acid was poured into the drop­ping fun­nel and added drop by drop to the flask. The flask was heat­ed on a met­al tile, and the released formalde­hyde and accom­pa­ny­ing water were col­lect­ed in a mea­sur­ing flask. After the end of the process, the released formalde­hyde was deter­mined. Urea was deter­mined using the ure­ase­hypochlo­rite method, in which ure­ase hydrolyzes the remain­ing urea to ammo­nia and car­bon diox­ide. Then all the formed ammo­nia was deter­mined by its col­or reac­tion with sodi­um hypochlo­rite and con­vert­ed to urea. Sep­a­rat­ing the obtained mass­es of urea and formalde­hyde by their mol­e­c­u­lar mass­es, we obtained a molar ratio of urea : formalde­hyde in an insol­u­ble pre­cip­i­tate equal to 1: 1.5. The small­est mol­e­cule that meets this con­di­tion is an oligomer in which four car­bamide mol­e­cules are con­nect­ed with three meth­yl­en­ester bonds, i.e. they con­tain six formalde­hyde mol­e­cules. How­ev­er, oligomers with a small mol­e­c­u­lar weight were high­ly sol­u­ble in water. Water-insol­u­ble oligomers are those with a large mass that is sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er than the aver­age lev­el. Cal­cu­la­tions showed that the aver­age num­ber of urea and meth­yl­ene-ether links in UFR oligomers was 10, while the max­i­mum num­ber can reach 122. The study of the cur­ing process of the UFR com­po­nent, insol­u­ble in water, by dif­fer­en­tial ther­mal analy­sis showed that it, like UFR, took place in three stages. How­ev­er, the tem­per­a­tures of endother­mic peaks dif­fered. Thus, the peak of the sec­ond stage of UFR cur­ing was found at the lev­el of 241.0 °C, and for an oligomer that was insol­u­ble in water, it cor­re­spond­ed to 244.2 °C. There were even greater dif­fer­ences in the peak tem­per­a­tures of the third stage of cur­ing: 274.4 °C for UFR an, 288.2 °C for the water-insol­u­ble oligomer. It has been obvi­ous that the water-insol­u­ble oligomer sig­nif­i­cant­ly has slowed down the UFR cur­ing process.

Key­words: urea-formalde­hyde resin, molar ratio, insol­u­ble pre­cip­i­tate, oligomer, mol­e­c­u­lar struc­ture, car­bamide, formalde­hyde, meth­yl­ene ether bond, hydrox­ymethyl group

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Laty­she­vich I.A., Hapanko­va A.I., Polkhovsky A.V., Bildyuke­vich A.V., Shetko S.V., Prokhorchik S.A., Klyuev A.Yu., Kozlov N.G. Poly­mer com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al based on ter­penoid raw mate­ri­als for the pro­duc­tion of plas­tic skis. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 208–220 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.208–220

Abstract

Cur­rent­ly, ski­ing is very pop­u­lar. There­fore, the demand for skis is con­stant­ly increas­ing. The devel­op­ment of the nation­al ski indus­try is an impor­tant direc­tion for our coun­try. The ski indus­try is devel­op­ing rapid­ly and plas­tic skis have replaced wood­en skis. One of the com­po­nents of skis is a poly­mer com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al (prepreg). There­fore, now the pro­duc­tion of prepreg is increas­ing, many new mate­ri­als on its basis are cre­at­ed. Our research has allowed us to devel­op a for­mu­la­tion and lab­o­ra­to­ry tech­nol­o­gy of a binder based on sec­ondary ter­penoid prod­ucts for the pro­duc­tion of prepreg for its fur­ther use in the pro­duc­tion of plas­tic skis. Exper­i­men­tal sam­ples of skis obtained at the pro­duc­tion arears of the «Tele­hany» of the Repub­li­can pro­duc­tion trade uni­tary enter­prise «Belarus­torg» of the admin­is­tra­tive depart­ment of the Pres­i­dent of the Repub­lic of Belarus are at the lev­el of stan­dard indi­ca­tors for their oper­a­tional properties. 

Key­words: prepreg, plas­tic skis, ter­penoid hard­en­er, epoxy resin, for­mu­la­tion, lab­o­ra­to­ry technology

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Duboviy V.K., Suslov G.A. Strength Study of Sorp­tion Com­pos­ites Based on Microfine Glass Fibers. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 221–227 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.221–227

Abstract

Dis­cuss­es the influ­ence of min­er­al and organ­ic binders on the heat resis­tance and the index of the destruc­tive force of com­pos­ite sorp­tion mate­ri­als based on glass fibers. This mate­r­i­al is used for sorp­tion of organ­ic com­pounds at low con­cen­tra­tions. Con­sid­er­a­tion of the impact on these two indi­ca­tors is caused by the fact that the mate­r­i­al described in this arti­cle requires a cer­tain tech­no­log­i­cal strength and must with­stand tem­per­a­tures of 300 °C. To achieve the required para­me­ters for the mate­r­i­al, three types of binder were stud­ied: 1. Polynu­clear com­plex­es of alu­mini­um, obtained by hydrol­y­sis with alu­mini­um chlo­ride; 2. Polynu­clear com­plex­es of alu­mini­um, obtained by hydrol­y­sis of alu­mini­um sul­fate; 3. Sul­fate unbleached cel­lu­lose. Accord­ing to the results of the study, the most suit­able binder for the sorp­tion com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al was iden­ti­fied and the opti­mal per­cent­age of this binder was determined.

Key­words: glass fibers, com­pos­ite mate­ri­als, fil­ter mate­ri­als, tita­ni­um polynu­clear com­plex­es, alu­minum poly-nuclear com­plex­es, binders

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Ermolin­sky V.G., Koval­e­va O.P. Reac­tiv­i­ty of cel­lu­lose-con­tain­ing mate­ri­als in tech­nolo­gies of arti­fi­cial fibers and pupl and paper pro­duc­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 228–245 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.228–245

Abstract

Analy­sis of the results of numer­ous stud­ies shows that the reg­u­la­tion of the prop­er­ties and sta­bil­i­ty of the qual­i­ty of paper and card­board is pos­si­ble sub­ject to the specifics of the process­es of struc­ture for­ma­tion in dis­persed sys­tems, the dis­per­sion medi­um in which is water or its solu­tions, at each stage in mul­ti-stage sys­tems for pro­cess­ing cel­lu­lose-con­tain­ing mate­ri­als. As a result of exclud­ing the con­cept of the indi­vid­u­al­i­ty of nat­ur­al cel­lu­lose fibers intend­ed for paper pro­duc­tion from the the­o­ret­i­cal foun­da­tions of pulp and paper pro­duc­tion tech­nol­o­gy and prac­tice, all stud­ies of the phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of cel­lu­lose were per­formed on sam­ples of cel­lu­lose intend­ed for fur­ther chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing. At the same time, ideas about the hydrophilic­i­ty of hydrate cel­lu­lose fibers were trans­ferred to nat­ur­al cel­lu­lose fibers. In this regard, the mosa­ic sur­face of plant fibers was denied and, con­se­quent­ly, the pos­si­bil­i­ty of hydropho­bic inter­ac­tions in the «cel­lu­lose-water» sys­tem was exclud­ed. The nature and degree of changes in the para­me­ters of the inter­ac­tion of fibers with the for­ma­tion of phase bonds in the struc­ture of fibers and between fibers in a sheet of paper is con­sid­ered only by phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal mechan­ics, and the revealed reg­u­lar­i­ties are tak­en into account in the meth­ods of Sol­gel tech­nol­o­gy for mod­i­fy­ing the sur­face of cel­lu­lose fibers. Gen­er­al­iza­tion of sci­en­tif­ic and tech­ni­cal infor­ma­tion based on a uni­fied approach to the prob­lem of struc­ture for­ma­tion in the “cel­lu­lose-water” sys­tem, based on the con­cepts of phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal mechan­ics of dis­persed sys­tems and phys­i­cal chem­istry of poly­mers, showed that these issues require care­ful and in-depth study in order to reg­u­late and achieve the required prop­er­ties of cel­lu­lose-con­tain­ing materials.

Key­words: fibers, cel­lu­lose, paper, phase bun­dles, struc­ture for­ma­tion, acti­va­tion, hydropho­bic interactions

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Sev­astyano­va Yu.V., Top­tunov E.A., Scherbak N.V., Sol­nt­sev P.V. Research of the prop­er­ties of spent liquor from cook­ing of hard­wood semi-cel­lu­lose at dif­fer­ent ratio of green and white liquors. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 246–258 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.246–258

Abstract

The main semi-fin­ished prod­uct for the pro­duc­tion of flut­ing is semi-cel­lu­lose from hard­wood. Semi-cel­lu­lose pro­duc­tion is based on pre­lim­i­nary chem­i­cal and sub­se­quent mechan­i­cal pro­cess­ing of wood chips or annu­al plants. The tech­nol­o­gy for the pro­duc­tion of semi-cel­lu­lose using green liquor makes it pos­si­ble to sim­pli­fy the process of prepar­ing the cook­ing solu­tion and the recov­ery of chem­i­cals from waste liquors. This method is used abroad, in our coun­try the method of cook­ing semi­cel­lu­lose with green liquor is cur­rent­ly car­ried out at one of the enter­pris­es in Rus­sia. How­ev­er, at the moment, infor­ma­tion on the tech­no­log­i­cal para­me­ters of cook­ing and the qual­i­ty of semi-cel­lu­lose is not ful­ly pre­sent­ed, there are no data on the selec­tiv­i­ty of the delig­ni­fi­ca­tion process (removal of lignin) of decid­u­ous wood when cook­ing with green liquor, as well as infor­ma­tion on the com­po­si­tion and prop­er­ties of the spent liquor. The study was car­ried out with the aim of study­ing the prop­er­ties of waste (orange) liquor, name­ly its den­si­ty obtained by cook­ing hard­wood semi­cel­lu­lose with dif­fer­ent ratios of green and white liquors. Based on the results of stud­ies of the prop­er­ties of waste indus­tri­al liquor from hard­wood semi-cel­lu­lose cook­ing on a mix­ture of white and green liquors: no sig­nif­i­cant effect of the ratio of green and white liquors dur­ing hard­wood semi-cel­lu­lose cook­ing on the den­si­ty of waste liquor in the tem­per­a­ture range from 15 to 90 °С and the con­cen­tra­tion of dry sub­stances from 5 to 10%; a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el has been devel­oped – a poly­no­mi­al of the 1st degree, – reli­ably char­ac­ter­iz­ing the depen­dence of the den­si­ty of the spent liquor on con­cen­tra­tion and tem­per­a­ture for the pro­duc­tion of hard­wood semi-cel­lu­lose with dif­fer­ent ratios of green and white liquors ρ = 0,992 + 0,0083 · х – 0,0003 · t – 0,000012 · х · t – 0,00000032 · t2 – 0,0001158 · х2.

Key­words: hard­wood semi-cel­lu­lose, green liquor semi-cel­lu­lose, green liquor, white liquor, orange liquor, chem­i­cal recov­ery, den­si­ty liquor, dry mat­ter con­tent liquor.

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5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

Bazarov S.M. Intro­duc­tion to chron­o­dy­nam­ics. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 259–270 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.259–270

Abstract

In dynam­ics, the prob­lems of motion of bod­ies in the coor­di­nate ref­er­ence sys­tem dynam­ic para­me­ter-time (space) are solved: dynam­ic para­me­ters (force, momen­tum, ener­gy, mechan­i­cal moment) are func­tion­al with respect to inde­pen­dent coor­di­nates of time (space). As a rule, these func­tions are con­tin­u­ous (piece­wise con­tin­u­ous), so from the posi­tion of the torus of inverse func­tions, they can be con­struct­ed in accor­dance with inverse func­tions: the func­tion­al­i­ty of time (space) from dynam­ic para­me­ters, as inde­pen­dent. For monot­o­ne func­tions, these map­pings (image-pro­to­type) are one-toone. The prod­uct of a dynam­ic para­me­ter on the coor­di­nate of time (space) is a poten­tial, it is the prod­uct of an image and a pro­to­type, the Poten­tial can be matched with a com­plete dif­fer­en­tial. The ana­lyt­i­cal study of the full poten­tial dif­fer­en­tial in the coor­di­nate sys­tem dynam­ic para­me­ters-time (space) reveals the pic­ture of the appear­ance of func­tion­al time (space) and func­tion­al dynam­ic para­me­ters con­ju­gat­ed to coor­di­nate time (space) and dynam­ic para­me­ters. As a result, ele­ments of the basics of chron­o­dy­nam­ics are drawn, which com­ple­ment the dynam­ics to the poten­tial dynam­ics. In the poten­tial con­struc­tion of dynam­ics, the func­tion­al­i­ty of dynam­ic para­me­ters from time (space), revealed by the laws of con­ser­va­tion in dynam­ics, is sup­ple­ment­ed by the func­tion­al­i­ty of time (space) from dynam­ic para­me­ters: how many dynam­ic para­me­ters, respec­tive­ly, as many func­tion­al times (spaces) and func­tion­al para­me­ters. In gen­er­al­ized poten­tial dynam­ics, the dynam­ic para­me­ters and time (space) in dynam­ics are matched to the poten­tial dynam­ic para­me­ters and poten­tial times (space). As a result of the study, it is obtained that if the dynam­ic para­me­ters are hyper­bol­i­cal­ly depen­dent on time (space), the cor­re­spond­ing poten­tial dynam­ic para­me­ters and poten­tial times (space) are equal to zero. In these cas­es, dynam­ics and chron­o­dy­nam­ics become mutu­al anti-dynam­ics. Inves­ti­ga­tion of poten­tial para­me­ters opens the dynam­ic code of con­nec­tiv­i­ty of dynam­ic parameters.

Key­words: func­tion, time, space, para­me­ter, connectivity

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Chu­dovskaya L.A., Galileyev S.M., Galileyev M.M. Risk assess­ment mod­el of invest­ment busi­ness process in the for­est indus­try. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 233, pp. 271–278 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.233.271–278

Abstract

The arti­cle con­sid­ers the eval­u­a­tion of the invest­ment busi­ness process in the tim­ber indus­try using fuzzy log­ic. The mod­el makes it pos­si­ble to opti­mize the oper­a­tion of trans­port nodes of the for­est com­plex, the work of wood­work­ing enter­pris­es, forestry enter­pris­es in terms of invest­ment effi­cien­cy in the con­di­tions of uncer­tain­ty of the cur­rent state of the econ­o­my. The risk assess­ment mod­el is con­sid­ered as a lin­ear pro­gram­ming prob­lem in a fuzzy for­mu­la­tion. The con­struct­ed mem­ber­ship func­tions – tri­an­gu­lar and Gauss­ian-based on expert esti­mates are used. The Mat­Lab pack­age with Tool­box Fuzzy Log­ic and the Bal­ash method were used to solve the prob­lem. The results obtained showed the effi­cien­cy of the pro­posed mod­el and the pos­si­bil­i­ty of using it in var­i­ous sec­tors of the tim­ber indus­try to assess the risk of invest­ment busi­ness process. 

Key­words: invest­ment, busi­ness process, for­est indus­try, risk, fuzzy goals, fuzzy restric­tions, fuzzy log­ic, mem­ber­ship func­tions, Tool­box Fuzzy Log­ic, the Bal­ash method

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Issue 232
1. FORESTRY

Lebe­dev A.V., Gostev V.V. Removal of nutri­ents from the soil by pine plan­ta­tions of dif­fer­ent ini­tial den­si­ty and devel­op­ment of rec­om­men­da­tions for fer­til­iz­er appli­ca­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 6–19 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.6–19

Abstract

A reduc­tion in the turnover of log­ging and the tran­si­tion to inte­grat­ed use of wood and felling residues lead to an increase in the eco­nom­ic removal of soil ele­ments of plant nutri­tion and may pose a threat to the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of for­est areas in the long term. To improve and opti­mize soil fer­til­i­ty, increase the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of stands, and improve the qual­i­ty of prod­ucts obtained from wood, forestry uses fer­til­iz­er sys­tems. The pur­pose of the study was to iden­ti­fy the dynam­ics of accu­mu­la­tion of min­er­al nutri­tion ele­ments in pine for­est crops of dif­fer­ent ini­tial plant­i­ng den­si­ty and devel­op rec­om­men­da­tions for increas­ing the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of stands by apply­ing a sys­tem of fer­til­iz­ers based on the data of eco­nom­ic removal. To cal­cu­late the phy­tomass, the val­ue of the phy­tomass of stands was cal­cu­lat­ed using the equa­tions of depen­dence on the aver­age diam­e­ter and aver­age height, adjust­ed for the num­ber of trees. Indi­ca­tors of net pri­ma­ry pro­duc­tion of stands of com­mon pine were cal­cu­lat­ed using equa­tions depend­ing on age and avail­able phy­tomass. Using con­ver­sion coef­fi­cients, the con­tent of min­er­al nutri­tion ele­ments in var­i­ous frac­tions of pine stands was deter­mined. Spe­cial atten­tion is paid to the search for a cor­re­la­tion between the con­sump­tion of nutri­ent ele­ments by stands of dif­fer­ent den­si­ties. The cal­cu­la­tion of loss­es of ele­ments of min­er­al nutri­tion with har­vest­ed wood under var­i­ous sce­nar­ios of log­ging oper­a­tions allowed us to estab­lish that with the com­bined use of felling residues, the eco­nom­ic removal of ele­ments of nutri­tion will be the great­est. The sys­tem of fer­til­iz­ers will com­pen­sate for the loss of min­er­al nutri­tion ele­ments with har­vest­ed wood, increase the soil sup­ply with chem­i­cal ele­ments and have a pos­i­tive impact on increas­ing the wood pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of fer­til­ized for­est plantations.

Key­words: pine stands, min­er­al nutri­tion, agri­cul­tur­al removal, fer­til­iz­er system

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Smirnov A.A., Bogatchev P.V., Smirnov A.P. Nat­ur­al for­est regen­er­a­tion on the cut­tings of Kare­lia due to fer­til­i­ty and mois­ture for­est soil. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 20–32 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.20–32

Abstract

The aim of the study is to iden­ti­fy the impact of effec­tive fer­til­i­ty and for­est soil mois­ture on the suc­cess of sub­se­quent nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion on the log­ging of Kare­lia. Effec­tive fer­til­i­ty of for­est soils by Pro­fes­sor O.G. Cher­tov is the ratio of the thick­ness of the humus hori­zon to the thick­ness of for­est lit­ter (humus-lit­ter ratio, HLR). On the cut­tings of the long ago 5–15 years old, the val­ue of the HLR nat­u­ral­ly increas­es by the orig­i­nal types of for­est from poor (HLR = 0.2) to rel­a­tive­ly rich habi­tats (HLR = 1.3–1.5). At the same time, the den­si­ty and com­po­si­tion of the under­growth change. The great­est total den­si­ty of growth (18 thou­sand ex./ha) is typ­i­cal for the soils of aver­age fer­til­i­ty, with some over­hy­dra­tion – in the orig­i­nal type of for­est Spruce blue­ber­ry wet (HLR = 0.3). Nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion of Spruce of sub­se­quent resump­tion growth is present on the cut­tings in small amounts or com­plete­ly absent. The excep­tion is the type of for­est Spruce blue­ber­ry wet, where the den­si­ty of spruce under­growth – of the ate – 2.5–3 thou­sand. ex./ha – enough for the nat­ur­al restora­tion of spruce on felling. In this type of for­est also there is the great­est den­si­ty of birch growth – an aver­age of 12.6 thou­sand. ex./ha. The nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion of the pine of sub­se­quent renew­al has the great­est den­si­ty (2 thou­sand ex./ha) in the poor­est and dri­est for­est con­di­tions – in the orig­i­nal type of for­est pine white-pine (HLR = 0.2), where the pine has few com­peti­tors. The nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion of aspen has a weak asso­ci­a­tion with soil hydra­tion; its largest num­ber (6.5–9 thou­sand ex./ha) is avail­able in rel­a­tive­ly rich soil con­di­tions in the orig­i­nal type of for­est wood sor­rel (HLR = 1,3–1.5). By the orig­i­nal types of for­est and the com­po­si­tion of the tree, which deter­mines the effec­tive fer­til­i­ty of the soils, it is pos­si­ble to con­fi­dent­ly pre­dict the suc­cess of sub­se­quent nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion on the felling. How­ev­er, in the vast major­i­ty of Kare­lia for­est types, the amount of conif­er­ous growth is not suf­fi­cient to form conif­er­ous wood­lands with­out addi­tion­al forestry activities.

Key­words: for­est types, cut­tings, for­est regen­er­a­tion, for­est soil fer­til­i­ty and moisture

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Chu­dakov A.V., Danilov D.A., Zayt­sev D.A. Influ­ence of mete­o­ro­log­i­cal fac­tors on the for­ma­tion of radi­al growth of trees in conif­er­ous stands of the Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 33–49 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.33–49

Abstract

A study was car­ried out on the impact of cli­mat­ic fac­tors on the incre­ment rates of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands of nat­ur­al ori­gin, not affect­ed by forestry impact. Tree stands with dif­fer­ent par­tic­i­pa­tion of these species in sim­i­lar growth con­di­tions on bina­ry deposits soils were reviewed. The dura­tion of the ana­lyzed peri­od was 54 years, at the present time stands are mature. The con­nec­tion between the growth and aver­age air tem­per­a­ture dur­ing the grow­ing sea­son and the amount of pre­cip­i­ta­tion dur­ing the grow­ing sea­son was stud­ied. The analy­sis of cli­mate rela­tion­ships with conif­er­ous wood para­me­ters was car­ried out on the basis of search­ing sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant rank coef­fi­cients of cor­re­la­tion between wood-ring chronolo­gies and cli­mate fac­tors in stands with dif­fer­ent par­tic­i­pa­tion shares of pine and spruce. Spear­man’s rank cor­re­la­tion coef­fi­cient was cal­cu­lat­ed as a quan­ti­ta­tive eval­u­a­tion of the con­nec­tion between the observed effects. Rank cor­re­la­tion analy­sis allowed to esti­mate at sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant lev­el the con­tri­bu­tion of aver­age tem­per­a­tures and the sum of month­ly pre­cip­i­ta­tion on the for­ma­tion of macrostruc­tur­al ele­ments of pine and spruce wood. There is a high­er mete­o­ro­log­i­cal depen­dence on the incre­ment rate of spruce wood than pine wood in the giv­en con­di­tions. For the pine ele­ment of mixed conif­er­ous trees the great­est cor­re­la­tion of incre­ment with tem­per­a­ture indices is observed in July-Sep­tem­ber months, while for the spruce a marked depen­dence with this fac­tor was revealed in May month for all stands with spruce par­tic­i­pa­tion. The study showed that depend­ing on the share of conifers, the for­ma­tion of struc­tur­al ele­ments of the xylem has a dif­fer­ent strength of the rela­tion­ship with aver­age tem­per­a­tures and the amount of pre­cip­i­ta­tion in the months of the grow­ing season. 

Key­words: radi­al growth, late wood, ear­ly wood, weath­er fac­tors, pre­cip­i­ta­tion amount, mete­o­ro­log­i­cal fac­tors, bina­ry soils, mixed stands

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Usolt­sev V.А., Kovyazin V.F., Tse­pordey I.S., Chasovskikh V.P., Azarenok V.A. Foliage Bio­mass of the forests of Eura­sia: cor­rec­tion of empir­i­cal mod­el­ing meth­ods. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 50–78 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.50–78

Abstract

When devel­op­ing allo­met­ric mod­els of the bio­mass of trees and forests, there are a num­ber of uncer­tain­ties due to the imper­fec­tion of method­olog­i­cal tech­niques both for obtain­ing har­vest data and for pro­cess­ing it in order to iden­ti­fy the desired pat­terns. Two method­olog­i­cal myths are ana­lyzed in the paper that are com­mon in assess­ing the foliage bio­mass of trees and stands. We used the data­base of har­vest data on the foliage bio­mass of trees and stands, in the amount of 10.9 and 2.94 thou­sand def­i­n­i­tions of 16 and 10 tree species (gen­era) of Eura­sia respec­tive­ly. Gener­ic mod­els of the foliage bio­mass are designed at tree and stand lev­els. It is shown that the esti­ma­tion of foliage bio­mass is over­es­ti­mat­ed as a result of mechan­i­cal trans­fer of the tra­di­tion­al meth­ods of mod­el­ing the vol­ume of a tree stem and a for­est stand to the esti­ma­tion of the foliage bio­mass. It is rec­om­mend­ed to aban­don the use of the pre­dic­tor (D2H) and include in the mod­el either sin­gle diam­e­ter of a stem, or the stem diam­e­ter and tree height sep­a­rate­ly. The use of basal area as an inde­pen­dent vari­able in the mod­el of the stand foliage can be aban­doned and, in order to avoid pos­si­ble bias­es of esti­mates, include instead of it a set of two inde­pen­dent vari­ables – the tree den­si­ty and the aver­age stem diameter.

Key­words: bio­mass of assim­i­la­tion appa­ra­tus, mod­el trees, sam­ple areas, gener­ic mod­els, cor­rect­ing bio­mass esti­mates, esti­mate biases

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Kulko­va A.V., Bess­chet­no­va N.N., Bess­chet­nov V.P. Appli­ca­tion of stim­u­lat­ing treat­ment in root­ing of con­ic spruce cut­tings. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 79–91 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.79–91

Abstract

The eco­nom­ic use of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the genus spruce (Picea L.) is diverse, thanks to a unique set of use­ful fea­tures and prop­er­ties. Many species have inher­it­ed forms in their com­po­si­tion. Their use is hin­dered by the lack of adapt­ed tech­nolo­gies for prop­a­ga­tion of plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al. The aim of the research is to com­pare the effec­tive­ness of using bio­log­i­cal­ly active drugs in con­ic spruce cut­tings. The object of research was a dec­o­ra­tive form of a blue spruce (Picea glau­ca (Moench) Voss) with a con­i­cal crown or spruce ‘Con­i­ca’ (syn.: Picea canaden­sis cv. con­i­ca, Picea glau­ca f. alber­tiana cv. con­i­ca). Bio­log­i­cal­ly active drugs were test­ed: het­eroaux­in, zir­con, kornevin, epin, eco­fus, fer­ovit, extra­sol, sili­plant. Expo­sure for all options and con­trols (water) – 18 hours. In the sta­tis­ti­cal pro­cess­ing of the mate­r­i­al, the analy­sis of vari­ance is used. Var­i­ous degrees of influ­ence of prepa­ra­tions on the regen­er­a­tive abil­i­ty of cut­tings and on the indi­ca­tors of sub­se­quent devel­op­ment of their above­ground part and root sys­tems were estab­lished. To a greater extent, the reac­tion to the use of stim­u­lants is notice­able in the esti­mates of cal­lus for­ma­tion, the num­ber and extent of the formed adnex­al roots. For the total length of the roots, the best results were obtained using het­eroaux­in (99.85±6.46 cm) and sili­plant (99.23±6.36 cm), which is sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er than the con­trol (42.39±4.36 cm) and the gen­er­al­ized aver­age (65.81±2.06 cm). The ANOVA con­firmed the sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences between the results of stim­u­lat­ing treat­ment of con­ic spruce cut­tings. The most sen­si­tive was the abil­i­ty to active rhi­zo­ge­n­e­sis: per­cent­age of dif­fer­ences gen­er­at­ed by the actu­al vari­ants, reached 34,17±0,94%, at Fh2 = 36,21. The results of root­ing cut­tings indi­cate suf­fi­cient for the veg­e­ta­tive prop­a­ga­tion poten­tial of growth and devel­op­ment above­ground mass of exotics in the con­di­tions of Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. 

Key­words: blue con­ic spruce, cut­tings, growth stim­u­la­tors, regen­er­a­tion, cal­lus, rhi­zo­ge­n­e­sis, dis­per­sion analysis

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Bess­chet­no­va N.N., Bess­chet­nov V.P., Bess­chet­nov P.V. Con­tent and bal­ance of spare sub­stances in the tis­sues of poplar shoots in the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod Vol­ga region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 92–104 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.92–104

Abstract

The main phys­i­o­log­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of trees play an impor­tant role in the for­ma­tion of the com­po­si­tion of arti­fi­cial plant­i­ngs. The pur­pose of the research is to estab­lish the species speci­fici­ty of poplars (Pop­u­lus L.) by the con­tent and bal­ance of spare sub­stances. The object of research were 8 species of poplar (P. alba L., f. pirami­dalis); black poplar (P. nigra L.); Pop­u­lus ital­i­ca (P. nigra, var. ital­i­ca Münchh.); Chi­nese poplar (P. Simonii Carr.); bal­sam­ic poplar (P. bal­sam­ifera L.); poplar lar­ri­ty (P. lau­ri­fo­lia Ledeb.); white poplar (P. alba L.); aspen (P. trem­u­la L.). Per­formed micro­scop­ic exam­i­na­tion of tis­sues for the detec­tion of starch and fats. Applied ANOVA and clus­ter analy­sis. Species from dif­fer­ent sec­tions are dif­fer­en­ti­at­ed by the pres­ence and bal­ance of spare sub­stances. The white pyra­mi­dal poplar and its typ­i­cal shape showed sim­i­lar­i­ties in the total amount of starch: 7.37±0.13 and 7.79±0.17 points. Aspen had a high­er num­ber: 9.13±0.13 points. The high­est esti­mates of fat con­tent are typ­i­cal for rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the black poplar sec­tion: black poplar (7.67±0.13 points) and Ital­ian poplar (9.59±0.12 points). The ANOVA con­firmed the sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences between poplars. The influ­ence of the geno­type on their for­ma­tion by dif­fer­ent char­ac­ter­is­tics is not the same and reached 71.81±0.41%. Clus­ter analy­sis has estab­lished that the group­ing of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of sec­tions of white, black and bal­sam poplars cor­re­sponds to the tax­o­nom­ic struc­ture of the genus poplar in rela­tion to a wide range of phys­i­o­log­i­cal para­me­ters. Rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the white poplar sec­tion demon­strat­ed a com­plex sim­i­lar­i­ty with each oth­er, while notice­ably dif­fer­ent from oth­er sections.

Key­words: poplar, shoot tis­sues, his­to­chem­istry, starch, fat, clus­ter analy­sis, phys­i­o­log­i­cal sta­tus, species specificity

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Bazarov S.M., Belenkii Yu.I., Svoikin F.V., Svoikin V.F., Balde T.M.D. Sys­tem analy­sis of the wheel forwarder’s tech­no­log­i­cal effi­cien­cy on the unload­ing oper­a­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 105–116 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.105–116

Abstract

The use of sys­tem analy­sis in assess­ing the tech­no­log­i­cal effi­cien­cy of forestry machines allows you to obtain a more infor­ma­tion­al pic­ture of pro­duc­tion com­pared to exist­ing aver­ages. This allows you to more reli­ably solve opti­miza­tion prob­lems dur­ing the for­ma­tion of the tech­no­log­i­cal process and its con­trol. Many oper­a­tions car­ried out in log­ging pro­duc­tion (cut­ting oper­a­tions, delimb­ing oper­a­tions, log­ging oper­a­tions, load­ing, skid­ding, sav­ing oper­a­tions, tim­ber trans­porta­tion, etc.) are car­ried out by the cor­re­spond­ing many machines exist­ing in the for­est engi­neer­ing mar­ket. The sys­tem approach to pro­duc­tion process­es is based on a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for con­struct­ing a sin­gle func­tion­al space-time con­nec­tiv­i­ty for them, in which the objec­tive func­tion is per­formed. From the point of view of the the­o­ry of sys­tems in the for­est indus­try, var­i­ous spa­tial-tem­po­ral struc­tur­al lev­els of pro­duc­tion con­nec­tiv­i­ty can be for­mu­lat­ed: a tim­ber indus­try (macro), forestry (meso) and oper­a­tions (micro). The task of this study, using the exam­ple of the oper­a­tion «unload­ing», as a rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the micro-space-time struc­ture of pro­duc­tion, is to present a sys­tem math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the con­nec­tiv­i­ty of sub­op­er­a­tions per­form­ing their tar­get func­tions in a sin­gle func­tion­al space-time of the pro­duc­tion cycle. The “unload­ing” oper­a­tion is a sys­tem of sequen­tial­ly per­formed sep­a­rate sub­op­er­a­tions (manip­u­la­tor oper­a­tion, tran­si­tions, for­ma­tion of a lin­ing for the stack, etc.), the per­for­mance of which is deter­mined not only by the time of its exe­cu­tion, but also by the time of con­tent of gra­di­ents in the hop­per until full unload­ing. From the sys­tem approach posi­tion, the unload­ing oper­a­tion is com­bined with the sav­ing oper­a­tions of the sor­ti­ments to iden­ti­fy the sys­tem con­nec­tiv­i­ty of the sub­se­quent oper­a­tion to the pre­vi­ous one and their uni­fied representation. 

Key­words: sys­tem analy­sis, wheel for­warder, unload­ing, func­tion­al time, tech­no­log­i­cal effi­cien­cy, time, tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tions, productivity

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Bazarov S.M. Sys­tem analy­sis of basic of mechan­ics. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 117–129 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.117–129

Abstract

Mechan­ics starts with sta­t­ics. The main con­cept of sta­t­ics is the con­cept of force. When the equi­lib­ri­um is dis­turbed, motion occurs, which is deter­mined by the speed and accel­er­a­tion in the space-time coor­di­nate sys­tem; speed is defined as the ratio of an instan­ta­neous change in the coor­di­nate to the cor­re­spond­ing instan­ta­neous change in time. In turn, the change in instan­ta­neous speed, i.e. accel­er­a­tion, is asso­ci­at­ed with the impact of a force in an instan­ta­neous time, which is called the force pulse. The sec­ond law of New­ton, as the basic law of dynam­ics, is for­mu­lat­ed for the effect on the body of a con­stant force for a short peri­od of time, i.e., the force impulse. The force pulse caus­es a change in the speed of the body; the mea­sure of the body’s resis­tance to changes in speed is the mass; the prod­uct of mass and speed is intro­duced the con­cept of the amount of move­ment (momen­tum). There­fore, New­ton’s sec­ond law defines force as the ratio of the change in the amount of motion to the short time of action of the force impulse. The short dura­tion of the force is a spe­cial case of con­tin­u­ous time. In this study, the force impulse is under­stood in a gen­er­al­ized rep­re­sen­ta­tion as the prod­uct of the force for a con­tin­u­ous time of action. By anal­o­gy with a force pulse in time, a force pulse in space is intro­duced. With the sys­tem chart analy­sis force-time, mass speed, force, space, pow­er is the dif­fer­en­tial and inte­gral laws of dynam­ics poten­tial­ly Svyaznoy inter­ac­tion, respec­tive­ly, the power–time–weight–speed, power–space–work, power–time–energy. The analy­sis of com­plete poten­tial dif­fer­en­tials leads to rep­re­sen­ta­tions of func­tion­al time and space that com­ple­ment the inter­ac­tion time and space. The time and space of the force action in the stud­ied sys­tems are con­sid­ered by anal­o­gy with mass as mea­sures of the body’s resis­tance to changes in force, i. e. as mechan­i­cal para­me­ters, rather than geo­met­ric ones. The inte­gral laws of dynam­ics are con­struct­ed as a super­po­si­tion of Rie­mann inte­grals for direct func­tions and stilt­jes inte­grals for inverse func­tions. Rie­mann inte­grals describe mod­ern dynam­ics, and stilt­jes inte­grals describe its com­ple­ment to the poten­tial one.

Key­words: poten­tial, time, space, dif­fer­en­tial, integral

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Gor­ba­tov S.P., Mya­sis­chev D.G., Vashutkin А.S. Exper­i­men­tal study of wear of fric­tion pairs of brake assem­blies of trans­port vehi­cles. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 130–141 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.130–141

Abstract

A num­ber of research papers relat­ed to improv­ing the brak­ing effi­cien­cy of trans­port vehi­cles are addressed the issues of reduc­ing the ther­mal load of their brakes with forced cool­ing by sup­ply­ing com­pressed air between the brake shoes and brake drum dur­ing brak­ing. At the same time, the issue of the effect of com­pressed air sup­ply between the brake shoes and the brake drum dur­ing the vehi­cle brak­ing on the degree of wear of the drum brake mech­a­nism fric­tion sur­faces has not been stud­ied in these papers. The drum-type brak­ing mech­a­nisms with com­pressed air sup­ply­ing to them became the exper­i­men­tal study object. The obtained results of wear­ing of the brake mech­a­nism fric­tion sur­faces are the sub­ject of the research. The exper­i­men­tal data of the degree of wear of the fric­tion sur­faces of the drum-shoe brake mech­a­nism when com­pressed air is sup­plied to them are obtained. The func­tion­al depen­dence of the wear of exper­i­men­tal and non-exper­i­men­tal shoes on the num­ber of rep­e­ti­tions in the work­ing body with the imple­ment­ed required flu­id pres­sure in the brake sys­tem is pro­vid­ed. The func­tion­al analy­sis of the obtained empir­i­cal reg­u­lar­i­ties indi­cates that the fac­tors involved in the process­es under study have a com­plex phys­i­cal rela­tion­ship. In addi­tion, the exist­ing ana­logues of the stud­ied phe­nom­e­na are very ver­sa­tile and ambigu­ous. Struc­tur­al con­sid­er­a­tion of the obtained results, tak­ing into account the pat­terns exist­ing in relat­ed fields, allows us to state a unique result of using the found rela­tions. In par­tic­u­lar, the estab­lished depen­dences of the indi­ca­tors of the fric­tion pairs wear­ing using forced cool­ing can con­tribute, in prac­tice, to increase the oper­a­tional effi­cien­cy of the sys­tem under study. In real oper­at­ing con­di­tions, usage of the obtained results can pro­vide a diverse pos­i­tive effect: reduc­tion of wear of struc­tur­al ele­ments, decrease of the process ener­gy inten­si­ty and, as a result, increase of reli­a­bil­i­ty of the ele­ments of the sys­tem under study.

Key­words: brake, brake drum, brake pad, wear, exper­i­ment, com­pressed air

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Wasilews­ki M.R., Alek­san­drov V.A. On the issue of dynam­ic load­ing of the Kirovets K‑4 trac­tor trans­mis­sion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 142–151 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.142–151

Abstract

This research is of a direct applied nature and is aimed at solv­ing the prob­lem that arose at JSC «Peter­burgsky Trak­tot­ny Zavod» (here­inafter referred to as JSCPTZ”). The task was set to the­o­ret­i­cal­ly deter­mine the dynam­ic load of the Kirovets K‑4 trac­tor trans­mis­sion, in order to exclude the pos­si­bil­i­ty of incor­rect design lay­out of the trac­tor trans­mis­sion, in con­se­quence of which, there could be a destruc­tion of the dri­ve­shaft between the inter­nal com­bus­tion engine and the trans­mis­sion. The study was con­duct­ed on a three-mass math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el. The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is in the form of Lagrange equa­tions of the sec­ond kind.

Key­words: trac­tor, vibra­tion, dynam­ic load­ing, trans­mis­sion, math­e­mat­i­cal model

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Vino­gradov A.Y., Rzhavt­sev A.A., Zubo­va O.V., Obya­zov V.A., Fursov К.А., Hvalev S.V., Kadatskaya M.M., Vino­gradov I.А., Par­fen­o­va M.А. Analy­sis of through­put of pipe cross­ings on low­er cat­e­gories of roads. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 152–168 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.152–168

Abstract

The arti­cle ana­lyzes the oper­a­tion of cul­verts on region­al roads in the Leningrad region. The main prob­lems asso­ci­at­ed with unsat­is­fac­to­ry oper­a­tion of pipe cross­ings are iden­ti­fied, and exam­ples of con­se­quences with dam­age assess­ment are giv­en. In this work, field sur­veys of pipe cross­ings in the Vsevolozh­sky dis­trict of the Leningrad region were con­duct­ed. As a result, it was found that about 50% of cul­verts are not suit­able for oper­a­tion, respec­tive­ly, they can cause flood­ing of ter­ri­to­ries, while the rest are of lim­it­ed use. Rec­om­men­da­tions are giv­en on the main­te­nance and recon­struc­tion of pipe cross­ings to pre­vent emergencies.

Key­words: cul­verts, met­al and rein­forced con­crete pipes, silt­ing, reli­a­bil­i­ty, defects, throughput

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3. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIOTECHNOLOGY

Pimen­ov S.D., Sizov A.I., Mzokov G.V., Stroitel­e­va А.D. Method for deter­min­ing the white­ness of cel­lu­losic mate­ri­als using a scan­ner. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 169–180 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.169–180

Abstract

White­ness is one of the most impor­tant indi­ca­tors of prod­uct qual­i­ty in the pulp and paper, milling and phar­ma­ceu­ti­cal indus­tries. Quan­ti­ta­tive deter­mi­na­tion of white­ness is per­formed using dif­fer­ent types of meter, sep­a­rate­ly for sheet and pow­der mate­ri­als. The analy­sis of white­ness, in addi­tion to the use of expen­sive equip­ment, requires the use of sam­ples weigh­ing 5–10 g, which cre­ates cer­tain dif­fi­cul­ties when con­duct­ing research. Using the method of dig­i­tal col­orime­try great­ly sim­pli­fies the def­i­n­i­tion of white­ness through the use of ordi­nary flatbed scan­ners. In dig­i­tal col­orime­try, an addi­tive col­or mod­el is used, where the col­ors are rep­re­sent­ed by the addi­tion of the basic RGB col­ors (red, green, blue), while the base white col­or is esti­mat­ed as (255, 255, 255). In turn, graph­ic edi­tors allow to obtain aver­aged val­ues of the red–R, green–G and blue–B chan­nels of the scanned images over the select­ed area. Thus, using a scan­ner and graph­ics edi­tor it is pos­si­ble to deter­mine the white­ness of var­i­ous sam­ples. The pos­si­bil­i­ties of increas­ing images of graph­ic edi­tors allow deter­min­ing the bright­ness of col­or chan­nels for images with lin­ear dimen­sions of 10 mm with an opti­cal res­o­lu­tion of 600 dpi scan­ners, that is, for sam­ples weigh­ing about 0.5 g. Com­par­a­tive data on the white­ness of ref­er­ence sam­ples and the white­ness of scan­ners obtained which are well described by lin­ear equa­tions. The regres­sion equa­tions for the cal­i­bra­tion graphs of the white­ness ref­er­ence sam­ples for var­i­ous scan­ners were deter­mined. Scan­ners from Hewlett-packard (Chi­na) showed the high­est sen­si­tiv­i­ty. It is shown that the Sam­sung (S. Korea) and Kyocera (Tai­wan) scan­ners have a low sen­si­tiv­i­ty of the pho­to­di­ode array in the region of high col­or bright­ness of the sam­ples, give a sig­nif­i­cant mea­sure­ment error and are not rec­om­mend­ed for deter­min­ing white­ness. A com­par­i­son of the white­ness of cel­lu­lose, paper and card­board sam­ples using the obtained equa­tions on HP scan­ners allows us to obtain white­ness val­ues com­pa­ra­ble with leykom­e­try. The rel­a­tive error of white­ness mea­sure­ment is about 2,6%, which is quite enough for the eval­u­a­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics of the sam­ples. The tech­nique can be used to quick­ly quan­ti­fy the white­ness of var­i­ous mate­ri­als in fac­to­ries and laboratories.

Key­words: white­ness def­i­n­i­tion, cel­lu­lose bleach­ing, dig­i­tal сolorimetry

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Morozko­va I.A., Kutako­va N.A., Tret’yakov S.I., Vasilie­va N.N Extrac­tion of valu­able com­po­nents from fruits of the hawthorn and bar­baris of the North-West region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 181–195 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.181–195

Abstract

The fruits of bar­ber­ry and hawthorn con­tain valu­able bio­log­i­cal­ly active sub­stances: organ­ic acids, sug­ars, tan­nins, antho­cyanins, ascor­bic acid and oth­er com­po­nents. The quan­ti­ta­tive con­tent of these groups of com­pounds in this raw mate­r­i­al varies depend­ing on eco­log­i­cal, geo­graph­i­cal, cli­mat­ic fac­tors, the phase of plant growth, cul­ti­va­tion tech­nol­o­gy, dry­ing method, etc. Com­par­i­son of the com­po­si­tion of the fruits col­lect­ed in the Den­drosade of NAr­FU (Arkhangel­sk) in 2015–2018 with the main cli­mat­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the grow­ing sea­son showed that the influ­ence of the cli­mate is great. The results of a study the com­po­si­tion of the fruits of sev­er­al types o of bar­ber­ry and hawthorn char­ac­ter­ize them as valu­able mate­r­i­al for a promis­ing source for deep­er study and pro­cess­ing. As the avail­able data show, the ana­lytes exhib­it a diverse spec­trum of phar­ma­co­log­i­cal activ­i­ty: antivi­ral, anti-inflam­ma­to­ry, antimi­cro­bial, antidi­a­bet­ic and anti­tu­mor prop­er­ties. To extract the com­plex of bio­log­i­cal­ly active sub­stances, it is pro­posed to use 70% ethanol. The effi­cien­cy of extrac­tion of bio­log­i­cal­ly active sub­stances by var­i­ous meth­ods was eval­u­at­ed: the method of insist­ing, ultra­son­ic treat­ment and extrac­tion in an elec­tro­mag­net­ic field of microwave fre­quen­cies, of which microwave extrac­tion was rec­og­nized as promis­ing. The degree of extrac­tion of the com­po­nents aver­aged 50%. The fruits are promis­ing for use in the food indus­try and for the devel­op­ment of new ther­a­peu­tic and pre­ven­tive med­i­cines based on extracts.

Key­words: sug­ars, tan­nins, antho­cyanins, ascor­bic acid, organ­ic acids, infu­sion method, ultra­son­ic extrac­tion, microwave extrac­tion, bar­ber­ry, hawthorn

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Sivakov V.P., Vurasko A.V., Yudaev D.A. Defor­ma­tions of dry­ing cylin­ders dur­ing paper cre­ping and meth­ods of their elim­i­na­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 196–207 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.196–207

Abstract

When cre­ping paper on dry­ing cylin­ders (DC) of large diam­e­ters, the blades of scrap­ers and the sur­face of the DC wear out. Wear from fric­tion of the scraper blade on the sur­face of the hous­ing of the DC is not uni­form. Along the edges of the DC on the side sur­face, there is an accel­er­at­ed devel­op­ment of grooves, and on the scraper blade – accel­er­at­ed local wear of the blade. The pur­pose of the work is to study the defor­ma­tion of the DC and deter­mine the effect of defor­ma­tion on the process of crepe paper and wear of the scraper and DC. The method­ol­o­gy is based first on the study of sep­a­rate defor­ma­tion of the DC body and end caps as parts, and then joint defor­ma­tion of the DC as an Assem­bly unit, due to fac­tors of the tech­no­log­i­cal process and wear of the DC dur­ing oper­a­tion. As the main fac­tors of the tech­no­log­i­cal process that cause the defor­ma­tion of parts indi­vid­u­al­ly and the DC as a whole, the ther­mal process­es of paper dry­ing and inter­nal pres­sure in the DC are accept­ed. Dur­ing the research, the tem­per­a­ture of the DC hous­ing and end caps on the front and dri­ve sides was mea­sured exper­i­men­tal­ly. Mea­sure­ments were made with a Tem­Pro 300 pyrom­e­ter. The action of the oper­at­ing mode process­es on the hous­ing of the DC and the cov­er, as sep­a­rate parts, leads to sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences in chang­ing their mat­ing dimen­sions. In this exam­ple, the hous­ing of the DC has a three-times greater incre­ment in the diam­e­ter of the inter­face with the cov­ers than the cov­er. As an Assem­bly unit, the DC is deformed with the for­ma­tion of a bend on the gen­er­a­tor with a slope to the axis of the cylin­der in the direc­tion of the cov­ers. The defor­ma­tion of the form­ing DC is local, it decreas­es from the cov­ers to the cen­ter of the DC and, at a dis­tance of 2.5–3 of the thick­ness of the cov­er wall, it fades. At the bend sec­tions, the scraper blade and the DC hous­ing are accel­er­at­ed by the scrap­er’s pres­sure. In the bend­ing sec­tions, the DC has a small­er diam­e­ter than in the mid­dle part, which leads to the for­ma­tion of crepe along the edges of the paper with a longer step.

Key­words: defor­ma­tion, dry­ing cylin­der, end cap, ther­mal process­es, pres­sure, diam­e­ter, scraper, crepe

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Shishkin A.I., Strogano­va M.S., Antonov I.V., Adylo­va A.Zh. Increas­ing the envi­ron­men­tal friend­li­ness lev­el of the pulp nat­ur­al pro­duc­tion com­plex to ensure accept­able dis­charge rates. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 208–232 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.208–232

Abstract

Chang­ing envi­ron­men­tal leg­is­la­tion decreed for the authors, in this paper, the neces­si­ty of devel­op­ment and cre­ation of new method­ol­o­gy of eco­log­i­cal-tech­no­log­i­cal reg­u­la­tion of the per­mis­si­ble dis­charge cri­te­ria lev­el of envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly pro­duc­tion, as the sum of the pro­duc­tion nature inten­si­ty their com­men­su­ra­tion with the region­al nat­ur­al poten­tial. The paper inves­ti­gates and pro­pos­es solu­tions for cer­tain deter­min­ing fac­tors and quan­ti­ta­tive val­ues of the bal­ance of nat­ur­al resource inten­si­ty for the nat­ur­al pro­duc­tion com­plex «coastal waters of lake Lado­ga – a set of pro­duc­tion and eco­nom­ic objects of a pulp mill». In accor­dance with the envi­ron­men­tal tech­nol­o­gy inten­si­ty of the des­ig­nat­ed lake Lado­ga water area, two stages of cal­cu­lat­ing the per­mis­si­ble dis­charge rates (PDR) were deter­mined: accord­ing to the thresh­old lim­it val­ue (TLV) for the cal­cu­lat­ed indi­ca­tors of a pulp mill after treat­ment at the dis­charge; tak­ing into account the design and char­ac­ter­is­tics of the deep water out­let, as well as the effect of jet and main dilu­tion to the con­trol gate. The struc­ture and method­ol­o­gy of assess­ing the actu­al lev­el of envi­ron­men­tal friend­li­ness of the cel­lu­lose nat­ur­al pro­duc­tion com­plex is pre­sent­ed on the exam­ple of the first cal­cu­lat­ed stage of achiev­ing PDR under the TLV. The actu­al secu­ri­ty pro­posed in the work activ­i­ties grad­ual increase of eco­log­i­cal com­pat­i­bil­i­ty to 3.5 and the appro­pri­ate lev­el accord­ing to the degree of purifi­ca­tion of waste­water tak­ing into account the effects of the jet and the pri­ma­ry dilu­tion to achieve PDR. A set of stud­ies and sta­tis­ti­cal analy­sis was per­formed, which allowed us to assess the actu­al lev­el of envi­ron­men­tal friend­li­ness of the main and aux­il­iary pro­duc­tion of the pulp mill, as well as tar­get indi­ca­tors, tak­ing into account the specifics of alka­li-con­tain­ing efflu­ents. Pro­posed to imple­ment aер num­ber of tar­get­ed tech­nol­o­gy events, enhance the lev­el of envi­ron­men­tal per­for­mance at the pulp mill and min­i­mize, respec­tive­ly, the anthro­pogenic load in the range of envi­ron­men­tal tech­nol­o­gy inten­si­ty water areas for fish­eries man­age­ment stan­dards spe­cif­ic to pulp mill performance. 

Key­words: envi­ron­men­tal friend­li­ness lev­el, tar­gets, cel­lu­lose nat­ur­al pro­duc­tion com­plex, alka­li-con­tain­ing efflu­ents, dis­charge rates, nat­ur­al inten­si­ty, nat­ur­al poten­tial, envi­ron­men­tal tech­nol­o­gy intensity

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Leonovich A.A., Sviri­do E.A., Glazuno­va M.G. Explorato­ry research in the cre­ation of mono-struc­tured low-com­bustibil­i­ty fibre­boards. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 233–243 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.233–243

Abstract

A fire retar­dant based on hydrox­yethyli­dene diphos­pho­n­ic acid was intro­duced into wood fiber (a mix­ture of birch and aspen), the mass was treat­ed with a melaminecar­bamide-formalde­hyde binder, a car­pet was formed, and fire-resis­tant medi­um­den­si­ty fiber­boards were pressed. Using exper­i­men­tal sta­tis­ti­cal mod­els, we stud­ied the effect of press­ing dura­tion, fire retar­dant and binder con­tent on the prop­er­ties of plates in terms of flex­ur­al strength, mod­u­lus of elas­tic­i­ty, swelling and flam­ma­bil­i­ty. The analy­sis is car­ried out and the pos­si­bil­i­ty of man­u­fac­tur­ing plates of gen­er­al pur­pose or struc­tur­al low com­bustibil­i­ty by vary­ing pre­scrip­tion and tech­no­log­i­cal fac­tors with­in the estab­lished lim­its is shown at the lev­el of stan­dards requirements.

Key­words: fibre­board, three-fac­tor exper­i­ment, fire retar­dant, hydrox­yethyli­dene diphos­pho­n­ic acid, melaminocar­bamide-formalde­hyde binder, flam­ma­bil­i­ty, strength, swelling, exper­i­men­tal sta­tis­ti­cal model.

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Duboviy V.K., Krinitsin N.A. Effect of the con­tent and type of binder on the strength of glass fiber paper. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 244–251 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.244–251

Abstract

The study of com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al based on min­er­al fiber using polynu­clear met­al com­plex­es as a binder was car­ried out. The nov­el­ty and fea­ture of this study is the use of polynu­clear com­plex­es of tita­ni­um as a binder for a com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al based on glass fibers. Adding a binder based on polynu­clear com­plex­es to the com­po­si­tion is advis­able in the range of 5–30% by weight of the fiber. The stud­ied com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al with the addi­tion of polynu­clear com­plex­es of tita­ni­um as a binder has strength char­ac­ter­is­tic at pH lev­els 10 and 12, high­er, than that of mate­ri­als with the addi­tion of polynu­clear com­plex­es of alu­minum and has suf­fi­cient tech­no­log­i­cal strength. Polynu­clear com­plex­es of tita­ni­um can be used as promis­ing binders for com­pos­ite fil­ter mate­ri­als based on glass fibers. 

Key­words: glass fibers, com­pos­ite mate­ri­als, fil­ter mate­ri­als, polynu­clear alu­minum com­plex­es, binders

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4. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

Zay­ats A.M., Khabarov S.P. Using the GNU Octave sys­tem to process data com­ing in over the net­work. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 252–264 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.252–264

Abstract

An approach to build­ing in the OMNeT ++ envi­ron­ment using the INET frame­work of advanced mod­els of wire­less net­works is con­sid­ered, which makes it pos­si­ble to study both the ener­gy costs of each of the net­work nodes dur­ing their net­work oper­a­tion and take into account the fea­tures of net­work inter­ac­tion of nodes in the con­di­tions of their mobil­i­ty. The pos­si­bil­i­ty of orga­niz­ing com­mu­ni­ca­tion between two wire­less nodes locat­ed out­side the direct radio acces­si­bil­i­ty zone through a series of inter­me­di­ate nodes is shown. 

Key­words: dis­trib­uted sys­tems, wire­less net­works, net­work programming

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5. CHRONICLE OF SCIENTIFIC LIFE

Lipin V.A. Rauner — one and a half cen­turies in the ser­vice of forestry in Rus­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 265–274 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.265–274

Abstract

For the first time, the arti­cle sum­ma­rizes pre­vi­ous­ly unpub­lished infor­ma­tion about the fate and activ­i­ties of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the dynasty of come from Aus­tria, Rauner in Russ­ian work for the gov­ern­ment and in the post-rev­o­lu­tion­ary peri­od. On the basis of archival mate­ri­als, rare and inac­ces­si­ble pub­li­ca­tions, as well as mate­ri­als from pri­vate col­lec­tions, lit­tle-known pages of the his­to­ry of forestry in Rus­sia are described. A num­ber of rep­re­sen­ta­tives of Rauner clan were direct­ly involved in forestry in Rus­sia. Julius Karlovich Rauner, who stud­ied at the Lisin­sky train­ing forestry. Since 1855, Yu.K. Rauner is the chief forester in the Yeka­ter­in­burg moun­tain dis­trict. Stanislav Yulievich Rauner, a for­est grow­er, land reclam­a­tor, the­o­reti­cian and prac­ti­tion­er of min­ing and afforesta­tion works car­ried out to com­bat soil ero­sion and mud­flows, became the most famous in forestry. After grad­u­at­ing from the Alek­seevsky Yeka­ter­in­burg Real School from 1879 to 1882, S.U. Rauner was a stu­dent at the For­est Insti­tute in St. Peters­burg. The influ­ence of the for­est on the regime of sur­face and ground­wa­ters was the sub­ject of a par­tic­u­lar­ly thor­ough study by S.Yu. Rauner. Since the mid 80s of the XIX cen­tu­ry. until 1917 S.Yu. The major­i­ty of sci­en­tif­ic works were the rauner, many instruc­tions and pro­grams were com­piled, direct­ly on geo­graph­i­cal, bio­log­i­cal and oth­er stud­ies. After the Rev­o­lu­tion since 1917, S.Yu. Rauner worked in Moscow at the Supreme Eco­nom­ic Coun­cil as a Deputy Chair­man of the State Plan­ning Com­mis­sion. In 1920 he was cho­sen as a pro­fes­sor at the Forestry Insti­tute in Petrograd. 

Key­words: forestry, archival mate­ri­als, forestry insti­tute, land recla­ma­tion, soil ero­sion, land­scape work, afforesta­tion of mountains

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Danilov Yu.I., Guzyuk M.Ye. On the 90th anniver­sary of the birth of pro­fes­sor of the for­est plan­ta­tion depart­ment of George Ivanovich Red­ko (1930–2011). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 232, pp. 275–283 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.232.275–283

Abstract

The arti­cle is ded­i­cat­ed to the 90th anniver­sary of the birth of a sci­en­tist wide­ly known in Rus­sia and abroad in the field of refor­esta­tion, Hon­ored Sci­en­tist of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion, Aca­d­e­mi­cian of the Russ­ian Acad­e­my of Nat­ur­al Sci­ences and LANU, Doc­tor of Agri­cul­tur­al Sci­ences, Pro­fes­sor of the Depart­ment of For­est Plan­ta­tion Geor­gy Ivanovich Red­ko. Geor­gy Ivanovich began his career in sci­ence at the Forestry Acad­e­my from which he grad­u­at­ed with hon­ors in 1954. After work­ing as a senior forester of the Tikhvin forestry enter­prise he entered the post­grad­u­ate course of the Ukrain­ian For­est Researsch Insti­tute where under the lead­er­ship of aca­d­e­mi­cian P.S. Pogreb­nyak pre­pared and defend­ed his Ph.D. the­sis (1959) and then doc­tor­al dis­ser­ta­tion but it was already with­in the walls of the old­est forestry uni­ver­si­ty in the Forestry Acad­e­my (1971). In the same year (1971) Geor­gy Ivanovich was invit­ed to head the depart­ment of for­est plan­ta­tions of the forestry fac­ul­ty. G.I. Red­ko made a sig­nif­i­cant con­tri­bu­tion to the the­o­ry and prac­tice of forestry over the years of work of the head of the depart­ment and lat­er as a pro­fes­sor of the depart­ment. Pro­fes­sor G.I. Red­ko was the main author of five edi­tions of the text­book for uni­ver­si­ties «For­est Plan­ta­tions». He is a lead­ing sci­en­tist in the his­to­ry of forestry in our coun­try. He pre­pared and pub­lished more than 30 mono­graphs on the his­to­ry and prac­tice of forestry in Rus­sia and abroad. Geor­gy Ivanovich is the author of more than 300 sci­en­tif­ic papers many of which are wide­ly known not only in our coun­try but also abroad. Under his lead­er­ship 36 spir­i­tu­al stu­dents defend­ed their Ph.D. the­ses and 7 of them became doc­tors of sci­ence. Geor­gy Ivanovich’s stu­dents can be found in almost all places of our country.

Key­words: Pro­fes­sor G.I. Red­ko, 90th anniver­sary, Depart­ment of for­est cul­tures, his­to­ry of forestry, main works, personalities

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Issue 231
1. FORESTRY

Baza­ev A.B., Gryazkin A.V., Khetagurov H.M., Niko­laev I.A., Gutal M.M. Growth and devel­op­ment of the yew under the canopy of a beech stand. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 7–18 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.7–18

Abstract

The results of the analy­sis of the growth of mod­el yew trees from dif­fer­ent regions of the Cau­ca­sus are pre­sent­ed. The object of research is berry yew (Taxus bac­ca­ta L.), one of the most shade-tol­er­ant tree species. Mod­el yew trees were select­ed in the spring of 2019 on the ter­ri­to­ry of South Osse­tia and the Repub­lic of North Osse­tia – Ala­nia. Sam­ples (disks) were tak­en from each mod­el tree after one meter, start­ing from a height of 0.1 m (from the root neck). The diam­e­ter of the disk in the crust, with­out the crust, and the diam­e­ter of the core were mea­sured. The vol­ume of indi­vid­ual ele­ments (bark, wood, core) was deter­mined. In addi­tion, the age of the tree was deter­mined on all disks select­ed after 1 m, start­ing from 0.1 m. The width of the annu­al rings was also mea­sured, i.e. the radi­al incre­ment with an accu­ra­cy of 0.1 mm using the MBS‑2 binoc­u­lar micro­scope. It is estab­lished that the min­i­mum radi­al growth of all mod­el trees is observed in the first decades, when the slow-grow­ing yew is under pres­sure from trees of the upper tier, large under­growth, under­growth and tall grass. Tak­ing into account the age of the tree on each disk, the aver­age height increase was cal­cu­lat­ed (the dis­tance between disks – 1 m divid­ed by the dif­fer­ence in the age of the tree on adja­cent disks). The sam­ples were weighed, then the bark was removed, and weighed again. Accord­ing to the obtained weight data and the set vol­ume, the den­si­ty of wood and bark, the share of tree ele­ments by vol­ume and by weight were cal­cu­lat­ed. Analy­sis of sam­ples showed that the radi­al growth of yew trees is only 0.1–1.4 mm per year, and the growth in height is from 3 to 6 cm per year. The pro­por­tion of bark by vol­ume is 13–30%, and the pro­por­tion by mass is 12–33%. The den­si­ty of wood and bark is approx­i­mate­ly the same and sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er than the den­si­ty of wood of most for­est-form­ing species of the taiga zone – from 800 to 1100 kg/m3. the Basic den­si­ty of yew wood is 658–741 kg/m3.

Key­words: North Cau­ca­sus, beech forests, berry yew, growth dynamics

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Niki­forchin I.V., Guryanov M.O., Shu­ly­gi­na D.A. Com­par­a­tive analy­sis meth­ods of assess­ment of com­mod­i­ty struc­ture of spruce stands. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 19–28 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.19–28

Abstract

In recent years, the qual­i­ty of work on the allo­ca­tion and tax­a­tion of cut­ting areas has decreased. Exist­ing meth­ods used in the tax­a­tion do not pro­vide the required accu­ra­cy of results since their appli­ca­tion often does not meet the cri­te­ria of the “Man­u­al on the allo­ca­tion and tax­a­tion of cut­ting areas”. Thus, the study of errors in deter­min­ing the prod­uct struc­ture of for­est stands as well as iden­ti­fy­ing pos­si­ble caus­es for their occur­rence in order to improve for­est tax­a­tion works becomes an urgent task. Based on the tax­a­tion mate­ri­als of the per­ma­nent Euro­pean spruce plots, mate­r­i­al and mon­e­tary assess­ment of the stands was made using assort­ment and com­mod­i­ty tables, and gross, sys­tem­at­ic, and ran­dom errors of the out­put of large, medi­um, small com­mer­cial tim­ber, fire­wood, liq­uid wood, and waste were cal­cu­lat­ed. Сor­re­la­tion analy­sis and one-way analy­sis of vari­ance were per­formed to assess the influ­ence of var­i­ous fac­tors on the appear­ance and mag­ni­tude of the errors. The analy­sis made it pos­si­ble to estab­lish that the main indi­ca­tors that influ­ence the dis­crep­an­cies in the out­put of assort­ments of dif­fer­ent cat­e­gories of wood, when using com­mod­i­ty and assort­ment tables, are the aver­age heights of stands, as well as height cat­e­gories. This is due to the small num­ber of height val­ues pre­sent­ed for each of the thick­ness steps in the prod­uct tables. Assort­ment tables, due to the greater vari­abil­i­ty of this tax­a­tion indi­ca­tor, allow you to more accu­rate­ly deter­mine the prod­uct struc­ture of stands. The revealed pat­terns demon­strate the high need to improve assort­ment and com­mod­i­ty tables in order to reduce the dis­crep­an­cy between obtained results and the actu­al out­put of assort­ments, which will improve the qual­i­ty of for­est tax­a­tion work

Key­words: spruce for­est stands, the com­mod­i­ty struc­ture of for­est stands, mate­r­i­al and mon­e­tary assess­ment, assort­ment tables, prod­uct tables, mea­sure­ment errors, cor­re­la­tion analy­sis, dis­per­sion analysis

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Mukhamet­shi­na A.R., Petro­va G.A., Musin H.G., Sin­gat­ullin I.K., Gibadullin N.F. Com­par­a­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics and effi­cien­cy of appli­ca­tion of new drugs when grow­ing plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al of Siber­ian larch (Lar­ix sibir­i­ca) in the nurs­ery of the edu­ca­tion­al and exper­i­men­tal sub­ur­ban forestry of the Repub­lic of Tatarstan. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 29–40 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.29–40

Abstract

The suc­cess of the appli­ca­tion of plant pro­tec­tion prod­ucts in many respects depends on the avail­abil­i­ty of their nutri­ents. One of the most effec­tive meth­ods is the use of non-root treat­ment with var­i­ous drugs, which makes up for the lack of nutri­ents in crit­i­cal phas­es of plant growth and devel­op­ment. In addi­tion, the expe­di­en­cy of their use is deter­mined by a mul­ti­ple reduc­tion in the con­sump­tion rates of expen­sive fer­til­iz­ers. The object of the field study is crops of Siber­ian larch in the nat­ur­al lesion of Schutte (the pathogen is the fun­gus Meria Lar­i­cis Vuill.). The first signs of the dis­ease appear on two-year-old seedlings in late may or ear­ly June. In 2019, the study of the effect of fungi­cides and non-root feed­ing on Siber­ian larch seedlings was car­ried out on the ter­ri­to­ry of the nurs­ery of the edu­ca­tion­al and exper­i­men­tal sub­ur­ban forestry of the Repub­lic of Tatarstan. The exper­i­ments were laid in the crops of the sec­ond year of cul­ti­va­tion. Treat­ment of seedlings with fungi­cides «Rakurs, SK», «Zorex» and non-root treat­ment with the drug «Emistim, P», «Agros­tim­ul», «Inter­mag» was per­formed twice dur­ing the grow­ing sea­son – in the first and sec­ond half of July. The pos­i­tive effect of spray­ing two-year-old seedlings was observed after the first treat­ment. The best result was found in the appli­ca­tion of growth stim­u­la­tor «Emistim» against the back­ground of the fungi­cide «azor­ro, CS». As of June 27, the preva­lence of «Schutte» in this vari­ant of the exper­i­ment was 18.0%, which is sig­nif­i­cant­ly low­er (by 13,0%) than the val­ues of the con­trol vari­ant (47.0%). In Gen­er­al, the preva­lence of Schutte in the con­trol ver­sion with­out treat­ment with fungi­cides varies between 37.0–47.0%. The high­est per­cent­age of healthy seedlings was pro­vid­ed by options with non-root treat­ment with var­i­ous drugs on the back­ground of spray­ing with fungi­cides-from 90.0 to 97.0%.

Key­words: Siber­ian larch, seedlings, fungi­cides, non-root treatment

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Sin­gat­ullin I.K., Musin H.G., Mukhamet­shi­na A.R., Petro­va G.A. Analy­sis of the state of spruce for­est crops in the Repub­lic of Tatarstan. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 41–55 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.41–55

Abstract

Spruce plan­ta­tions in the Repub­lic of Tatarstan as of 01.01.19 occu­py an are of 81.5 thou­sand hectares, 50% and 29% of them are young plan­ta­tions of 1st and 2nd age class­es, 13% are mid­dle-aged, 5% are ripen­ing, 3% are ripe. The area of spruce for­est crops is about 70 thou­sand hectares (86% of total spruce plan­ta­tions area). Most of them were cre­at­ed out­side of the nat­ur­al areas in Zakamye and Zavolzhye of the Repub­lic of Tatarstan. Despite the fact that spruce crops are cre­at­ed annu­al­ly on an area of more than 500 hectares, accord­ing to the results of the lat­est for­est man­age­ment in 2011–2017, the area of spruce plan­ta­tions decreased by 5 thou­sand ha. The pro­por­tion of the area of dead and unsat­is­fac­to­ry spruce crops exceeds 50% (52–71%) in almost all fore­stries of the for­est-steppe zone of the Repub­lic of Tatarstan. Main rea­sons for the death of crops are drown­ing in soft-leaved breeds and the drought of 2010. This is a con­se­quence of the cre­ation of for­est cul­tures of spruce in the forest­steppe zone under the for­est canopy or on clear­ings of soft-leaved species. The vol­ume of under­growth of aspen, small-leaved lin­den, dwarf birch and hol­ly maple in felling in the first years can reach 50 thou­sand units / ha, an annu­al growth is 1.5 m. In the absence of high inten­si­ty sil­vi­cul­tur­al nurs­eries, by 5–10 years for­est crops became closed by canopy of soft­wood and maple. As a result of drown­ing at the age of 20–25, the spruce begins to dry out and by the age of 40 it com­plete­ly drops out of the com­po­si­tion. With the time­ly con­duct of for­est man­age­ment, mixed stands of spruce are formed with the par­tic­i­pa­tion in the com­po­si­tion from 3 to 8 units. 

Key­words: spruce, sur­vival, drown­ing, soft-leaved species, binge eating

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Byalt A.V., Byalt V.V New form of Lonicera nigra L. (Capri­fo­li­aceae) is found in the envi­rons of vil­lage Privet­nin­skoe in Leningrad Region (Rus­sia). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 56–63 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.56–63

Abstract

In the arti­cle a new for sci­ence form of black hon­ey­suck­le – Lonicera nigra L. f. pur­purea A.V. Byalt & V.V. Byalt f. nova. (Capri­fo­li­aceae) was found in the vicin­i­ty of the vil­lage Privet­nin­skoye, Leningrad region, it dif­fers by very char­ac­ter­is­tic pur­ple leaves. Infor­ma­tion is giv­en on the place of growth, the dif­fer­ence between a new form from close taxa (Latin diag­no­sis is giv­en) and the type spec­i­mens (holo­type and iso­type) and their stor­age sites are indi­cat­ed. The dec­o­ra­tive­ness of the new form allows us to rec­om­mend it for gar­den­ing in cul­ture in St. Peters­burg and oth­er cities of the North-West of the Euro­pean part of Rus­sia, as well as the species itself, which is well adapt­ed in the region. The arti­cle is illus­trat­ed with 3 pho­tos and a map.

Key­words: new tax­on, flow­er­ing plants, Mag­no­lio­phy­ta, Lonicera nigra, plant tax­on­o­my, intro­duc­tion and run wild plants, woody plants

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Olkhin Y.V., Gavrilo­va O.I., Moro­zo­va I.V. Assess­ment of intact for­est areas based on remote sens­ing data. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 64–75 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.64–75

Abstract

The arti­cle deals with the allo­ca­tion of pro­tect­ed nat­ur­al areas (forests), tak­ing into account the data of remote sens­ing of the Earth. To assess whether the area is intact, it is cor­re­lat­ed with cer­tain cri­te­ria for the area of the mas­sif, the age of the main part of the plant­i­ngs, the degree of frag­men­ta­tion of the site, and the pres­ence of anthro­pogenic dis­turbed land. Thus, areas with eco­nom­ic activ­i­ty over the past 50 years are not allowed to exceed 5% of the total. Areas of for­est that were planned as intact wood­lands (mil­lion), in fact, for 2018, accord­ing to satel­lite images, were not always such. For exam­ple, two of the planned ter­ri­to­ries after align­ment par­cel bound­aries accord­ing to the plans of forests and satel­lite imagery and sam­pling areas for tax­o­nom­ic descrip­tions of the con­clu­sions about the dis­crep­an­cy one of these cri­te­ria for iden­ti­fy­ing s old growth for­est. As shown by the satel­lite images of 2018 and the results of the analy­sis of the actu­al char­ac­ter­is­tics of for­est plan­ta­tions, part of the for­est area does not belong to the cat­e­go­ry of Not destroyed forests. Only one of them, locat­ed in the Lakhko­lam­bin dis­trict for­est area, meets the cri­te­ria for allo­cat­ing it as an MLM. The sec­ond sec­tion, locat­ed in the Kuolism­sa for­est dis­trict, does not meet the cri­te­ria for Not destroyed forests based on age and the pres­ence of eco­nom­ic activ­i­ty here in the last 20 years. For areas that are planned as intact forests, as well as cat­e­gories of pro­tect­ed forests and spe­cial­ly pro­tect­ed nat­ur­al areas, it is nec­es­sary to take into account the restric­tions on eco­nom­ic activ­i­ty estab­lished by the cur­rent leg­is­la­tion of the Russ­ian Federation. 

Key­words: pro­tect­ed nat­ur­al areas (forests), remote sens­ing of the earth age of the for­est, anthro­pogenic impact, frag­men­ta­tion of the area of forests

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Mokhov S.P., Ariko S.E., Kononovich D.A., Pro­tas P.A. Method of eval­u­at­ing the effi­cien­cy of appli­ca­tion com­plex machines for col­lec­tion and trans­porta­tion log­ging waste. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 76–90 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.76–90

Abstract

A method­ol­o­gy has been devel­oped to ensure the effi­cient oper­a­tion of a set of machines for col­lect­ing and trans­port­ing log­ging waste. This tech­nique is uni­ver­sal in rela­tion to var­i­ous tech­nolo­gies, as well as to the tech­no­log­i­cal and design fea­tures of basic equip­ment and equip­ment. As a result of the eval­u­a­tion of the effec­tive­ness of the use of such machines, data were obtained based on rec­om­men­da­tions for the fur­ther improve­ment of the design and the ratio­nal use of this type of equip­ment in var­i­ous envi­ron­men­tal and pro­duc­tion con­di­tions. The main tech­no­log­i­cal para­me­ters affect­ing a sig­nif­i­cant change in the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of machines for col­lect­ing and trans­port­ing log­ging waste are wood har­vest­ing tech­nolo­gies and liq­uid stock. By har­vest­ing log­ging waste after devel­op­ing the cut­ting area with gaso­line-pow­ered saws, one can achieve the great­est pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of the machine com­plex. Of the tech­ni­cal fea­tures sig­nif­i­cant­ly affect­ing the effi­cien­cy of the com­plex of machines are the width of the pro­cess­ing equip­ment for the for­ma­tion of heaps or the shaft and the degree of com­paction of log­ging waste in the semi-trail­er machine for trans­port­ing waste.

Key­words: meth­ods, log­ging waste, com­plex of machines for col­lect­ing and trans­port­ing log­ging waste, effi­cien­cy, parameters

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Alek­san­drov V.A., Rzhavt­sev A.A. Stress­es in mech­a­nism of trav­el sys­tem of the feller-bunch­er at tech­no­log­i­cal cross­ings. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 91–101 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.91–101

Abstract

In arti­cle the dynam­ic mod­el of sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor – skid­ding trac­tor – tree bunch». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagrange sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion seats. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly felling and skid­ding machine LP-19A.

Key­words: feller bunch­er, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, dynam­ic load

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Gor­ba­tov S.P., Mya­sis­chev D.G., Vashutkin А.S. Orga­ni­za­tion and plan­ning of exper­i­men­tal research test for wear rate of brake fric­tion sur­faces with the sup­ply of com­pressed air between brake pads and brake drum dur­ing brak­ing. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 102–109 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.102–109

Abstract

Some research sci­en­tif­ic works relat­ed to the improve­ment of vehi­cles’ brak­ing per­for­mance con­sid­er the issue of reduc­ing the brake ther­mal load by means of forced cool­ing through the sup­ply of com­pressed air between brake pads and brake drum dur­ing brak­ing. At the same time these works do not cov­er the issue of how the com­pressed air sup­plied between brake pads and brake drum dur­ing vehi­cle brak­ing would affect the wear rate of drum brake fric­tion sur­faces. To do this, one should look into the orga­ni­za­tion and plan­ning of exper­i­men­tal research tests for fric­tion and wear between brake pads and brake drum dur­ing brak­ing with com­pressed air sup­ply. The object of exper­i­men­tal test was the drum brakes. The sub­ject of research was the process of brake fric­tion sur­faces’ wear. For the pur­pos­es of exper­i­men­tal tests the max and min lim­it val­ues for vari­ables were defined, i.e. repeat (recur­rence) rate for brake actu­a­tor with­in thir­ty minute inter­val to be 216 and 156 cor­re­spond­ing­ly, and brake sys­tem flu­id pres­sure to be 7 and 5 MPa. The out­put val­ue of exper­i­men­tal research was the wear of brake lin­ings (in grams) on both the exper­i­men­tal and non-exper­i­men­tal brake. The exper­i­men­tal research involved the use of a sin­gle-fac­tor exper­i­ment method with a test bench. The aim of exper­i­men­tal research test orga­ni­za­tion and plan­ning is to obtain the data about the observed depen­dence of brake fric­tion sur­faces’ wear rate on the defined vari­ables with com­pressed air sup­ply between brake pads and brake drum dur­ing brak­ing, and to make their qual­i­ta­tive analy­sis. This method­ol­o­gy of exper­i­ment plan­ning will make it pos­si­ble to con­duct the exper­i­men­tal reser­ach test on the wear of vehi­cle brake fric­tion cou­ples and to give the com­pe­tent descrip­tion of this process. 

Key­words: brake, brake drum, brake pad, wear, exper­i­ment, com­pressed air

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Vino­gradov A.Y., Rzhavt­sev A.A., Bacherikov I.V., Hvalev S.V., Obya­zov V.A., Sazono­va S.I., Kadatskaya M.M., Par­fen­ov Е.А., Vino­gradov I.А. On the applic­a­bil­i­ty of loose logs dri­ving on small rivers in mod­ern con­di­tions. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 110–130 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.110–130

Abstract

The authors col­lect­ed and ana­lyzed avail­able infor­ma­tion on the prob­lem of loose log trans­port on small rivers. These data indi­cate that water trasnsport is the most cost­ef­fec­tive. Var­i­ous aspects of the influ­ence of the wood trans­port on the water and on the fish pop­u­la­tion are con­sid­ered. The analy­sis of pos­i­tive and neg­a­tive impacts, includ­ing in the con­text of time, was car­ried out. On the basis of the col­lect­ed infor­ma­tion, spe­cif­ic con­clu­sions are made and rec­om­men­da­tions are for­mu­lat­ed for the use of loose log trans­port on small rivers, as the most prof­itable and safe method of trans­port­ing wood.

Key­words: trans­port acces­si­bil­i­ty, ecol­o­gy, pol­lu­tion, log­ging, tim­ber raft­ing on small rivers, reg­u­la­to­ry documentation

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Toropov A.S., Soloviev A.N., Toropov D.S. Opti­mal cut­ting and out­put pre­dic­tion of pulp­wood before and dur­ing felling. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 131–140 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.131–140

Abstract

This arti­cle exam­ines a fun­da­men­tal­ly new approach to the prob­lem of pre­dict­ing the out­put of final prod­ucts of log­ging and wood pro­cess­ing plants already at the stage of tree swaths with the pos­si­bil­i­ty of account­ing for pos­si­ble vol­umes of pro­duc­tion vari­eties, lum­ber, bark accord­ing to the cri­te­ri­on of max­i­mum vol­ume out­put of prod­ucts in val­ue terms. The authors pro­pose and the­o­ret­i­cal­ly sub­stan­ti­ate the approach to assess­ing the vol­umes of the bal­ance part of the tree using a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of deter­min­ing para­me­ters based on the allo­met­ric method, which is based on the law of rel­a­tive growth of the tree. To choose the opti­mal cut and pre­dict the out­put of bal­ances from the stem part of the tree and bal­ance raw mate­ri­als, the authors use the method of exhaus­tive search and method of branch­es and bound­aries of the «tar­get tree».

Key­words: log­ging, cut­ting, opti­miza­tion, the­o­ry of growth, allometriya.

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Bazarov S.M., Chu­bin­sky A.N., Bacherikov I.V., Bazarov F.R., Goviadin I.K. Ele­ments of the basics of wood envi­ron­ment mechan­ics. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 141–150 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.141–150

Abstract

Wood pro­cess­ing and cut­ting tech­nolo­gies use a wide range of force fields of var­i­ous phys­i­cal nature (mechan­i­cal, ther­mal, elec­tro­mag­net­ic, acoustic, etc.) that affect the wood mate­r­i­al, result­ing in the for­ma­tion of a com­plex deformable state from elas­tic to inelas­tic, such as elas­tic­i­ty and plas­tic­i­ty. From the point of view of con­tin­u­um mechan­ics, the wood mate­r­i­al is a het­ero­ge­neous body with a com­plex spa­tial-tem­po­ral struc­ture a porous struc­ture that is filled with var­i­ous phas­es (gas, liq­uid). The wide­spread use of wood in the nation­al econ­o­my sets the task of sep­a­rat­ing it from a het­ero­ge­neous envi­ron­ment into a fair­ly inde­pen­dent wood envi­ron­ment char­ac­ter­ized by its own spe­cif­ic pat­terns. In wood sci­ence, the com­plex anisotropy of a porous struc­ture is described in three mutu­al­ly orthog­o­nal direc­tions: lon­gi­tu­di­nal, tan­gen­tial, and radi­al. When con­struct­ing the prin­ci­ples of mechan­ics of the wood envi­ron­ment, the assump­tions of uni­for­mi­ty, con­ti­nu­ity and com­press­ibil­i­ty are accept­ed, accord­ing to which the para­me­ters in the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el (elas­tic­i­ty, vis­cos­i­ty, poros­i­ty, plas­tic­i­ty, den­si­ty) are applied as a result of space-time aver­ag­ing. The com­press­ibil­i­ty fac­tor in non-sta­tion­ary con­di­tions leads to an expan­sion of the com­po­nent space of motion. The math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el is based on the con­nec­tiv­i­ty of the dis­place­ment veloc­i­ty vec­tor of the strain with the veloc­i­ty vec­tor of the move­ment that char­ac­ter­izes the flu­id­i­ty, while observ­ing the con­ti­nu­ity equa­tion of the com­press­ible medi­um. The pre­sent­ed research can be wide­ly applied, includ­ing inno­v­a­tive technologies. 

Key­words: wood sci­ence, com­press­ibil­i­ty, con­ti­nu­ity, poros­i­ty, fluidity

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Varank­i­na G.S., Rusakov D.S., Sokolo­va E.G., Chu­bin­sky A.N. The study of pow­dered phe­nol-formalde­hyde resins for the man­u­fac­ture of ply­wood. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 151–166 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.151–166

Abstract

At present, the domes­tic man­u­fac­tur­er of wood com­pos­ite mate­ri­als is faced with tasks to increase pro­duc­tion vol­umes, improve qual­i­ty and com­pet­i­tive­ness, and reduce the tox­i­c­i­ty of man­u­fac­tured prod­ucts. The solu­tion to these prob­lems is based on the devel­op­ment of new and improve­ment of exist­ing tech­nolo­gies for the mod­ern pro­duc­tion of adhe­sives and com­pos­ite mate­ri­als based on them. The pur­pose of the study is to increase the effi­cien­cy of ply­wood pro­duc­tion by using adhe­sives based on pow­dered ther­moset poly­mers of the poly­con­den­sa­tion type. To achieve this goal in the work, it is nec­es­sary to study the effect of the filler on the prop­er­ties of the adhe­sive com­po­si­tion and fin­ished prod­ucts. The ini­tial com­po­nents for the exper­i­ments were pow­der phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin and tech­ni­cal aerosil. It was found that the intro­duc­tion of tech­ni­cal aerosil in adhe­sives based on poly­con­den­sa­tion pow­der phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin SFZh-3013 increas­es the strength of ply­wood, as the amount of filler increas­es, the con­tent of free prod­ucts in the resin decreas­es: the con­tent of free phe­nol and formalde­hyde decreas­es to 0.05 – 0.06% and 0.02 – 0.03%, respec­tive­ly. It is assumed that dur­ing the hot bond­ing method, gel for­ma­tion occurs, so that aerosil par­ti­cles form branched chains ~ Si-O-Si ~ that com­plete­ly pen­e­trate the glue vol­ume, this process is accom­pa­nied by formalde­hyde bond­ing dur­ing struc­tur­ing. The obtained research results can be used in the work of spe­cial­ists in wood­work­ing indus­tries in the man­age­ment of glu­ing process­es. The devel­oped com­po­si­tions of the adhe­sive com­po­si­tion based on phe­nol-formalde­hyde resins mod­i­fied (filled) with tech­ni­cal aerosil allow you to: reduce the con­sump­tion of adhe­sive mate­ri­als; to increase the strength and qual­i­ty of glued prod­ucts; speed up the cur­ing process of the binder; short­en bond­ing time; reduce ener­gy costs by reduc­ing the bond­ing time; reduce the cost of glue, due to the replace­ment of the main com­po­nents with filler.

Key­words: veneer, ply­wood, mod­i­fi­ca­tion, phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin, tech­ni­cal aerosil, adhe­sive, ply­wood strength, free formalde­hyde content

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Vasi­lyev V.V., Mer­culo­va A.F. Study­ing the shield­ing effi­cien­cy of par­ti­cle­boards from elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion of office appli­ances. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 167–182 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.167–182

Abstract

We stud­ied the para­me­ters of elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion (EMP), ema­nat­ing from the front sur­face of wide­spread office elec­tri­cal appli­ances: the Ramec sys­tem unit, Acer mon­i­tor, hp key­board, Broth­er mul­ti­func­tion­al device (MFD). It was found that the devices have dif­fer­ent lev­els of elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion. At a dis­tance of 0.5 meter, that is estab­lished by the require­ments of San­PiN 2.2.2 / 2.4.1340–03, the great­est radi­a­tion is dis­trib­uted by the Acer Mon­i­tor, Broth­er MFP and the Ramec sys­tem unit. The elec­tric field strength in the fre­quen­cy range 5 Hz – 2 kHz at a dis­tance of 0.5 meters for these devices exceeds the lev­el of 25 V / m, which is estab­lished by the require­ments of San­PiN 2.2.2 / 2.4.1340–03. The elec­tric field in the fre­quen­cy range 2 – 400 kHz and the mag­net­ic flux den­si­ty in the fre­quen­cy range 5 Hz – 2 kHz and 2 – 400 kHz at a dis­tance of 0.5 meters for all test­ed devices meets the exist­ing require­ments. EMR indi­ca­tors reach max­i­mum val­ues at the front sur­face of the device. So, at the sur­face of the equip­ment under inves­ti­ga­tion, the elec­tric field strength exceeds 4 … 24 times, and the mag­net­ic flux den­si­ty – 1 … 16 times the same indi­ca­tors record­ed at a dis­tance of 0.5 m. The most impor­tant in the sense of the need for pro­tec­tion is the com­put­er sys­tem unit. Since a user can be in dif­fer­ent posi­tions with respect to sys­tem unit, the EMR lev­els from dif­fer­ent sides of the device were exam­ined. It was found that the elec­tric field strength indi­ca­tors in the fre­quen­cy range of 5 Hz – 2 kHz at a dis­tance of 0.5 meter on all sides of the sys­tem unit does not meet the require­ments of san­i­tary stan­dards. The elec­tric field strength in the fre­quen­cy range of 2 – 400 kHz and mag­net­ic flux den­si­ty in the fre­quen­cy range of 5 Hz – 2 kHz and 2 – 400 kHz at a dis­tance of 0.5 meters from all sides of the device com­ply with San­PiN 2.2.2 / 2.4. 1340-03. The most dan­ger­ous is the EMR from the side of the low­er sur­face of the com­put­er sys­tem unit in terms of the elec­tric field strength. High lev­els of ten­sion also come from the back, top and side sur­faces of the device. Mod­ern office fur­ni­ture is made pri­mar­i­ly from par­ti­cle­boards. It was sug­gest­ed that the plates can per­form a shield­ing func­tion to pro­tect against EMP. We inves­ti­gat­ed the abil­i­ty of three types of indus­tri­al fur­ni­ture par­ti­cle­boards to absorb elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion. The low­er side of the com­put­er sys­tem unit was used as the source of elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion. The data obtained show that the val­ues of the elec­tric field strength and mag­net­ic flux den­si­ty behind the screen from the par­ti­cle­boards are close to the val­ues of EMP with­out the screen. Changes in indi­ca­tors are not expressed, there are both low val­ues and increased com­pared to EMP with­out a screen. The bulk of the changes behind the screen from the chip­board is ± 20%, i.e. they fit into the error range of mea­sur­ing instru­ments IEP-05, IMP-05/1 and IMP-05/2. Thus, 16.3 mm thick par­ti­cle­boards do not absorb the elec­tro­mag­net­ic field ema­nat­ing from office elec­tri­cal appli­ances. To give the plates a pro­tec­tive abil­i­ty, it is nec­es­sary to intro­duce sub­stances capa­ble of absorb­ing EMP into their composition. 

Key­words: office elec­tri­cal appli­ances, com­put­er sys­tem unit, elec­tro­mag­net­ic radi­a­tion, elec­tric field strength, mag­net­ic flux den­si­ty, san­i­tary stan­dards, spe­cial fur­ni­ture, par­ti­cle­boards, shield­ing properties

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Rakovskaya E.G., Zanko N.G. Devel­op­ment of rust mod­i­fiers based on sul­fite alka­lis for cor­ro­sion pro­tec­tion of steel. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 183–195 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.183–195

Abstract

One way to pre­pare the sur­face for paint­ing is to apply rust mod­i­fiers or spe­cial primers – rust con­vert­ers. To improve the pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties, cor­ro­sion inhibitors are intro­duced into the com­po­si­tion of the mod­i­fy­ing solu­tions. The pur­pose of this study was to obtain effec­tive inhibitors based on waste from the pulp and paper indus­try, as well as the devel­op­ment of coat­ing sys­tems using these inhibitors to pro­tect indus­tri­al equip­ment from cor­ro­sion. The com­po­si­tions pre­pared on the basis of sul­fite liquor as cor­ro­sion inhibitors of steel sam­ples with­out rust were stud­ied, and the effec­tive­ness of the pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties of paint coat­ings sys­tems, which includ­ed rust mod­i­fiers primers devel­oped on the basis of sul­fite liquors and applied to a rusty sur­face with an upper coat­ing lay­er, was stud­ied. Enam­el PF-115. Using the gravi­met­ric method and the method of tak­ing polar­iza­tion curves, it was found that sul­fite liquors are inhibitors of steel cor­ro­sion in an acidic envi­ron­ment. It has been shown that sul­fite liquors can be used as inhibitors of steel cor­ro­sion to phos­phor­ic acid-based rust con­vert­ers. Using visu­al and elec­tro­chem­i­cal meth­ods, it was revealed that the P‑2 rust con­vert­er + liquor + piperi­dine sys­tem has the best pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties. Polar­iza­tion curves record­ed in aque­ous extracts of rust mod­i­fy­ing soils based on sul­fite liquors con­firm their inhibito­ry effect. It was revealed that the most effec­tive inhibitor to the P‑2 rust con­vert­er is the addi­tion of lye + piperidine.

Key­words: rust mod­i­fi­er, cor­ro­sion inhibitors, sul­fite liquor, polar­iza­tion curves, pro­tec­tive coatings

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Khoa H.M., Makarov M.I., Kaza­kov Ya.V., Okulo­va E.O. Paper­mak­ing prop­er­ties of trop­i­cal wood pulp. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 196–208 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.196–208

Abstract

The paper con­sid­ers the struc­tur­al-mor­pho­log­i­cal and paper­mak­ing prop­er­ties of kraft pulp from trop­i­cal woods – Bam­busa blumeana and Aca­cia hybrid, the place of growth of which is Viet­nam. A com­par­i­son with the prop­er­ties of tra­di­tion­al north­ern hard­wood pulp (a mix­ture of birch and aspen 50:50) and soft­wood pulp was made. Struc­tur­al and mor­pho­log­i­cal prop­er­ties are deter­mined on an auto­mat­ic fiber ana­lyz­er L&W Fiber Tester. Dig­i­tal micro­graphs were tak­en with an ImagerM2m Carl Zeiss micro­scope. Sam­ples were stud­ied before and after refin­ing at the Yokro mill to 30° SR, for aca­cia pulp – 20°SR. It was found that, com­pared with hard­wood pulp, bam­boo fibers are longer (1.8 mm vs 1.0 mm), with a small­er width (17 μm vs 26 μm), more curved (shape fac­tor 87.5 vs 92.5) and have more kinks (0.42 ver­sus 0.29). Aca­cia fibers are short­er (0.9 mm vs 1.0 mm), with a small­er width (19 μm vs 26 μm), more curved (shape fac­tor 91.6 vs 92.5) and have more kinks (0.44 vs 0.29). Com­pared to soft­wood pulp, bam­boo and aca­cia fibers are short­er with a small­er width, less curved and have more kinks. The use of unbleached pulp from bam­boo and aca­cia in the fur­nish of unbleached types of paper and card­board will not lead to an increase in their strength and stiff­ness, but can be used to increase elas­tic­i­ty and exten­si­bil­i­ty, which should be estab­lished in fur­ther studies. 

Key­words: bam­boo cel­lu­lose, aca­cia cel­lu­lose, paper­mak­ing prop­er­ties, fiber length, fiber width, frac­tion­al composition

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Shkol’nikov E.V., Elovikov D.P. Ther­mo­dy­nam­ic cal­cu­la­tion of the effect of poly­mor­phism and pH val­ue on the sol­u­bil­i­ty of alu­mini­um oxide and its hydrates in aque­ous media. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 209–221 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.209–221

Abstract

Exper­i­men­tal deter­mi­na­tion of the true equi­lib­ri­um sol­u­bil­i­ty of alu­minum hydrox­ides and oxides is com­pli­cat­ed by their char­ac­ter­is­tic ten­den­cy to form sols, as well as due to the slow estab­lish­ment of het­ero­ge­neous chem­i­cal equi­lib­ri­um and low sol­u­bil­i­ty in aque­ous media [Shkol‘nikov, 2008 and 2009]. In the arti­cle, based on the results of care­ful slow con­duc­to­met­ric and poten­tio­met­ric titra­tion of 0.0010 M Al(NO3)3 solu­tion (pH0 = 3.00) with solu­tion 0.050 (0.100)M NaOH solu­tion at 20 °C, the com­po­si­tion of sta­ble hydrox­o­com­plex­es Al(OH)n where n = 1,2,3,4 is deter­mined. The crit­i­cal analy­sis of infor­ma­tion about the ther­mo­dy­nam­ic prop­er­ties of alu­minum oxides, hydrox­ides, and hydrox­o­com­plex­es is per­formed. The effect of pH in the range 3–14 on the equi­lib­ri­um molar frac­tions of the Al3+ cation and its mononu­clear hydrox­o­com­plex­es and on the equi­lib­ri­um sol­u­bil­i­ty of var­i­ous mod­i­fi­ca­tions of alu­minum oxide and its hydrates at 25 °C was the­o­ret­i­cal­ly cal­cu­lat­ed. For most Al2O3 mod­i­fi­ca­tions the cal­cu­la­tion was per­formed for the first time. The exper­i­men­tal­ly deter­mined sol­u­bil­i­ty of the sol­id phase Al(OH)3 [Gay­er, Thomp­son, Zajice, 1958] is close in a slight­ly acidic medi­um to the cal­cu­lat­ed sol­u­bil­i­ty of nord­stran­dite βAl(OH)3, and in an alka­line medi­um – bayerite α‑Al(OH)3. The sol­u­bil­i­ty of alu­minum oxides and hydrox­ides in pure water is deter­mined by the con­tent of dis­solved neu­tral Al(OH)3 com­plex­es (molar frac­tion ~ 0.93) and depends on the struc­ture, decreas­ing by three orders of mag­ni­tude dur­ing the tran­si­tion from amor­phous to ther­mo­dy­nam­i­cal­ly sta­ble mod­i­fi­ca­tions of α‑Al2O3, α‑AlO(OH) and γ‑Al(OH)3. The min­i­mum molar sol­u­bil­i­ty (from 2·10–8 for α‑AlO(OH) to 4·10–3 mol/l for amor­phous Al2O3) and the opti­mal pH(7.15) for the most com­plete depo­si­tion of alu­minum oxides and hydrox­ides were cal­cu­lat­ed in aque­ous media at 25 °C.

Key­words: ther­mo­dy­nam­ic cal­cu­la­tion, molar sol­u­bil­i­ty of alu­mini­um oxy­des and hydrox­ides, acidic and alka­line aque­ous media

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Shkol’nikov E.V. Kinet­ics and mech­a­nism of isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of AsSe1.5Pbx (x = 0.025; 0.13) semi­con­duc­tor glass­es. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 222–237 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.222–237

Abstract

In the arti­cle [Shkol­nikov, 2019] the effect of tin addi­tives on the kinet­ic para­me­ters of step­wise trans­for­ma­tions dur­ing isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of AsSe1.5Snx glass­es (x = 0.13 and 0.20) was inves­ti­gat­ed. The effect of lead con­cen­tra­tion on the nature and kinet­ic para­me­ters of recon­struc­tive crys­tal­liza­tion of AsSe1.5Pbx glass­es was not stud­ied enough. The kinet­ics and mech­a­nism of trans­for­ma­tions in vol­ume isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of AsSe1.5Pbx semi­con­duc­tor glass­es (x = 0.025, 0.13) in the tem­per­a­ture range 210–340 °С were stud­ied by mea­sur­ing the den­si­ty, micro­hard­ness, tem­per­a­ture depen­dence of elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty, X‑ray phase analy­sis and opti­cal microscopy. The analy­sis of the gross crys­tal­liza­tion kinet­ics of glass­es was per­formed accord­ing to the den­si­ty mea­sure­ment data using the Kol­mogorov-Avra­mi equa­tion, gen­er­al­ized to step­wise and incom­plete isother­mal trans­for­ma­tions. The addi­tion of 1 at.% Pb to the As2Se3 glass reduces the induc­tion peri­od of sep­a­ra­tion of the As2Se3 phase by about 2 times and the kinet­ic half-trans­for­ma­tion peri­od by 6–8 times. It was found that the first stage of isother­mal glass sital­liza­tion in the low−temperature range 210–255 °C is dom­i­nat­ed by homo­ge­neous nucle­ation and three-dimen­sion­al growth of nanocrys­tals of low-resis­tance phase PbSe, ini­ti­at­ing the sec­ond stage of het­ero­ge­neous nucle­ation and two-dimen­sion­al crys­tal growth of the matrix high­re­sis­tance phase As2Se3. The recon­struc­tive step­wise crys­tal­liza­tion of AsSe1.5Pbx glass­es is asso­ci­at­ed with a con­tin­u­ous change in the chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion of the resid­ual glass phase and is char­ac­ter­ized by a range of decreas­ing val­ues of the effec­tive acti­va­tion ener­gy. Dur­ing long-term high-tem­per­a­ture heat treat­ment of As2Se3 glass­es with 5 at.% Pb in the range of 280–340 °C observed simul­ta­ne­ous­ly vol­ume-sur­face devit­ri­fi­ca­tion of the phas­es PbSe and As2Se3 and sec­ondary dif­fu­sion process­es with a decrease in dis­per­sion, den­si­ty, micro­hard­ness and chem­i­cal resis­tance of glass- crys­tals, as well as with the change of charge car­ri­ers from p‑type to n‑type

Key­words: step­wise vol­ume thermocrys­tal­liza­tion of glass­es, degree of com­ple­tion of crys­tal­liza­tion, kinet­ic para­me­ters of isother­mal gross crys­tal­liza­tion, gen­er­al­ized Kol­mogorov-Avra­mi equation

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Buly­gi­na S.V., Sev­astyano­va Ju.V., Kovalenko M.V. Tech­nolo­gies of fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts for var­i­ous pur­pos­es from mis­cant­hus. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 238–251 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.238–251

Abstract

In the course of the research work, meth­ods for obtain­ing cel­lu­lose from non-wood plant raw mate­ri­als were ana­lyzed. The tech­nol­o­gy of obtain­ing high yield cel­lu­lose by sul­phate method from mis­cant­hus, suit­able for use in the com­po­si­tion of con­tain­er card­board com­po­nents, has been devel­oped. Con­di­tions for obtain­ing high yield cel­lu­lose: active alka­li con­sump­tion –7%, tem­per­a­ture-150 °C, dura­tion – 30 min­utes, cook­ing hydro­mod­ule – 5, dura­tion of hot grind­ing – 5 min­utes. The tech­nol­o­gy of obtain­ing a chem­i­cal-ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal mass from a cross-sec­tion has been worked out. Pro­duc­tion con­di­tions: active alka­li con­sump­tion – 3%, impreg­na­tion dura­tion at 90 °C – 10 min, pro­cess­ing dura­tion at 120 °C – 10 min, hydro­mod­ule – 5. The tech­no­log­i­cal mode of bleach­ing the chem­i­cal-ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal mass from mis­cant­hus accord­ing to the short­ened scheme Q – P1P2 with a con­sump­tion of H2O2 of 60 kg/t, the sam­ple white­ness was 55% ISO. The tech­nol­o­gy of obtain­ing neu­tral-sul­fite semi-cel­lu­lose from mis­cant­hus, suit­able for use in the com­po­si­tion of con­tain­er card­board com­po­nents, has been devel­oped. Con­di­tions for pro­duc­ing neu­tral-sul­fite semi­cel­lu­lose: active alka­li con­sump­tion – 20%, tem­per­a­ture – 175 °C, dura­tion – 50 min­utes, cook­ing hydro­mod­ule – 7, dura­tion of hot grind­ing – 5 min­utes. In accor­dance with the results obtained, it can be con­clud­ed that mis­cant­hus can be used to obtain an ana­log of leafy sul­phate cel­lu­lose for use in the com­po­si­tion of var­i­ous types of papers.

Key­words: non-wood veg­etable raw mate­ri­als, mis­cant­hus, sul­phate cook­ing, high yield cel­lu­lose, chem­i­cal-ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal mass, bleached chem­i­calther­mo­me­chan­i­cal mass, neu­tral-sul­phite semi-cellulose

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Sivakov V.P., Vurasko A.V. The con­trol of con­den­sate in the dry­er cylin­ders by their tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ent cool­ings. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 231, pp. 252–259 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.231.252–259

Abstract

Throt­tle wash­ers used in dry­ing cylin­ders (DC) for con­den­sate release have an unreg­u­lat­ed con­di­tion­al pas­sage, which leads to the accu­mu­la­tion of con­den­sate dur­ing the inten­si­fi­ca­tion of ther­mal and hydraulic modes. The con­den­sate accu­mu­lates in DS due to the tol­er­ances of the scale uneven. The increased con­den­sate con­tent in the DC increas­es the ther­mal resis­tance to the heat flow from the con­dens­ing steam to the inter­nal walls of the DC. Stud­ies of tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ents dur­ing the cool­ing peri­od after the steam sup­ply to the dry­ing cylin­ders has been per­formed. The method and algo­rithm of cal­cu­la­tion of per­mis­si­ble lev­els of tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ents are devel­oped. Dry­ing cylin­ders with increased con­den­sate lev­el were deter­mined. The devel­op­ment of meth­ods for detect­ing increased con­den­sate con­tent in indi­vid­ual cylin­ders is rel­e­vant for reduc­ing the steam con­sump­tion for paper dry­ing. Stud­ies of tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ents of the DC dur­ing the cool­ing peri­od after the steam sup­ply was switched off in the dry­ing part of the boom-mak­ing machine were per­formed. Diag­nos­tic con­trol points are select­ed and the tem­per­a­ture mea­sure­ment mode in the DC these points is jus­ti­fied. The excep­tion of gross errors of exper­i­ments on the t‑criterion Stu­den­t’s was made. A method and algo­rithm for cal­cu­lat­ing the per­mis­si­ble lev­els of tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ents and the min­i­mum and max­i­mum per­mis­si­ble tem­per­a­ture devi­a­tions of the sur­veyed SCS has been devel­oped. A graph is con­struct­ed for detect­ing and exclud­ing rough mea­sure­ment errors from the sam­ple. Cal­cu­la­tions of per­mis­si­ble char­ac­ter­is­tics of tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ents dur­ing cylin­der cool­ing inter­vals are per­formed. By tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ents dur­ing cool­ing inter­vals, DC with an increased con­den­sate con­tent are deter­mined. The method and algo­rithm devel­oped by the authors for cal­cu­lat­ing the per­mis­si­ble lev­els of cool­ing tem­per­a­ture gra­di­ents of the DC, when the machine is stopped, based on dif­fer­ences in the cool­ing rate of the DC with con­den­sate and with­out con­den­sate, is the­o­ret­i­cal­ly jus­ti­fied and exper­i­men­tal­ly test­ed in pro­duc­tion con­di­tions. Detec­tion of DC with high con­den­sate con­tent using this method can be per­formed in par­al­lel with oth­er works on tech­no­log­i­cal and tech­ni­cal main­te­nance of dry­ing parts of paper machines. 

Key­words: dry­ing cylin­der, con­den­sate, tem­per­a­ture trend, cool­ing, per­mis­si­ble tem­per­a­ture trend.

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Issue 230
1. FORESTRY

Gryazkin A.V., Kochkin A.A., Prokof’ev A.N., Gutal M.M., Tchan Tchun Than, Efi­mov A.V. The influ­ence of the recre­ation­al load in the win­ter on the for­est ecosys­tem. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 6–18 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.6–18

Abstract

The object of research is a spe­cial­ly pro­tect­ed nat­ur­al area «Chernyaevsky for­est», a for­est Park with an area of about 700 hectares, locat­ed on the ter­ri­to­ry of Dzerzhin­sky And indus­tri­al dis­tricts of the city of Perm. The for­est Park is locat­ed on the ter­ri­to­ry of the ancient post-glacial val­ley. The relief is hilly and rep­re­sent­ed by mas­sifs of mixed pine for­est. With­in the Park there are ancient sand dunes of Aeo­lian ori­gin with alti­tudes of from 3–5 to 13 m. the pur­pose of the study is to esti­mate the impact of win­ter recre­ation on the stands of pine in the con­di­tions of the for­est type of myr­tillus and vac­cini­um. Under the canopy of for­est stands in the win­ter on a per­ma­nent route annu­al­ly laid ski trail length of 5.8 km. the ski trail runs on dif­fer­ent ele­ments of the ter­rain-the foot of the slope, slope, water­shed. Stands are rep­re­sent­ed by pine forests of nat­ur­al ori­gin, mixed in com­po­si­tion. The age of stands reach­es 150 years, the rel­a­tive com­plete­ness of 0.5–0.8, the class of qual­i­ty-II-III. Accord­ing to data from 12 sam­ple plots in the for­est type of myr­tillus and vac­cini­um in the eval­u­a­tion of the sta­tus of under­growth of a struc­ture height and strength. The num­ber of the under­growth is 1800 ind./ha in the con­trol and ind./ha on the piste. The num­ber of under­growth from 400 to 1200 individuals/ha. Char­ac­ter­is­tics of under­growth depends on for­est type, ter­rain, snow cov­er and inten­si­ty of recre­ation­al activ­i­ty. On con­trol all char­ac­ter­is­tics of under­growth and under­growth exceed the char­ac­ter­is­tics of these com­po­nents of the for­est on the ski track. Grow­ing con­di­tions on the piste rep­re­sent­ed by two for­est types – myr­tillus (slopes and foot slopes) and vac­cini­um (tops of hills). It is estab­lished that the index of the state of stands on the ski track is high­er than on the con­trol. The share of dead wood on the ski track is high­er, the dis­tri­b­u­tion of trunks on the steps of thick­ness varies – the aver­age diam­e­ter of the stands on the con­trol is greater than on the ski track. There are also dif­fer­ences in for­est types. To the great­est extent, the influ­ence of the ski track on the trees is man­i­fest­ed in the con­di­tions of cow­ber­ry pine. There­fore, win­ter recre­ation has a neg­a­tive impact on the for­est stand, the san­i­tary con­di­tion of this com­po­nent of Park com­mu­ni­ties on the ski track is deteriorating. 

Key­words: forest­park, pine forests, forest­stand, recre­ation­al load, ski trail, con­di­tion index

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Usolt­sev V.А., Kovyazin V.F., Ura­zo­va А.F., Bornikov А.V., Chasovskikh V.P. Bio­mass struc­ture of Picea-Abies for­est ecosys­tems in pol­lu­tion gra­di­ent near cop­per plant on the Сen­tral Ural. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 19–35 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.19–35

Abstract

In the gra­di­ent of pol­lu­tion from the cop­per smelter in the Mid­dle Urals (56°50′ N., 59°56′ E.) in mixed spruce-fir stands 43 sam­ple plots are estab­lished, in which by stem diam­e­ter 65 sam­ple trees for bio­mass struc­ture esti­mat­ing are tak­en, includ­ing 33 and 32 spruce and fir, respec­tive­ly. The pol­lu­tion gra­di­ent is expressed by the tox­i­c­i­ty index sug­gest­ed with a rel­a­tive index of the con­tent in the lit­ter of three «techno­genic» met­als Cu, Pb и Fe. Regres­sion analy­sis of the depen­dence of bio­mass and NPP of trees and stands from tox­i­c­i­ty index is per­formed. There is a lin­ear pat­tern of reduc­tion of bio­mass and annu­al NPP of spruce-fir for­est stands with increas­ing tox­i­c­i­ty index in the direc­tion to the source of pol­lu­tion, but for the bio­mass of trees in the same gra­di­ent no con­sis­tent pat­tern is detect­ed. No reg­u­lar­i­ty of changes in bio­mass and NPP of the under­sto­ry with increas­ing tox­i­c­i­ty index was revealed too. The dry mat­ter con­tent of wood and bark of trees of equal-aged increas­es as they approach the source of pol­lu­tion, and spruce has a high­er dry mat­ter con­tent than fir. The dry mat­ter con­tent in the nee­dles of equal-sized spruce trees is high­er than that of fir, but in the pol­lu­tion gra­di­ent it has a con­stant value. 

Key­words: spruce-fir stands, mod­el trees, sam­ple plots, cop­per smelter, tox­i­c­i­ty index, regres­sion analysis

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Rai S.A., Beli­ae­va N.V., Nakvasi­na E.N. For­ma­tion of tree lay­er and ground cov­er on clearcuts with dif­fer­ent refor­esta­tion tech­nolo­gies in Kirov Region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 36–53 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.36–53

Abstract

For­est man­age­ment mea­sures car­ried out on clear-cut­ting sites, such as the cre­ation of for­est crops and mea­sures to pro­mote nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, con­tribute to a change in the eco­log­i­cal sit­u­a­tion, espe­cial­ly the suc­ces­sion suc­ces­sion and bio­log­i­cal diver­si­ty, in the for­ma­tion of new bio­geo­cenoses in the clear-cut­ting areas. The fea­tures of restora­tion suc­ces­sions at the ini­tial stages (the first decade) of the for­ma­tion of the for­est envi­ron­ment at cut­tings from under pine forests with min­now and lin­gonber­ries in the ground cov­er in the Kirov region were stud­ied. The objects of the study were cut­ting areas with the sub­se­quent restora­tion of pine for­est cul­tures and with the assis­tance of nat­ur­al restora­tion by pre­serv­ing the under­growth after clearcut­ting in 2009–2016 in pine forests with lum­ber and lin­gonber­ries in the ground cov­er. As a con­trol object, we select­ed a for­est stand in a nat­ur­al state, cor­re­spond­ing to the objects of study by type of for­est, species com­po­si­tion, and close age. It has been estab­lished that the cre­ation of for­est crops changes the struc­ture of the under­growth in terms of species com­po­si­tion: pine pre­vails, plant­ed as a mono­cul­ture, while spruce under­growth pre­vailed in the plan­ta­tion before felling. On cut­ting areas with for­est crops, few­er for­est species of plants and more weeds are not­ed com­pared to cut­ting areas where under­growth was pre­served, as well as with the con­trol plot. Already at the ini­tial stages of the self-heal­ing suc­ces­sion of the cut­ting area with the preser­va­tion of under­growth in terms of the struc­ture of veg­e­ta­tion of the liv­ing soil cov­er, it is clos­er to the orig­i­nal stands with min­now and lin­gonber­ry than the cut­ting areas with for­est crops. How­ev­er, by the end of the first decade, there is a ten­den­cy toward a con­ver­gence of the veg­e­ta­tion struc­ture in the cut­ting areas with dif­fer­ent meth­ods of refor­esta­tion. This implies fur­ther sta­bi­liza­tion of ecosys­tem bio­di­ver­si­ty in accor­dance with habi­tat con­di­tions and the growth of an edi­fi­ca­tor rock.

Key­words: cut­ting areas, for­est crops, nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion, seedlings, under­growth, ground veg­e­ta­tion, bio­di­ver­si­ty, succession

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Nguyen Van Tuyen, Smirnov A.P., Vu Van Truong Restora­tion of for­est and it’s influ­ence on the low­er lay­er of phy­to­ceno­sis after selec­tive log­ging in the cen­tral of Viet­nam. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 54–72 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.54–72

Abstract

Pur­pose – to study the effects of the shrubs and­cov­er of field layeron the renew­al of the most valu­able species of ever­green broad-leaved for­est after selec­tive log­ging in the cen­tral of Viet­nam. Research work was car­ried out in 2017 in the areas of selec­tive log­ging of the Chuс A for­est com­pa­ny, in the Huщng Khe dis­trict, Ha Tinh province, at alti­tudes of 200–300 m. Four of the most eco­nom­i­cal­ly valu­able under­growth­species from the 1st lay­er were stud­ied: Vat­i­ca tonk­i­nen­sis, Mad­hu­ca pasquieri, Hopea pier­rei, Ery­throphleum fordii in the selec­tive log­ging areas of 2005, 2008, 2010 and 2012 in for­est types IIIA2 and IIIA3. Cut­ting inten­si­ty – 25–30% of the stock. The den­si­ty of the under­growth in the areas selec­tive log­ging increas­es com­pared with the con­trol. The under­growth Vat­i­ca tonk­i­nen­sis dif­fer­ent from oth­er kinds of pop­u­la­tion sta­ble at log­ging sites of dif­fer­ent years. Hopea pier­rei num­ber increas­es with pre­scrip­tion cut­tings, which indi­cates its shade tolerance.The pho­tophilous under­growth Ery­throphleum fordii, on the con­trary, has a high den­si­ty in the selec­tive log­ging area in 5 years ago. The den­si­ty of Mad­hu­ca pasquieri is not sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent from the con­trol. The occur­rence of under­growth is also high­er in selec­tive log­ging areas. The cor­re­la­tion between the den­si­ty and occur­rence of under­growth in most cas­es is very high: r = 0.95–0.99. The total share of the four species in the over­all com­po­si­tion of the under­growth increas­es with cut­ting age. On the con­trol of this is not observed. The num­ber of under­growth of all four species decreas­es with increas­ing height. Small (up to 0.5 m high), as a rule, is slight­ly larg­er at the log­ging sites as com­pared with the con­trol, regard­less of species, the largest is observed the oppo­site ten­den­cy. In gen­er­al, in the places of selec­tive log­ging 5–12 years ago, the under­growth of the most valu­able tree species dif­fers from the con­trol in the greater den­si­ty, occur­rence and share in the total com­po­si­tion of the under­growth. In areas of log­ging, an increase in the den­si­ty of shrubs and the cov­er the soil sur­face was revealed. How­ev­er, no sig­nif­i­cant effect of the increased pres­ence of the low­er lay­er of veg­e­ta­tion on both the total den­si­ty of valu­able under­growth species and the num­ber of small under­growth has been estab­lished. The rich soil and favor­able cli­mate of Cen­tral Viet­nam con­tribute to the rapid restora­tion of valu­able species after selec­tive log­ging, regard­less of the growth of the shrubs and the cov­er the soil surface. 

Key­words: selec­tive log­ging, nat­ur­al refor­esta­tion, abun­dance and com­po­si­tion of shrubs, cov­er the soil surface

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Buy Dinh Dyk, Deniso­va N.V., Barysh­niko­va S.V., Selikhovkin A.V. Actu­al changes in the species com­po­si­tion and the pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of phyl­lophagous insects in St. Peters­burg. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 73–99 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.73–99

Abstract

In the last three decades, sig­nif­i­cant changes have occurred in the species com­po­si­tion of the dom­i­nant pests of woody plants in St. Peters­burg and its envi­rons. Dur­ing this time, three new, inva­sive pests from the moth fam­i­ly Gracil­lari­idae that mine the leaves of woody plants appeared on the plant­i­ngs of the city: the lime leaf min­er Phyl­lono­ryc­ter issikii, the horse-chest­nut leaf min­er Cam­er­aria ohridel­la and the leaf blotch min­er moth Acro­cer­cops brong­niardel­la. These species for the first time were record­ed in St. Peters­burg in 2000, 2013, and 2018 respec­tive­ly. All three species give out­breaks in the sec­ondary range. In addi­tion, the out­break of anoth­er species from the same fam­i­ly, the poplar min­ing moth Phyl­lono­ryc­ter pop­uli­foliel­la, began. Species lead­ing a secre­tive life are also dom­i­nat­ed in oth­er sys­tem­at­ic pest groups: leave min­ers the leaf bee­tles Zeu­gopho­ra sub­spinosa and Zeu­gopho­ra flav­i­col­lis on the poplar, sawflies Ardis pal­lipes, Arge ochro­pus and Blenno­cam­pa phyl­lo­col­pa on the rugosa rose, the apple mus­sel scale Lep­i­dos­aphes ulmi and the aphid Erio­so­ma lanigerum on the hawthorn. More­over, ear­li­er these insects as pests of the stands of St. Peters­burg were not not­ed. On the oth­er hand, a num­ber of phyl­lophagous insect species, espe­cial­ly open-liv­ing insects, for which a sharp repeat­ed increase in pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty was pre­vi­ous­ly not­ed, have not been found in urban plan­ta­tions over the past 40 years, for exam­ple, three species of fam­i­ly Ere­bidae – the nun moth Lyman­tria monacha, the satin moth Leu­co­ma sali­cis and the rusty tus­sock moth Orgyia anti­qua. Anoth­er sig­nif­i­cant group of pests is suck­ing insects, which are wide­ly rep­re­sent­ed in urban plan­ta­tions and peri­od­i­cal­ly give sig­nif­i­cant increas­es in num­bers. The change in the species com­po­si­tion of the dom­i­nant pest groups in the urban envi­ron­ment can be asso­ci­at­ed with three main exter­nal fac­tors affect­ing pop­u­la­tions: a change in the species com­po­si­tion of the stands, cli­mate change, and an increase in the lev­el of pol­lu­tion and oth­er anthro­pogenic pres­sures on the stands. The lat­ter fac­tor, very like­ly, deter­mines the dom­i­nance of secre­tive and suck­ing pests.

Key­words: insects, pests, woody plants, pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty, dom­i­nant species

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Lebe­dev A.V., Kuzmichev V.V. Ver­i­fi­ca­tion of bi-para­me­ter mod­els of depen­dence diam­e­ter on breast height in birch stands. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 100–113 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.100–113

Abstract

The accu­ra­cy of deter­min­ing the height of trees is impor­tant both in forestry and in sci­en­tif­ic research. Height is usu­al­ly deter­mined using spe­cif­ic mod­els, where it is a func­tion of the diam­e­ter at breast height. The sim­plest mod­els of the depen­dence of tree height on diam­e­ter at breast height are two-para­me­ter, and they are wide­ly used in for­est tax­a­tion research­es. On the mate­ri­als of 23 sam­ple plots with the mea­sure­ment of mod­el trees laid in birch stands of the For­est Exper­i­men­tal Dis­trict of the Timiryazev Agri­cul­tur­al Acad­e­my, the para­me­ters were deter­mined for the 14 bi-para­me­ter mod­els that are most often found in lit­er­ary sources. Mod­el para­me­ters were cal­cu­lat­ed by min­i­miz­ing the stan­dard error. The qual­i­ty of the mod­els was eval­u­at­ed by the fol­low­ing met­rics: the square root of the stan­dard error, the coef­fi­cient of deter­mi­na­tion, the Akaike infor­ma­tion cri­te­ri­on, the Bayes infor­ma­tion cri­te­ri­on. The obtained results con­firmed the fea­si­bil­i­ty of using in prac­tice sev­er­al equa­tions, which among the bipa­ra­me­ter mod­els show accept­able qual­i­ty. The results of data analy­sis show that, from a sta­tis­ti­cal point of view, the dif­fer­ences obtained in the qual­i­ty of mod­els are not sig­nif­i­cant at the 5 % lev­el (t‑test). Sub­stan­ti­at­ed as the best mod­els of the depen­dence of height on diam­e­ter at breast height can be used in prac­tice when per­form­ing forestry and research work in birch stands grow­ing in the cen­tral regions of the Euro­pean part of Rus­sia. The method­ol­o­gy of the study allows you to repeat the same work for tree species and for­est con­di­tions, for which infor­ma­tion about the nature of the rela­tion­ship of height with the diam­e­ter at breast height is incom­plete or absent.

Key­words: birch, bi-para­me­ter mod­el, selec­tion of mod­els, diam­e­ter at breast height, height

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Vlasov Yu.N., Nes­tero­va E.V., Khitrov E.G. Influ­ence of para­me­ters of shredder’s work­ing body and phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of wood raw mate­ri­als on the results of shred­ding process. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 114–125 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.114–125

Abstract

The pur­pose of our work is to inves­ti­gate the influ­ence of the sharp­en­ing angle and speed of the work­ing device of the wood waste shred­der on the destruc­tion of lumpy waste of edg­ing. The research is based on the posi­tions of the the­o­ry of elas­tic­i­ty and mechan­ics of con­tact inter­ac­tion. At find­ing out of aux­il­iary depen­dences and pro­cess­ing of results of cal­cu­la­tions meth­ods of approx­i­ma­tion of the numer­i­cal data are used. On the basis of the solu­tion of the prob­lem of inden­tion of a wedge-shaped inden­ter into an elas­tic-plas­tic destruc­tible array, the spec­i­fied expres­sion of the con­tact force aris­ing in a wood mate­r­i­al under the influ­ence of a shred­der work­ing device in which the angle of the work­ing device sharp­en­ing is explic­it­ly tak­en into account is obtained. The analy­sis showed that the expres­sion of con­tact force can be pre­sent­ed as a mul­ti-para­me­ter func­tion, includ­ing the para­me­ter of the angle of sharp­en­ing of the work­ing device, depend­ing on the tan­gent of the angle, and the para­me­ter of mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the shred­ded wood mate­r­i­al, which is a pow­er func­tion of the defor­ma­tion mod­ule or den­si­ty of the wood mate­r­i­al. On the basis of the received expres­sion of the con­tact force a depen­dence which estab­lish­es rela­tion­ship of spe­cif­ic pow­er inten­si­ty of shred­ding with a shred­ding angle of the work­ing device, mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the shred­ded raw mate­r­i­al and degree of its shred­ding is offered. It is estab­lished that for shred­ding of wood with a den­si­ty of 550 kg/m3 and bark with a den­si­ty of 350 kg/m3 due to the impact of the work­ing device shred­ding of bark and wood with a lin­ear frac­tion size of 50 mm occurs at a speed of the work­ing device at 500 rpm, ham­mer­ing work­ing device – at 1000 rpm. For shred­ding bark and wood into small­er, less than 5 mm frac­tion, the suf­fi­cient speed of the knife impeller is 1000–2000 rpm, depend­ing on the angle of shred­ding, the suf­fi­cient speed of ham­mer impeller is 3000–3500 rpm. The received esti­ma­tions are con­sis­tent with the expe­ri­ence of indus­tri­al pro­duc­tion of equip­ment for wood waste shredding.

Key­words: bark, shred­ding, sharp­en­ing angle, work­ing body speed, waste prepa­ra­tion for bri­quette production

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Vlasov Yu.N., Nes­tero­va E.V., Khitrov E.G. Research of kinet­ics of change in frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion of wood raw mate­ri­als being shred­ded. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 126–140 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.126–140

Abstract

In tech­niques at study of kinet­ics of shred­ding of mate­ri­als use math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els in the form of the inte­gral-dif­fer­en­tial equa­tions, which solu­tion is labo­ri­ous and not always leads to recep­tion of evi­dent results. The pur­pose of this arti­cle is to devel­op a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, which reveals the kinet­ics of change in frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion of wood mate­ri­als being shred­ded, allow­ing in prac­tice to eval­u­ate the frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion of the processed raw mate­ri­als in time. Meth­ods of research include math­e­mat­i­cal analy­sis, numer­i­cal meth­ods for solv­ing dif­fer­en­tial equa­tions and pro­cess­ing of cal­cu­lat­ed data. Shred­ding is con­sid­ered as mul­ti­stage process at which frac­tions of a mate­r­i­al (nar­row class­es) under the influ­ence of a work­ing body of the shred­der machine under­go trans­for­ma­tions occur­ring both con­sis­tent­ly and in par­al­lel, and rates of trans­for­ma­tions and a share of again formed nar­row class­es of the mate­r­i­al are defined by ini­tial sizes of shred­ded frac­tions and para­me­ters of the work­ing body. The sys­tem of the dif­fer­en­tial equa­tions describ­ing in the gen­er­al trans­for­ma­tion of nar­row class­es at grind­ing is offered, and fac­tors of the equa­tions allow to con­sid­er any kind of func­tions of speeds of grind­ing of frac­tions and the out­put of shred­ding prod­ucts. The pro­posed sys­tem is an alter­na­tive to the inte­gral-dif­fer­en­tial equa­tion of the bal­ance shred­ding mod­el. The esti­ma­tion of val­ues of para­me­ters of the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el on an exam­ple of bark shred­ding is car­ried out. By results of com­par­i­son of results of mod­el­ing with the exper­i­men­tal data received by pre­vi­ous researchers it is estab­lished that the offered dif­fer­en­tial mod­el of change of frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion of the mate­r­i­al at the accept­ed pre­con­di­tions to cal­cu­la­tion of its para­me­ters qual­i­ta­tive­ly and quan­ti­ta­tive­ly describes the exper­i­men­tal data with high accuracy. 

Key­words: bark, raw mate­r­i­al pro­cess­ing, shred­ding speed, frac­tions, aver­age par­ti­cle size

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Gryazin V.A. Ini­tial test­ing of stu­dents as part of the train­ing method for the skid­der oper­a­tor. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 141–151 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.141–151

Abstract

A method­ol­o­gy was devel­oped for the pri­ma­ry test­ing of stu­dents for fit­ness for work with an oper­at­ed manip­u­la­tor by work­er pro­fes­sion 14269 «Skid­der oper­a­tor». The method­ol­o­gy was test­ed using the train­ing stand on the basis of the For­est Machines Ser­vice Lab­o­ra­to­ry of the Fed­er­al State Bud­getary Edu­ca­tion­al Insti­tu­tion of High­er Edu­ca­tion «Vol­ga State Uni­ver­si­ty of Tech­nol­o­gy». The analy­sis of the study results includes data on the exe­cu­tion time of the load move­ment cycle for a group of stu­dents. The influ­ence of num­ber of the train­ing stand cycling on the effi­cien­cy of inter­ac­tion between oper­a­tors and han­dling equip­ment was estab­lished. It is proved that in the process of repeat­ed cycling, stu­dents learn the basic skills of work­ing with the manip­u­la­tor and mem­o­rize the func­tion­al­i­ty of the con­trols, as a result, the cycle time is reduced and the sta­bil­i­ty of the results is increased by reduc­ing the vari­a­tion in cycle time. After sta­bi­liz­ing the results at the train­ing stand, the stu­dent gains a steady skill in work­ing with con­trol devices and under­stands the kine­mat­ics of the artic­u­lat­ed hydraulic over­load manip­u­la­tors, which allows us to pro­ceed to the fur­ther stages of training.

Key­words: train­ing, method­ol­o­gy, test­ing, oper­a­tor, manip­u­la­tor, cycle time

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Sergee­vichev A.V., One­gin V.I., Kush­nerev V.O., Sergee­vichev V.V., Mikhailo­va A.E. The analy­sis of the influ­ence of the end mills back­ing to their oper­a­tion in mechan­i­cal treat­ment of wood. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 152–163 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.152–163

Abstract

The dura­bil­i­ty of end mills dur­ing oper­a­tion is deter­mined by the bear­ing capac­i­ty of the work­ing part of the hous­ing and the wear resis­tance of the teeth. The bear­ing capac­i­ty of the work­ing part is under­stood to be its abil­i­ty to absorb the aris­ing loads from cut­ting forces and to pro­vide rigid­i­ty and strength of mills. The required strength of end mills is deter­mined by their design para­me­ters and work­ing con­di­tions. When milling with end mills with a depth of more than one diam­e­ter, under the influ­ence of resis­tance to cut­ting, the mill is pressed, which is aggra­vat­ed by the pres­ence of radi­al play of the spin­dle in the bear­ings. In this case, harm­ful fric­tion­al forces arise due to con­tact of the rear sur­faces with the processed mate­r­i­al. The fric­tion heat­ing result­ing from fric­tion leads to a decrease in their strength. One of the most impor­tant para­me­ters of end mills is the back­ing of the rear sur­faces. Exist­ing meth­ods of back­ing end mills do not ful­ly sat­is­fy the require­ments of effi­cient operation.This neg­a­tive point is because the end mill is a can­tilever sys­tem, so the back­ing due to uni­form under­cut­ting of the rear sur­faces along the entire length does not sat­is­fy the require­ments of the equa­tion of the curved axis of the beam under the action of bend­ing moment. The harm­ful fric­tion forces of the rear sur­faces of the milling cut­ters on the mate­r­i­al to be processed can be elim­i­nat­ed when back­ing by joint­ly pro­fil­ing the work­ing part in the trans­verse and lon­gi­tu­di­nal planes. At the same time, the strength of the cut­ters increas­es by 7–10%, and the rigid­i­ty – by 3–6%.In prac­tice, joint back­ing in the trans­verse and lon­gi­tu­di­nal planes can be accom­plished by man­u­fac­tur­ing hous­ings with a con­i­cal work­ing part. 

Key­words: end mills, machin­ing of wood, increas­ing the strength and rigid­i­ty of the milling tool

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Bazarov S.M., Govyadin I.K., Elkin A.V. Vis­co-elas­tic-plas­tic move­ment of wood mate­r­i­al. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 164–172 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.164–172

Abstract

Wood mate­r­i­al, as a nat­ur­al poly­mer, depend­ing on the nature of ther­mal motion can be in three relax­ation States: glassy, in which only vibra­tional move­ments of atoms in macro­mol­e­cules are pos­si­ble; high­ly elas­tic, in which vibra­tional move­ments of links and seg­ments are pos­si­ble, and their mutu­al mobil­i­ty; vis­cous, in which there is mobil­i­ty of macro­mol­e­cules and ele­ments of supramol­e­c­u­lar struc­ture as a whole. These States cor­re­spond to aggre­gate struc­tures: the first sol­id, the sec­ond sol­id and the third liq­uid. In the ther­mal field, when the tem­per­a­ture ris­es, the poly­mer tran­si­tions from one relax­ation state to anoth­er. When cooled, tran­si­tions occur in the oppo­site direc­tion. In spa­tial­ly gra­di­ent tem­per­a­ture fields the poly­mer can be simul­ta­ne­ous­ly in sol­id and liq­uid States. The gen­er­al­ized mod­el of vis­co-elas­tic-plas­tic body is put in accor­dance with the pre­sent­ed three relax­ation States of the poly­mer. The equa­tions of motion of the mate­r­i­al of wood is built on the basis of phe­nom­e­no­log­i­cal con­cepts of con­tin­u­um mechan­ics, the cir­cuit equa­tions is made on the basis of when the stress ten­sor with the strain ten­sor in accor­dance with the select­ed rhe­o­log­i­cal mod­el for wood mate­r­i­al, like a poly­mer.. The equa­tions are con­struct­ed for a homo­ge­neous con­tin­u­ous medi­um, in the tran­si­tion to inho­mo­ge­neous scalar relax­ation para­me­ters of the poly­mer state must be rep­re­sent­ed in ten­sor form. This study can be con­sid­ered as an ele­ment of the foun­da­tions of biopoly­mer mechanics. 

Key­words: rhe­ol­o­gy, con­tin­u­ous medi­um, ten­sor, stress, deformation

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Vasi­lyev V.V. Cur­rent tech­no­log­i­cal prob­lems in the pro­duc­tion of syn­thet­ic resins and wood-based pan­els. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 173–186 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.173–186

Abstract

A sur­vey of spe­cial­ists to iden­ti­fy cur­rent prob­lems in the tech­nol­o­gy of mak­ing of wood-based pan­els and syn­thet­ic resins for their pro­duc­tion was con­duct­ed. The study was con­duct­ed by a group ques­tion­naire. The ques­tion­naire con­tained three lists of like­ly prob­lems by sec­tions: the pro­duc­tion of syn­thet­ic resins, the pro­duc­tion of par­ti­cle­boards and the pro­duc­tion of fiber­boards. Lists of tech­no­log­i­cal prob­lems are tak­en as the final results of past soci­o­log­i­cal stud­ies, as well as on the basis of experts’ pro­pos­als. The top­i­cal­i­ty of the prob­lem was assessed on a 5‑point scale. The weight­ed aver­age score deter­mined the lev­el of rel­e­vance of the tech­no­log­i­cal prob­lem – the high­er it is, the more sig­nif­i­cant the prob­lem ana­lyzed. Forty-sev­en peo­ple answered the ques­tion­naire. Experts have a lot of expe­ri­ence, their aver­age work expe­ri­ence in the indus­try is 22.7 years. More than 70% of the sur­vey par­tic­i­pants are employ­ees of enter­pris­es, the rest are sci­en­tists, design­ers and teach­ers. We stud­ied 10 prob­lems on syn­thet­ic resin tech­nol­o­gy, 12 on tech­nol­o­gy of par­ti­cle boards and 10 on the tech­nol­o­gy of fiber­boards. For com­par­i­son, data from sim­i­lar sur­veys con­duct­ed in 2005 and 2011 are giv­en. Accord­ing to experts, the most sig­nif­i­cant prob­lems are ones asso­ci­at­ed with the cre­ation and use of syn­thet­ic resins in the pro­duc­tion of plates. These are new low-tox­ic resins, pro­vid­ing in addi­tion to reduc­ing formalde­hyde con­tent in resin and slabs the nec­es­sary phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of plates, low binder con­sump­tion, high press­ing speed and envi­ron­men­tal para­me­ters of pro­duc­tion. In the pro­duc­tion of syn­thet­ic resins two prob­lems are in the cat­e­go­ry of high­ly rel­e­vant (the prob­lem rel­e­vance score in the range from 4.01 to 5.00), 8 prob­lems – to the cat­e­go­ry of increased rel­e­vance (rel­e­vance score from 3.01 to 4.00). High­ly rel­e­vant prob­lems: reduc­ing the tox­i­c­i­ty of slabs resins and the reac­tionary abil­i­ty of resin. Issues of increased rel­e­vance include the syn­the­sis of new resins, improved resin sins, the qual­i­ty of raw mate­ri­als and envi­ron­men­tal issues of resin pro­duc­tion. Among the 12 ana­lyzed prob­lems of par­ti­cle­boards pro­duc­tion, 2 are clas­si­fied as high­ly rel­e­vant, 4 are in the cat­e­go­ry of increased rel­e­vance and 6 – in the cat­e­go­ry of aver­age rel­e­vance (rel­e­vance score from 2.01 to 3.00). High­ly rel­e­vant prob­lems: reduc­ing the tox­i­c­i­ty of plates and reduc­ing the con­sump­tion of resin in plate pro­duc­tion. Prob­lems of increased rel­e­vance: reduc­ing swell of plates, inten­si­fy­ing the process of hot press­ing, reduc­ing the con­sump­tion of wood raw mate­ri­als, pro­cess­ing of low-qual­i­ty wood. In the pro­duc­tion of fiber­boards 6 prob­lems belong to the cat­e­go­ry of high-actu­al, 3 – to the cat­e­go­ry of increased rel­e­vance and 1 – to the cat­e­go­ry of medi­um rel­e­vance. High­ly rel­e­vant prob­lems for the pro­duc­tion of fiber­boards of dry method: new envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly resins, reduced tox­i­c­i­ty of plates, reduced resin con­sump­tion. High­ly rel­e­vant prob­lems for the pro­duc­tion of fiber­boards of wet method: reduc­ing the tox­i­c­i­ty of waste­water, new envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly resins, waste­water treatment.

Key­words: syn­thet­ic resins, par­ti­cle­boards, fiber­boards, cur­rent tech­no­log­i­cal prob­lems, soci­o­log­i­cal sur­vey, expert assess­ment, resin tox­i­c­i­ty, wood plates tox­i­c­i­ty, resin consumption

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Baidakov D.L., Koluzniko­va E.V., Michailo­va N.V. Mass spec­tro­met­ric inves­ti­ga­tion and elec­trode prop­er­ties of the chalco­genide films MnCl2–GeS2–Ga2S3 and MnS–GeS2–Ga2S3, obtained by chem­i­cal depo­si­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 187–199 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.187–199

Abstract

Chalco­genide films MnCl2–GeS2–Ga2S3 and MnS–GeS2–Ga2S3 were syn­the­sized from the solu­tions of chalco­genide glass­es in n‑butylamine. The mass spec­tro­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics and elec­trode prop­er­ties of films were stud­ied. The appli­ca­tion of chalco­genide films was car­ried out accord­ing to the pro­ce­dure described in detail in [Baidakov, Vigra­nenko, 2019]. The mag­net­ic sus­cep­ti­bil­i­ty in the tem­per­a­ture range 90–293 K was stud­ied using a set­up described in detail in [Tveryanovich, 1978]. The mea­sure­ments were car­ried out in a heli­um atmos­phere in the mode of dis­crete heat­ing with ther­mal sta­bi­liza­tion of each stage for 20 min [Baidako­va, 1989]. To record the mass spec­tra, we used a time-of-flight mass spec­trom­e­ter of the mass-reflec­tron type with a res­o­lu­tion at half the peak height in the region of the mass num­ber of 500 amu equal to 5000. A descrip­tion of the device and exper­i­men­tal con­di­tions are giv­en in [Karataev, Lyu­bin, 1988]. Ion­iza­tion of the vapors of the sam­ples under study was car­ried out in a source of ions with elec­tron impact. Sur­vey mass spec­tra were observed in the ener­gy range of 7–50 eV. The resid­ual pres­sure in the ana­lyz­er cham­ber was 2,7x10–5 Pa. The man­u­fac­ture of elec­trodes based on chalco­genide film mem­branes and the method of elec­trode mea­sure­ments are described in detail in [Baidakov, Shkol’nikov, 2019]. For MnS-GeS2-Ga2S3 films, a sig­nif­i­cant increase in | Ө | with increas­ing man­ganese con­tent. In the sul­fide sys­tem, the quan­ti­ty | Ө | = 150 K (x = 0.25), which indi­cates the for­ma­tion of a phase enriched in man­ganese. For MnCl2–GeS2–Ga2S3 films, the val­ue | Ө | = 30 K (x = 0.20). With an increase in the man­ganese con­tent in the chlo­ride sys­tem, an increase in the absolute val­ue of the Weiss con­stant is observed. From the results of the mag­ne­to­sta­t­ic study, an assump­tion was made about the pres­ence of exchange reac­tions in MnCl2–GeS2–Ga2S3 films. The mass spec­trum of MnS–GeS2–Ga2S3 films is due to the dis­so­ci­a­tion of three-com­po­nent man­ganese-con­tain­ing struc­tur­al units, which cor­re­spond to com­pounds of the com­po­si­tion Mn2GeS4, MnGa2S4, Mn2Ga2S5, Mn3Ga2S6. The pres­ence of the vapor spec­trum of MnCl2–GeS2–Ga2S3 films only at tem­per­a­tures exceed­ing 180 °C and sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ing in com­po­si­tion from the start­ing films indi­cates that the ini­tial spec­trum of the chlo­ride sys­tem is due to the dis­so­ci­a­tion of ger­ma­ni­um sul­fide. The pres­ence of ger­ma­ni­um chlo­ride frag­ments in the mass spec­trum at 250 °C indi­cates its pres­ence in the start­ing films. This, appar­ent­ly, is asso­ci­at­ed with exchange reac­tions in the MnCl2–GeS2–Ga2S3 sys­tem. MnCl2–GeS2–Ga2S3 film mem­brane elec­trodes showed high sen­si­tiv­i­ty and low detec­tion lim­it of Mn2+ cations. The Nernst region of the elec­trode response lies with­in 10–1–10–6 mol/l of man­ganese nitrate, the detec­tion lim­it reach­es 10–7 mol/l. The elec­trode prop­er­ties of chalco­genide glass­es and films of a sim­i­lar com­po­si­tion prac­ti­cal­ly do not differ.

Key­words: chalco­genide films, chem­i­cal depo­si­tion from n‑butylamine, mass spec­tro­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics and elec­trode prop­er­ties of chalco­genide films

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Evstigneyev E.I. Improve­ment of the scheme analy­sis of the com­po­nent com­po­si­tion of a larch wood. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 200–214 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.200–214

Abstract

The scheme of the analy­sis of com­po­nent struc­ture of a larch pro­vid­ing deter­mi­na­tion of such com­po­nents as poly­sac­cha­rides, cel­lu­lose, not cel­lu­lose poly­sac­cha­rides, lignin, extrac­tive sub­stances and ash­es is devel­oped. Unlike the known schemes of the analy­sis of the chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion of wood, it con­tains a new stage, name­ly deter­mi­na­tion of the gen­er­al con­tent of poly­sac­cha­rides by a pho­to­col­ori­met­ric method. Usu­al­ly, for this pur­pose use def­i­n­i­tion of a holo­cel­lu­lose, how­ev­er the known meth­ods do not allow to emit all poly­sac­cha­rides as in the course of allo­ca­tion part of them is inevitably lost. Know­ing the gen­er­al con­tent of poly­sac­cha­rides, it is pos­si­ble to deter­mine the con­tent of not cel­lu­lose poly­sac­cha­rides. Such approach has clear advan­tage in com­par­i­son with tra­di­tion­al­ly used deter­mi­na­tion sep­a­rate­ly of hemi­cel­lu­los­es and sep­a­rate­ly water-sol­u­ble poly­sac­cha­rides since in this case there is a loss of a part of poly­sac­cha­rides. The scheme offered in work, gives the chance rather ful­ly to char­ac­ter­ize com­po­nent com­po­si­tion of wood of a larch, with­out resort­ing to use of the spe­cial equip­ment. The devel­oped method of an ara­bino­galac­tan deter­mi­na­tion has high selec­tiv­i­ty to the defined wood com­po­nent in the pres­ence of a large amount of impu­ri­ty in this con­nec­tion it can be rec­om­mend­ed for quan­ti­ta­tive def­i­n­i­tion of an ara­bino­galac­tan both in water solu­tions, and in wood.

Key­words: larch wood, poly­sac­cha­rides, cel­lu­lose, not-cel­lu­lose poly­sac­cha­rides, resid­ual pen­tosans, arabinogalactan

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Sofrono­va E.D., Lipin V.A., Orlo­va A.V., Dobosh A.Yu. The influ­ence of bleach­ing scheme tech­nol­o­gy on the con­tent of total and bound chlo­rine in cel­lu­lose. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 215–225 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.215–225

Abstract

There is a tight­en­ing of require­ments for the con­tent of chlo­rine in cel­lu­lose for san­i­tary prod­ucts and a num­ber of oth­er pur­pos­es. The chlo­rine con­tent in cel­lu­lose depends on the bleach­ing scheme used. In the bleach­ing process using mol­e­c­u­lar chlo­rine, chlo­rine diox­ide or sodi­um hypochlo­rite, a small part of the chlo­rine com­pounds is replaced on cel­lu­lose fiber. Most mod­ern plants use ECF tech­nol­o­gy, where, as an alter­na­tive to mol­e­c­u­lar chlo­rine, chlo­rine diox­ide (ClO2) or sodi­um hypochlo­rite (NaClO) is used at one or sev­er­al stages. There is also TCF bleach­ing tech­nol­o­gy, which allows you to com­plete­ly aban­don the use of chlo­rine-con­tain­ing agents by using only oxy­gen-con­tain­ing reagents such as oxy­gen, hydro­gen per­ox­ide, ozone. The use of com­plete­ly chlo­rine-free tech­nolo­gies is lim­it­ed in view of the high cost of pro­duc­tion with com­par­a­tive qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of the prod­ucts. Pulp sam­ples from var­i­ous man­u­fac­tur­ers were ana­lyzed. The deter­mi­na­tion of total chlo­rine and organ­i­cal­ly bound chlo­rine was car­ried out by burn­ing a cel­lu­lose sam­ple at a tem­per­a­ture of from 950 to 1000 °C. Analy­sis of cel­lu­lose sam­ples from Russ­ian plants showed that in the pulp obtained using the bleach­ing scheme O1D0EP1D1EP2D2–A and D0EOPD1EPD2–A bleach­ing schemes, the chlo­rine con­tent in the fin­ished prod­uct is the least. This can be explained by the fact that oxy­gen-alka­line delig­ni­fi­ca­tion can effec­tive­ly reduce the lignin con­tent. The low con­tent of the lat­ter makes it pos­si­ble to reduce the amount of chlo­rine diox­ide used in stages D. Accord­ing to the com­bi­na­tion of prop­er­ties and eco­nom­ic indi­ca­tors pre­sent­ed to cel­lu­lose, bleach­ing schemes with opti­mized con­sump­tion of chlo­rine diox­ide and hydro­gen per­ox­ide, ozone with­out the use of mol­e­c­u­lar chlo­rine (ECF-light) are most accept­able. It allows to achieve a low con­tent of chlo­rine com­pounds in cel­lu­lose, close to TCF technology. 

Key­words: bleached sul­fate pulp, cel­lu­lose bleach­ing, adsorbable chlo­rine, organ­ic chlo­rine com­pounds, san­i­tary prod­ucts, chlo­rine con­tent in cel­lu­lose, fluff pulp

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Sha­biev R.O., Smolin A.S., Ivanov-Omskii V.I., Zvonary­o­va T.K., Trapezniko­va I.N. A hands-on method to inves­ti­gate the sys­tem of hydro­gen bonds in paper. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 226–238 (in Eng­lish with Russ­ian sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.226–238

Abstract

The knowl­edge of prin­ci­ples of hydro­gen bond­ing build-up dur­ing stock prepa­ra­tion is use­ful addi­tion­al infor­ma­tion for bet­ter con­trol of refined pulp. Nev­er­the­less, there is no wide accept­ed, accu­rate and quick method to inves­ti­gate these inter­ac­tions regard­ing pulp refin­ing. The prin­ci­pal objec­tive of this paper was to describe the rapid method of non-destruc­tive analy­sis of hand­sheets by FTIR spec­troscopy in the region of absorp­tion fre­quen­cies of hydrox­yl groups and inter­pre­ta­tion of the results obtained. The pro­posed method is based on decon­vo­lu­tion of hand­sheets FTIR spec­trum into four Gauss­ian bands. The cal­cu­lat­ed ener­gy of hydro­gen bond­ing was ranged from 2 to 25 kJ/mol. The bond ener­gy was clas­si­fied on weak, medi­um and strong ones cor­re­spond­ing to inter- or inter­fi­bre sub­types. The min­i­mum require­ment for hand­sheets being ana­lyzed by pro­posed method was found as infrared trans­mis­sion ranged between 0.10% and 0.50% in the range of 3700–3000 cm–1. Although dur­ing inves­ti­ga­tion of the hand­sheets, nor­mal­ly more than 95% of inci­dent light radi­a­tion was scat­tered and reflect­ed, it did not restrict in obtain­ing clear and struc­tured absorp­tion spec­tra. In the case when the sheet trans­mis­sion was >0.50% or 0.1% the share of strong hydro­gen bonds was dif­fer­ent, but it demon­strates the dif­fer­ence in the paper struc­ture. This method might be rec­om­mend­ed for pulp and paper stock qual­i­ty mill control.

Key­words: hydro­gen bonds, hydrox­yl groups, FTIR spec­troscopy, decon­vo­lu­tion, curve fit­ting, hand­sheets, pulp, paper stock preparation

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Mihailo­va O.S., Kryakuno­va E.V., Kanarskii A.V., Kaza­kov Ya.V., Hol­mo­va M.A The sur­face treat­ment of the card­board in the wet con­di­tion by bio­mod­i­fied starch. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 239–252 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.239–252

Abstract

Paper sur­face impreg­na­tion imparts it hydropho­bic prop­er­ties with a simul­ta­ne­ous increas­ing in phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and print­ed prop­er­ties. Starch is one of the old­est and most accept­ed binders used in the pro­duc­tion of paper and card­board. How­ev­er, at present time var­i­ous kinds of mod­i­fied starch are more often used as a binders instead of native starch. Such amy­lolyt­ic enzymes as amy­lase, isoamy­lase and pul­lu­lanase cause enzy­mat­ic mod­i­fi­ca­tion of starch. It has been shown that treat­ed with amy­lolyt­ic enzymes starch before sur­face impreg­na­tion sig­nif­i­cant­ly improves elas­tic and defor­ma­tion char­ac­ter­is­tic­sof card­board, since the enzy­mat­ic mod­i­fi­ca­tion of starch affects the nature of the bonds formed between starch and fiber­sand deter­mines which part of starch pen­e­trates between the cel­lu­lose fibers and which part of starch remains on the sur­face in the form of a film. It depends the abil­i­ty of the result­ing com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al to resist the applied load. Card­board impreg­na­tion with bio­mod­i­fied starch leads to an increas­ing in the num­ber of hydro­gen bonds between the cel­lu­lose fibers and the hydrox­yl groups of starch, which pro­vides increased rigid­i­ty in ten­sion already at the ini­tial part of the defor­ma­tion. At the same time, an increas­ing in physicme­chan­i­cal para­me­ters depends on the type of enzyme and, accord­ing­ly, on the mech­a­nism of hydrol­y­sis of bonds in starch. It has been estab­lished that impreg­na­tion of card­board with 50% dry­ness with amy­lolyt­ic enzymes amy­lase, isoamy­lase or pul­lu­lanase leads to a sig­nif­i­cant increas­ing in the elas­tic­i­ty of the card­board after a short-term wet­ting, but does not have a sig­nif­i­cant pos­i­tive effect on the strength char­ac­ter­is­tics of card­board with 50% dryness. 

Key­words: amy­lolyt­ic enzymes, bio­mod­i­fied starch, card­board sur­face treat­ment, card­board strength characteristics

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Kanarskiy A.V., Yakubov E.R., Kruchi­na-Bog­danov I.V., Kanarskaya Z.A., Semy­onov E.I., Gemat­di­no­va V.M. Dis­pos­al of waste­water poly­sac­cha­rides in the man­u­fac­ture of fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 253–264 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.253–264

Abstract

Sec­tions of wood prepa­ra­tion, wash­ing and bleach­ing of pulp, as well as the brew­house are the main sources of waste­water in the pulp and paper indus­try. The vol­ume of waste­water is close­ly relat­ed to the amount of pulp pro­duced in each spe­cif­ic process. In this case, a sig­nif­i­cant amount of sec­ondary resources is formed in the form of polyand oligosac­cha­rides, which are present in work­shop and fac­to­ry waste­water. These waters under­go bio­log­i­cal treat­ment with the for­ma­tion of sludge, which does not find full prac­ti­cal use. The use of acti­vat­ed sludge as a floc­cu­lant leads to the need for aer­a­tion, which is quite expen­sive. The use of sludge as feed addi­tives is not pos­si­ble, since tox­i­cants accu­mu­late in it, and in addi­tion, the gas­troin­testi­nal tract of many ani­mals is not able to digest pre­cip­i­tat­ed fiber. Sludge is not used in agri­cul­ture, since strong hydra­tion requires labo­ri­ous and cost­ly oper­a­tions of trans­ship­ment, trans­porta­tion, stor­age and sub­se­quent appli­ca­tion to the soil. The fea­si­bil­i­ty of using waste­water for the pro­duc­tion of wood pulp from birch wood chips for the prepa­ra­tion of a nutri­ent medi­um for the cul­ti­va­tion of Tri­cho­der­ma ree­sei M18 fun­gus has been estab­lished. At the same time, it is rec­om­mend­ed to pre­pare waste­water by inver­sion at pH 4.9 and evap­o­ra­tion by 3 times with an increase in the con­tent of PB to 3.5%. It is shown that Tri­cho­der­ma ree­sei M18 shows enzy­mat­ic cel­lu­lolyt­ic and xylanase activ­i­ty on a sub­stra­tum pre­pared from con­cen­trat­ed waste­water, which con­tributes to the hydrol­y­sis of oligosac­cha­rides, and, accord­ing­ly, an increase in reduc­ing sub­stances in the sub­stra­tum. Acid treat­ment of the fun­gus Tri­cho­der­ma ree­sei M18 yields chitin-glu­can, which has adsorp­tion prop­er­ties in rela­tion to T‑2 myco­tox­in. At the same time, chitin-glu­can with the low­er pro­tein con­tent accord­ing to Barn­stein and the high­est con­tent of D‑glucosamine pos­sess­es the high­est true adsorp­tion capac­i­ty in rela­tion to T‑2 mycotoxin

Key­words: birch, wood pulp, waste water, Tri­cho­der­ma fun­gus, cul­ti­va­tion, chitin-glu­can, myco­tox­in adsorption

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5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

Vasilev N.P. Mobile Cor­do­va-appli­ca­tions for col­lect­ing data on the state of for­est ter­ri­to­ries with ref­er­ence to geolo­ca­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 265–274 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.265–274

Abstract

A vari­ant of orga­niz­ing a cen­tral­ized col­lec­tion of pri­ma­ry data on the state of for­est ter­ri­to­ries, includ­ing pho­tos, with ref­er­ence to their loca­tion using the Cor­do­va hybrid appli­ca­tions is pro­posed. Col­lec­tion is pos­si­ble offline, which is impor­tant in the absence of com­mu­ni­ca­tion in remote ter­ri­to­ries. Soft­ware code tem­plates have been devel­oped for access to geolo­ca­tion and the cam­era of mobile devices.

Key­words: Cor­do­va hybrid appli­ca­tions, pro­gram­ming for mobile devices

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Zay­ats A.M., Khabarov S.P. Using the GNU Octave sys­tem to process data com­ing in over the net­work. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 275–289 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.275–289

Abstract

The pro­posed approach and devel­oped pro­grams, based on the GNU Octave pack­age, pro­vide net­work work in almost real time on pro­cess­ing the data of the observed object, which includes a UDP serv­er, which, at the request of the client, can pro­vide him with the cur­rent infor­ma­tion need­ed for eval­u­a­tion and pro­cess­ing about state vari­ables char­ac­ter­iz­ing the state of this object.

Key­words: dis­trib­uted sys­tems, wire­less net­works, net­work programming

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6. CHRONICLE OF SCIENTIFIC LIFE

Sergee­va V.L., Lebe­dev P.A., Alek­seev A.S., Soloviev V.A., Babikov B.V., Skupchenko V.B. Dmit­ry Mikhailovich Kireev. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2020, is. 230, pp. 290–295 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2020.230.290–295

Abstract

The arti­cle describes the life of Dmit­ry Kireev, a sci­en­tist who found­ed a new sci­en­tif­ic direc­tion – “For­est Land­scape Science”.

Key­words: per­son­al­i­ties

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2019 issues

Issue 229
1. FORESTRY

Vaishlya O.B., Kar­by­she­va K.S., Ben­der O.G. Char­ac­ter­is­tics of Pinus sibir­i­ca Du Tour mycotro­phy in cedar stands of Tom­sk region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 6–22 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.6–22

Abstract

Sam­ples of Pinus sibir­i­ca ecto­my­c­or­rhizal tips form seedlings roots and soil sam­ples were exam­ined in cedar forests of Tom­sk region south­ern taiga. Alive and func­tion­ing ecto­my­c­or­rhizas were select­ed for DEE­MY-analy­sis. Ecto­my­c­or­rhizal tips cross sec­tions were per­formed with an MZ‑2 freez­ing micro­tome, their para­me­ters were stud­ied with an Axiostar plus micro­scope, a Watec LCL 217 video cam­era and SIAMS Meso­Plant soft­ware. Seedlings age was deter­mined with a «LinTab‑6 Tree-ring Sta­tion». DNA iso­la­tion, PCR were per­formed accord­ing to Quia­gen kit pro­to­cols. The results were processed with one-way ANOVA test (Sta­tis­ti­ca 10). It is shown that «width of cor­tex», «stele radius» and «man­tle width» para­me­ters cor­re­late with each oth­er. The width of fun­gal man­tle increased with the increas­ing root sizes. The cor­re­la­tions remained in the Age group 1, there were found no cor­re­la­tions between the para­me­ters in the Age group 2. The analy­sis of DNA ribo­so­mal genes ITS regions sequences showed that tuber­cu­late ecto­my­c­or­rhizas were formed by Suil­lus sibir­i­cus, unram­i­fied ecto­my­c­or­rhizas with white hydropho­bic rhi­zomorphs were formed by Corti­nar­ius sp., ram­i­fied ecto­my­c­or­rhiza with yel­low hydropho­bic rhi­zomorphs were formed by Pilo­der­ma oli­vaceum. High occur­rence of Con­tact explo­ration type ecto­my­c­or­rhizas was reg­is­tered in Zorkalt­se­vo biotop with the high­est degree of tree den­si­ty. Medi­um dis­tance explo­ration type was com­mon in Losku­to­vo and Timiryaze­vo where the degree of tree den­si­ty was 0.4–0.6. The opti­mal state of Losku­to­vo biotope prob­a­bly explains the high diver­si­ty of ecto­my­c­or­rhizal macromycetes species and the explo­ration types (Con­tact, Medi­um, and Short) bal­ance reg­is­tered in the site. 

Key­words: Pinus sibir­i­ca, ecto­my­c­or­rhizae, mor­pho­type, mycotro­phy, explo­ration type, cedar stand.

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Kar­pov A.A., Bog­danov A.P., Pirt­skhala­va-Kar­po­va N.R., Dem­i­na N.A. Using remote sens­ing for mon­i­tor­ing of refor­esta­tion in bore­al for­est. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 23–43 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.23–43

Abstract

Assess­ment of refor­esta­tion using satel­lite images and cre­ation of a mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem is an impor­tant task today. Russ­ian and for­eign sci­en­tists are con­duct­ing research in this direc­tion, but the analy­sis of refor­esta­tion is a com­plex top­ic of research in con­trast to the detec­tion of cut­tings and burned areas by satel­lite images. The process of refor­esta­tion is a com­plex, mul­ti-fac­tor process depend­ing on many fac­tors. This arti­cle describes the world expe­ri­ence of cre­at­ing dif­fer­ent meth­ods for mon­i­tor­ing for­est regen­er­a­tion and uses dif­fer­ent approach­es to data analy­sis and sen­sors installed on satel­lites. In the frame­work of arti­cle was con­sid­ered using of opti­cal, radar images and data obtained from lidar sen­sors. This is an attempt to struc­ture the accu­mu­lat­ed expe­ri­ence in this field and group the devel­oped meth­ods to ana­lyze their advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages. Data from dif­fer­ent sen­sors have dif­fer­ent mon­i­tor­ing peri­od. Radar data allow deter­min­ing the process of refor­esta­tion up to 60 years in con­trast to opti­cal sen­sors, which have a much short­er peri­od of refor­esta­tion assess­ment. The using of radar data were lim­it­ed by the cost of oper­a­tion and com­plex­i­ty of radar data pro­cess­ing and using of cer­tain tech­niques may have finan­cial lim­i­ta­tions. This review showed all the main meth­ods of assess­ment of reforestation.

Key­words: mon­i­tor­ing, refor­esta­tion, Remote Sens­ing, spec­tral indexes

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Kovyazin V.F., Pham Thi Hien Luong Ver­ti­cal struc­ture of phy­to­cenoses of the Kurort for­est Park of St. Peters­burg. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 44–56 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.44–56

Abstract

Kurort for­est Park of St. Peters­burg with an area of about 23 thou­sand hectares is locat­ed on the land of the city, is an impor­tant com­po­nent of the bios­phere. Forests of the city per­form pro­tec­tive san­i­tary and hygien­ic recre­ation­al func­tions, are a reser­voir of clean air for St. Peters­burg. For­est Park is divid­ed into 6 sub-dis­tricts: Komarovsky, Pesochin­sky, Youth, sea­side, Ses­troret­skoe, Kopan­skoe who are in the land of admin­is­tra­tive dis­tricts of the city – Kurort, Pri­morsky, Vyborgsky, Petrod­vortsovy, Kras­nosel­sky and Kolpino. The for­est Park is used for recre­ation by res­i­dents of the metrop­o­lis which is reflect­ed in the ver­ti­cal struc­ture of the phy­to­cenoses of the Kurort for­est Park plants grow dif­fer­ent bio­mor­phic groups: trees, shrubs, herbs, moss­es. For each group con­duct­ed forestry stud­ies found that dom­i­nat­ed by sin­gle-tiered, stands dom­i­nat­ed by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), spruce Euro­pean (Picea abies L.), birch fluffy (Betu­la pubes­cens Ehrh.). The under­growth is rep­re­sent­ed by native plant species: Rowan (Sor­bus aucu­paria L.), brit­tle buck­thorn (Fran­gu­la alnus Mill), bird cher­ry (Prunus padus L), elder­ber­ry (Sam­bu­cus race­mosa L.), hon­ey­suck­le (Lonicera xylosteum L.), red cur­rant (Ribes rubrum L.). In the herb-dwarf shrub lay­er dom­i­nat­ed by com­mon sor­rel (Oxalis ace­tosel­la L.), bil­ber­ry (Vac­cini­um myr­tillus L.), and red bil­ber­ry (Vac­cini­um vitis-idaea L.). Mosslichen lay­er is rep­re­sent­ed by the fol­low­ing species of moss­es: dicranum smooth (Dicranum sco­par­i­um Hedw.), Pleu­roz­i­um Schre­beri (Pleu­roz­i­um schre­beri Brid.), Hylo­comi­um bril­liant (Hylo­comi­um pro­lifer­um Brid.), com­mon cuck­oo flax (Poly­trichum com­mune Hedw.). Such stud­ies are nec­es­sary for the con­cept of the struc­ture of urban forests in St. Petersburg.

Key­words: phy­to­ceno­sis, ver­ti­cal struc­ture, tier, under­growth, liv­ing ground cover

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Dang Viet Hung Eth­nob­otan­i­cal study of med­i­c­i­nal plants in Dong Nai Cul­ture and Nature Reserve (Viet­nam). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 57–79 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.57–79

Abstract

Dong Nai Cul­ture and Nature Reserve (Dong Nai Reserve) is the biggest reserve in the South­ern East region of Viet­nam. The ter­ri­to­ry of Dong Nai Reserve con­sists of three land parcels locat­ed in the com­munes of Ma Da, Hieu Liem and Phu Ly, Vinh Cuu dis­trict in Dong Nai province. Dong Nai Reserve was estab­lished with three major objec­tives: to pre­serve the diver­si­ty of the nat­ur­al for­est ecosys­tem with­in Dong Nai province; to pre­serve and pro­mote the cul­tur­al her­itage (his­tor­i­cal and cul­tur­al mon­u­ments) of the region; to pre­serve bio­log­i­cal diver­si­ty and to devel­op eco­log­i­cal tourism. The study showed that peo­ple liv­ing in the sur­round­ings of Dong Nai Reserve for­est used var­i­ous plant species as reme­dies for sev­er­al ail­ments list­ed in the study area. Plants are the only avail­able and acces­si­ble resources for first cares as health base cen­ters are far from the Phu Ly vil­lage. 90 species were cit­ed by peo­ple for their med­i­c­i­nal uses, among them 10 species were the most used med­i­c­i­nal plants. Araceae fam­i­ly was found to have had the high­est num­ber of species used in treat­ing these ail­ments. Most of the med­i­c­i­nal plants used in our study area were col­lect­ed from the for­est and cul­ti­va­tion. Local peo­ple showed strong agree­ment on the use of plants for people’s care. Cho Ro eth­nic group holds valu­able knowl­edge about uses of med­i­c­i­nal plant resources which is inher­it­ed through gen­er­a­tions how­ev­er this knowl­edge was not doc­u­ment­ed. The study high­lights the need for doc­u­ment­ing and pub­li­ciz­ing the tra­di­tion­al med­i­c­i­nal knowl­edge which will pro­vide basic data for fur­ther research and conservation.

Key­words: eth­nob­otan­i­cal, bio­di­ver­si­ty, med­i­c­i­nal plants, Dong Nai Reserve, Vietnam

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Phan Van Dung, Potokin A.F. Fea­tures of the floris­tic com­po­si­tion of the reserve «Khau Ca» Viet­nam. and her analy­sis. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 80–90 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.80–90

Abstract

The struc­tur­al com­plex­i­ty of trop­i­cal forests ensures their sta­bil­i­ty, the abil­i­ty to devel­op and sur­vive in the face of increas­ing anthro­pogenic and tech­no­log­i­cal pres­sures. These deci­sions should be based on knowl­edge of the nature of trop­i­cal forests, their struc­ture, fea­tures of func­tion­ing, self-heal­ing abil­i­ty. How­ev­er, due to the lack of basic research and a com­pe­tent man­age­ment sys­tem for these forests, the neg­a­tive impact of man on the for­est is almost not reduced; The effec­tive­ness of con­ser­va­tion mea­sures is low. In recent years, sci­en­tists from all over the world and Viet­nam have car­ried out many stud­ies relat­ed to the study of the ecol­o­gy and bio­di­ver­si­ty of trop­i­cal forests, pay­ing par­tic­u­lar atten­tion to the struc­tur­al char­ac­ter­is­tics of stands and the study of the flo­ra and veg­e­ta­tion of forests in order to find opti­mal tech­ni­cal solu­tions to this prob­lem. The flo­ra of the Khau Ca Nature Reserve, Ha Giang Province, is diverse in its species com­po­si­tion and spec­trum of life forms. The results of the study revealed 520 species belong­ing to 312 gen­era and 122 fam­i­lies of 4 branch­es of vas­cu­lar plants, Lycopo­di­o­phy­ta, Poly­po­di­o­phy­ta, Pino­phy­ta and Mag­no­lio­phy­ta. Of the 122 plant fam­i­lies reg­is­tered in the study area, they pre­dom­i­nate: Orchi­daceae – 6.54%, Rubi­aceae – 5.19%, Lau­raceae – 4.62%, Rutaceae – 2.69%, Moraceae – 2.69%, Fabaceae – 2.69% and Vitaceae – 2.31%. The study also con­clud­ed the Khau Ca plants iden­ti­fied 9 asso­ci­a­tion groups. The fea­tures of the dis­tri­b­u­tion of veg­e­ta­tion by the main ele­ments of plant com­mu­ni­ties over the habi­tats of the stud­ied ter­ri­to­ry and struc­tur­al ele­ments on lime­stone and soil moun­tains are revealed. Flo­ra Hau Ka with 5 basic life forms of the group, of which the tree group was the high­est group with 42.88%.

Key­words: flo­ra, Khau Ca Nature Reserve, Phong Quang Nature Reserve, eco­log­i­cal ele­ments of flo­ra, Sys­tem­at­ic analy­sis of flo­ra, plants

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Phan Dung, Dang Viet Hung, Potokin A.F. Sys­tem of veg­e­ta­tion cov­er in the reserve Khau CA, Ha Giang province (Viet­nam). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 91–103 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.91–103

Abstract

The issue of the con­ser­va­tion of bio­di­ver­si­ty on Earth, in gen­er­al, and the diver­si­ty of plants in par­tic­u­lar, is very impor­tant at present. The Sum­mit in Rio de Janeiro, June 5, 1992, is the world’s «Save the Earth» bell, where all the impor­tance of the prob­lem relat­ed to the bio­di­ver­si­ty of the Earth is not­ed [Richard B. Pri­mack, Pham Binh Quyen, 1999]. Viet­nam is one of the world cen­ters of bio­di­ver­si­ty, there­fore the prob­lem of bio­di­ver­si­ty con­ser­va­tion is rel­e­vant. The pre­serve Khau Ca was cre­at­ed to pro­tect bio­di­ver­si­ty and pro­tect the thin-nosed mon­key Tonkin, the sci­en­tif­ic name of Rhino­p­ithe­cus avun­cu­lus. It is one of 25 rare and endan­gered pri­mates of the world, cur­rent­ly only in Viet­nam. Khau Ca Reserve, locat­ed in the north­ern part of the bio­geo­graph­ic zone. This type of for­est veg­e­ta­tion struc­ture is one of the most impor­tant ecosys­tems in Viet­nam and is con­sid­ered one of the most valu­able cen­ters of bio­di­ver­si­ty and areas of bio­di­ver­si­ty con­ser­va­tion. The objects of research are for­est veg­e­ta­tion on the ter­ri­to­ry of the reserve Khau Ca. Dur­ing a study at the Khau Ca Nature Reserve and the col­lec­tion of basic sci­en­tif­ic data as a basis for the descrip­tion of veg­e­ta­tion: the descrip­tion of veg­e­ta­tion was described with 20 test plots and 4 route lines of research. As evi­dence, about 700 sam­ples (herbar­i­ums) of plants were col­lect­ed. Dur­ing the analy­sis of veg­e­ta­tion, the study area the ini­tial­ly iden­ti­fied plant sys­tem in the study area con­sists of 8 main types of veg­e­ta­tion: 5 types of local com­mu­ni­ties of the pri­ma­ry flo­ra and 3 sec­ondary plant communities. 

Key­words: types of veg­e­ta­tion, plants, veg­e­ta­tion, nature reserve, Khau Ca, diver­si­ty, struc­ture of vegetation

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Sam­sono­va I.D., Neshataaev V.Yu, Do Van Thao, Nguyen Thi Duong Eco­log­i­cal and bio­log­i­cal analy­sis of hon­ey plants of birch stands. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 104–117 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.104–117

Abstract

The forests of dif­fer­ent cli­mat­ic and soil zones dif­fer from each oth­er in the com­po­si­tion of tree species and have dif­fer­ent mel­lif­er­ous val­ue. The impor­tance of decid­u­ous forests is in obtain­ing bee prod­ucts (hon­ey, pollen, per­ga, roy­al jel­ly), which are the result of pro­cess­ing sub­stances of for­est ento­mophilous plants under the canopy of birch forests and in open spaces (edge, for­est gaps). The num­ber of sci­en­tists was engaged in the issues of account­ing for the species diver­si­ty of the mel­lif­er­ous forests of for­est ecosys­tems in var­i­ous geo­graph­i­cal areas. Cur­rent­ly, the study of hon­ey resources in the North-West region remains rel­e­vant, as the flow­er­ing flo­ra is spread over areas with unsta­ble cli­mat­ic con­di­tions and a decrease in the area of indige­nous plant com­mu­ni­ties. In the for­est fund of the Leningrad Region, birch forests occu­py the third place and are rep­re­sent­ed main­ly by stands of mixed com­po­si­tion. The object of the study is phy­to­cenoses with a pre­dom­i­nance of birch of three for­est types (Myr­tillus-type, Fil­ipen­du­la ulmaria – type, Oxalis-type). They have a sig­nif­i­cant num­ber of hon­ey plants under the canopy and on for­est edges. The objects of research are select­ed in the for­est fund of the Leningrad region in the ter­ri­to­ry of sev­er­al for­est dis­tricts. As a result of the research, we deter­mined the species com­po­si­tion of the under­sto­ry. For esti­mat­ing the num­ber of young trees, shrubs, the cov­er of the species of the low­er lay­er we used cir­cu­lar sub­plots of 10 m² each. Sys­tem­at­ic, bio­mor­phic, phy­to­cenot­ic, and envi­ron­men­tal ana­lyzes of the under­sto­ry species were per­formed. The results of the study showed that birch forests are not uni­form. The floris­tic com­po­si­tion of the hon­ey resources of under­growth and ground cov­er of birch­wood of three for­est types and on for­est edges is revealed. 71 species from 31 fam­i­lies were found. The most com­mon are hon­ey plants from the Rosaceae fam­i­ly (13 species), the sec­ond place belongs to the plants of the Aster­aceae (7 species), and the third place is occu­pied by plants from the Ranun­cu­laceae fam­i­ly (5 species). The num­ber of hon­ey­bear­ing biore­sources in the spring peri­od is rep­re­sent­ed by wider species diver­si­ty (33 species) than the oth­er peri­ods of the sea­son. The cen­turies-old influ­ence of envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors and adap­tive reac­tions of plants to them, deter­mined the appear­ance of plants and their rela­tion­ship to these fac­tors. Peren­ni­al grass­es are the main life forms of hon­ey plants (66%), a small part belongs to the shrubs and annu­al grass­es. Eco­log­i­cal­ly, all hon­ey plants vary in their loca­tion. Mes­o­phytes pre­vail (28 species, 38%). This group includes hon­ey plants grow­ing in birch forests, as well as on the for­est edge. The over­whelm­ing major­i­ty of ento­mophilous plants are nec­tar­if­er­ous plants (37 species). They pro­vide pro­duc­tive hon­ey col­lec­tion in the stud­ied con­di­tions. The obtained results can be used in the time­ly plan­ning and orga­ni­za­tion of the for­est api­ary migra­tions in order to obtain a pro­duc­tive hon­ey col­lec­tion for the con­di­tions of the North-West of Rus­sia and in the inven­to­ry of birch forests of the taiga zone. In addi­tion, research mate­ri­als can be used in the devel­op­ment of for­est plans, forestry reg­u­la­tions, for­est devel­op­ment projects. The main result of the study is the eco­log­i­cal and bio­log­i­cal analy­sis of nec­tar-pol­lenif­er­ous flo­ra by tax­on­o­my, by life forms, by grow­ing places, by the influ­ence of nat­ur­al con­di­tions on their growth.

Key­words: for­est estate, birch forests, hon­ey plants, eco­log­i­cal and bio­log­i­cal analysis

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Tyukav­ina O.N, Gud­i­na A.G. The calorif­ic val­ue of pine wood after a grass­roots fire. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 118–129 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.118–129

Abstract

Sig­nif­i­cant areas of pine forests are annu­al­ly exposed to grass-roots fires. After grass­roots fires, plan­ta­tions remain viable and can be of oper­a­tional sig­nif­i­cance. Iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of the prop­er­ties of post-pyro­genic wood will make it pos­si­ble to use it ratio­nal­ly as a raw mate­r­i­al resource. The pur­pose of the study is to reveal the calorif­ic val­ue of pine wood after a grass­roots fire. Stud­ies were car­ried out in the pine forests of cow­ber­ry, tra­versed by grass-roots fires of dif­fer­ent inten­si­ty, in the Blagoveshchen­sk dis­trict forestry of the Vel­sky dis­trict of the Arkhangel­sk region. Tri­al areas were laid using stan­dard tech­niques. In six tri­al plots, cores were select­ed with an age bor­er in 50 mod­el trees at an alti­tude of 1.3 m. The wood was dried in an oven to an absolute­ly dry state. The calorif­ic val­ue of pine wood was deter­mined using an auto­mat­ed bomb calorime­ter ABK-1B. The calorif­ic val­ue of pine wood of post-pyro­genic plan­ta­tions varies from 20,600 to 26,000 J/g, which is 3–8% high­er than the calorif­ic val­ue of pine wood from stands that have not been exposed to fires. In post-pyro­genic plan­ta­tions, pine wood is char­ac­ter­ized by a sig­nif­i­cant­ly greater calorif­ic val­ue com­pared to sap­wood. The dif­fer­ence is 1331 J/g. In plant­i­ngs not cov­ered by fires, the dif­fer­ence in the calorif­ic val­ue between the core and the sap­wood is not sig­nif­i­cant. The increased calorif­ic val­ue of sound­wood can indi­cate past past fires of low inten­si­ty. The calorif­ic val­ue of pine wood is affect­ed by the height of the deposit. At a deposit height of more than 2 m, the calorif­ic val­ue of wood is reduced. The change in the calorif­ic val­ue of pine wood, depend­ing on the height of the deposit and the posi­tion in the cross sec­tion of the trunk, is deter­mined not by the uni­form inten­si­ty of the milling. The heat of com­bus­tion of pine wood begins to decline after 7 years after the fire.

Key­words: calorif­ic val­ue, sound­wood, sap­wood, pine, bot­tom fire

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Usolt­sev V.А., Kovyazin V.F., Osmirko А.А., Tse­pordey I.S., Chasovskikh V.P., Аzarenok V.А., Koltuno­va A.I. Mod­el of root : shoot ratio in bio­mass of Lar­ix spp. forests sen­si­tive to win­ter tem­per­a­ture and mean pre­cip­i­ta­tion in Eura­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 130–144 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.130–144

Abstract

Eval­u­at­ing ratio of under – to above-ground bio­mass, or root : shoot ratio (R/S), is of great impor­tance for char­ac­ter­iz­ing the struc­ture and func­tion of for­est ecosys­tems, under­stand­ing the process­es of ener­gy stor­age in for­est ecosys­tems and improv­ing their envi­ron­men­tal sus­tain­abil­i­ty. The basis of R/S is the so-called rootleaf func­tion­al rela­tion­ship. The analy­sis of the lit­er­a­ture shows high vari­abil­i­ty of R/S in local con­di­tions under the influ­ence of many often unknown eco­log­i­cal fac­tors. This hin­ders the resolv­ing many the­o­ret­i­cal and applied issues that accom­pa­ny the assess­ment of bio­log­i­cal pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and car­bon seques­tra­tion capac­i­ty of for­est ecosys­tems in the con­text of cli­mate change. The prob­lems of assess­ing the state of for­est ecosys­tems in a chang­ing cli­mate have been usu­al­ly con­sid­ered in con­nec­tion with changes in hydrother­mal regimes of the envi­ron­ment. The authors tried to esti­mate for the first time the R/S ratios in trans-Eurasian gra­di­ents on the exam­ple of the genus Lar­ix spp. tak­ing into account both for­est stand tax­a­tion indices and cli­mate vari­ables. A data­base of har­vest R/S data is formed in the amount of 180 def­i­n­i­tions on the sam­ple plots dis­trib­uted from West­ern Europe to Chi­na and Japan, their posi­tion­ing on the maps of aver­age Jan­u­ary tem­per­a­ture and aver­age annu­al pre­cip­i­ta­tion is per­formed, and the obtained matrix is includ­ed in the stan­dard regres­sion analy­sis pro­ce­dure. It has been found that the R/S increas­es with decreas­ing win­ter tem­per­a­ture regard­less of the pre­cip­i­ta­tion lev­el and decreas­es with increas­ing pre­cip­i­ta­tion, but only at extreme­ly low tem­per­a­tures, reach­ing in sub­arc­tic regions the val­ue of 0.6. In warm cli­mat­ic zones, the R/S increas­es as pre­cip­i­ta­tion grows, and under 900 mm pre­cip­i­ta­tion in sub-equa­to­r­i­al areas reach­es the val­ue of 0.25, which is close to the num­ber of 0.28 in the sub­trop­ics of Aus­tralia. The results obtained are con­sis­tent with the results of pre­vi­ous stud­ies. It is shown that changes in the struc­ture of a mod­el can sig­nif­i­cant­ly affect the results obtained. 

Key­words: genus Lar­ix spp., root-leaf rela­tions, bio­mass of for­est stands, the equa­tion of bio­mass, mean Jan­u­ary tem­per­a­ture, mean annu­al precipitation

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Danilov D.A., Bog­dano­va L.S., Mandrykin S.S., Yakovlev A.A., Sergeye­va A.S. Influ­ence of soil fer­til­i­ty on the nat­ur­al restora­tion of for­est on old agri­cul­tur­al lands. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 145–163 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.145–163

Abstract

In the last decades a large num­ber of agri­cul­tur­al lands left the fis­sile agri­cul­tur­al use, on these squares process of nat­ur­al for­est regen­er­a­tion began. The soil fer­til­i­ty is one of the major fac­tors affect­ing suc­cess and spe­cif­ic struc­ture of nat­ur­al renew­ing of for­est veg­e­ta­tion. On sandy soils with the low main­te­nance of a humus (1.3%) there will be a for­est regen­er­a­tion from pine regen­er­a­tion. With change of mechan­i­cal struc­ture of the soil from sandy to loamy and increase in main­te­nance of a humus reduc­tion of num­ber of pine regen­er­a­tion and increase in num­ber of fir-tree regen­er­a­tion will be observed. Also It should be not­ed that with increase in soil fer­til­i­ty the share of decid­u­ous breeds which com­pli­cate body height of conif­er­ous regen­er­a­tion con­sid­er­ably increas­es. On more exact­ly with decid­u­ous breeds fur­ther resti­tu­tion of conif­er­ous breeds can com­pli­cate alive on a soil cov­er. With increase in con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter in the soil increas­es coop­er­a­tive pro­jec­tive cov­ered grassy veg­e­ta­tion that can com­pli­cate ger­mi­na­tion of seeds of a pine and fir-tree. Also with increase in fer­til­i­ty the dom­i­nance of plants of mega­trof and mezotrof which com­pete with shoots of conif­er­ous breeds for ele­ments of a min­er­al deliv­ery light begins to be observed. Thus, sites with low fer­til­i­ty are suit­able for suc­cess­ful renew­ing of a pine. More fer­tile sites will be suit­able for renew­ing of a fir-tree more, but it is nec­es­sary to con­sid­er that decid­u­ous breeds grow quick­er than a fir-tree and will occu­py the larg­er space there­fore for faster and suc­cess­ful renew­ing of a fir-tree it is nec­es­sary to hold in due time the events direct­ed to decrease in a share of decid­u­ous breeds in planting

Key­words: organ­ic mat­ter, nat­ur­al renew­ing, regen­er­a­tion, old arable lands, pro­jec­tive cov­er­ing of an alive ground cover

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Shilovsky V.N., Skobtsov I.G. The esti­ma­tion of oper­a­tional fac­tors affect­ing for­est machine main­tain­abil­i­ty. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 164–175 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.164–175

Abstract

The paper deals with the test­ed method of esti­mat­ing the sig­nif­i­cance of fac­tors that gov­ern the costs of for­est machines oper­a­tion. A sin­gle-fac­tor analy­sis of vari­ance was used for fac­tor esti­ma­tion. The pro­duc­tive capac­i­ty of tech­ni­cal main­te­nance and repair depends on the repair area loca­tion. It can be field con­di­tions, mechan­i­cal repair shops or spe­cial­ized enter­pris­es. Tech­ni­cal main­te­nance expens­es account for up to 30 % of the total cost of for­est com­plex pro­duc­tion. There­fore the inves­ti­ga­tion of fac­tors that affect these expens­es is impor­tant. This paper con­tains an exam­ple in which the sig­nif­i­cance of for­est machines tech­ni­cal main­te­nance con­di­tions is esti­mat­ed. The best con­di­tions for tech­ni­cal main­te­nance are at cen­tral­ized ser­vice points because there it is pos­si­ble to decrease the ser­vic­ing time and increase the work out­put. The pro­posed method of fac­tor sig­nif­i­cance esti­ma­tion can be applied to any geo­graph­i­cal­ly dis­trib­uted machines. This method allows esti­mat­ing the sig­nif­i­cance of such fac­tors as the degree of main­te­nance and ser­vic­ing base mech­a­niza­tion, the lev­el of staff qual­i­fi­ca­tion and expe­ri­ence and the dura­tion of machine oper­at­ing time. The appli­ca­tion of two-way and mul­ti­vari­ate analy­sis of vari­ance can be used in fur­ther wok devel­op­ment. The usage of vari­ance analy­sis allows mea­sur­ing the influ­ence of quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive fac­tors. The inves­ti­ga­tion of fac­tor sig­nif­i­cance can be pre­sent­ed as the vari­ance decom­po­si­tion into a sum of vari­ances. The influ­ence of every fac­tor is esti­mat­ed as its con­tri­bu­tion into the total vari­ance. Onego Trac­tor Plant machines were used to test the influ­ence of work­flow man­age­ment on the ser­vic­ing time. This study is based on the results of trac­tor oper­a­tion reli­a­bil­i­ty tests at the ser­vice points in the Repub­lic of Kare­lia. Trac­tors of the same mod­els were test­ed with­in the sim­i­lar oper­at­ing time. The ser­vic­ing time was con­sid­ered for machines ser­viced at wood cut­ting areas, trucks work­shops, cen­tral­ized ser­vice points, or by using mobile main­te­nance and sup­port equip­ment. The cen­tral­ized ser­vice points were found as the most effec­tive prac­tices of for­est machine tech­ni­cal maintenance. 

Key­words: exploita­tion tech­no­log­i­cal effi­cien­cy, main­tain­abil­i­ty, fac­tor, analy­sis of variance

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Toropov A.S., Soloviev A.N. Opti­mal cut­ting and pre­dic­tion of assort­ment yields before and dur­ing tree felling. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 176–184 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.176–184

Abstract

In this arti­cle new approach to a prob­lem of opti­mum cut­ting and fore­cast­ing of an exit of assort­ments to and in process rolls of trees is con­sid­ered. Authors offer and the­o­ret­i­cal­ly prove ratio­nal cut­ting of a pilovochny part of a tree by cri­te­ri­on of the max­i­mum vol­ume exit of sawlog in val­ue terms. In work the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of deter­mi­na­tion of para­me­ters of a sex­u­al part of a tree on the basis of an allo­met­rich­esky method of research­es of an object of the labor and opti­mum cut­ting and fore­cast­ing of an exit of assort­ments to and is giv­en in process rolls of trees with use of a method exhaus­tive search and meth­ods of branch­es and borders. 

Key­words: log­ging, cut­ting, opti­miza­tion, the­o­ry of growth, allometriya

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Khitrov E.G., Kotenev E.V., Andronov A.V., Ilyushenko D.L., Pushkov Yu.L. Com­par­i­son of aver­age and nom­i­nal ground pres­sure of a for­est machine rover. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 185–195 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.185–195

Abstract

The pur­pose of this arti­cle is to inves­ti­gate rela­tion­ships between cal­cu­lat­ed val­ues of nom­i­nal and aver­age ground pres­sure of wheeled mover on for­est soil and rigid sur­face. Research meth­ods include math­e­mat­i­cal analy­sis, com­pu­ta­tion­al exper­i­ment, approx­i­ma­tion of the cal­cu­lat­ed data. The arti­cle presents and com­pares method of cal­cu­lat­ing the aver­age pres­sure on a deformable soil, the aver­age pres­sure on a rigid base and the nom­i­nal ground pres­sure. Accord­ing to the results of cal­cu­la­tions, it has been estab­lished that the aver­age pres­sure on firm soils prac­ti­cal­ly cor­re­sponds to the esti­mate of the pres­sure on a rigid base. Nom­i­nal ground pres­sure is below the pres­sure on a rigid base of 40–50 kPa. The esti­mate of the aver­age pres­sure on nor­mal soil is close to nom­i­nal ground pres­sure. The aver­age pres­sure on weak soil in the load range of 10–20 kN is close to the nom­i­nal pres­sure; for large val­ues of the load, the esti­mate of the aver­age pres­sure is approx­i­mate­ly twice less than the nom­i­nal ground pres­sure. By cal­cu­la­tion, it has been estab­lished that the aver­age pres­sure of a wheeled rover against deformable for­est soil and a rigid base is relat­ed to nom­i­nal ground pres­sure, which is used by for­eign researchers. The depen­den­cies are lin­ear and include cor­rec­tion fac­tors, the val­ues of which are deter­mined by the rover para­me­ters (width and diam­e­ter of the wheel, tire pres­sure, load on the wheel) and the cat­e­go­ry of for­est soil. Obtained equa­tions make it pos­si­ble to sim­pli­fy process of com­par­ing esti­mates of inter­ac­tion between for­est machines and the soil, giv­en in frame­work of domes­tic and for­eign methods.

Key­words: wheeled rover, impact on for­est soil, method of cal­cu­lat­ing the soil pressure

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Vino­gradov A.Yu., Minaev A.N., Kadatskaya M.M., Kuch­min А.V., Hvalev S.V. Cal­cu­la­tion of con­stant J. Niku­radze and T. von Kar­man depend­ing on water tem­per­a­ture and the size of bot­tom sed­i­ments. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 196–204 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.196–204

Abstract

The main means of increas­ing the pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of water­logged and sog­gy forests is drainage recla­ma­tion, which, in addi­tion to improv­ing the qual­i­ty of wood, allows improv­ing con­di­tions for their more com­plete trans­port devel­op­ment. Since one of the main para­me­ters in the design of recla­ma­tion drainage and engi­neer­ing cul­verts is the non-erod­ing water veloc­i­ty, its assess­ment is extreme­ly impor­tant for hydraulic cal­cu­la­tions. The cal­cu­lat­ed val­ue of the non-erod­ing water veloc­i­ty depends on the accept­ed flow water mode at the height of sur­face asper­i­ty. The mode of flu­id motion is deter­mined by the water veloc­i­ty curve of the ver­ti­cal chan­nel pro­file. The pat­tern of the water veloc­i­ty by the depth of the flow to the height of the upper bound­ary lay­er, in turn, is deter­mined by the T. von Kar­man’s con­stant. The height of the bound­ary lay­er depends on the accept­ed val­ue of the J. Nikuradze’s con­stant. The arti­cle shows that the val­ues of the J. Niku­radze’s con­stant does not depend on water tem­per­a­ture, but it is a func­tion of the size of bot­tom sed­i­ments. T. von Kar­man’s con­stant depends on the size of the bot­tom sed­i­ments, and there­fore on the rough­ness of the bot­tom and chan­nel walls.

Key­words: for­est recla­ma­tion, engi­neer­ing cul­verts, non-erod­ing water veloc­i­ty, J. Niku­radze’s con­stant, T. von Kar­man’s constant

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Alek­san­drov V.A., Rza­vt­sev A.A. Stress­es of the mech­a­nism of rota­tion of the plat­form of the feller bunch­er in the pro­cess­ing of wood. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 205–214 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.205–214

Abstract

In arti­cle the dynam­ic mod­el of sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor – skid­ding trac­tor – tree bunch». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagrange sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion seats. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly felling and skid­ding machine LP-19A.

Key­words: feller bunch­er, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, dynam­ic load

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Ivanov D.V., Shevchenko S.V., Eka­ter­inche­va M.A. The hard­en­er of ure­aformalde­hyde resin, which reduce tox­i­c­i­ty of wood board. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 215–230 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.215–230

Abstract

Prod­ucts of inter­ac­tion of cit­ric acid, urea and ammo­nia have been researched as com­po­nents of urea-formalde­hyde glue. Obtained salts have prop­er­ties of direct and latent cat­a­lysts of hard­en­ing and can per­form as hard­en­ers of urea-formalde­hyde resin. Because of low pH val­ue they increase acid­i­ty of the glue imme­di­ate­ly after com­bin­ing with resin and act like direct cat­a­lysts of hard­en­ing. Where­in sub­sti­tu­tion of hydro­gen ions of some car­boxyl groups belong­ing to cit­ric acid on ammo­ni­um ions allows to pro­vide a grad­ual decrease of glue pH val­ue; thus they act like latent cat­a­lysts. The cor­rel­a­tive pro­cess­ing of data has revealed that the change of pH val­ue 99% depends on the amount of ammo­nia in the hard­en­er formula.The prop­er­ties of latent cat­a­lysts express most­ly when hard­en­er is syn­the­sized at molar ratio of cit­ric acid : urea : ammo­nia – 1 : 1,5 : 1,5, the hard­en­er has been named МО‑1,5. Dur­ing man­u­fac­tur­ing of sin­gle lay­er par­ti­cle­board МО‑1,5 is able to pro­vide the nec­es­sary depth of resin hard­en­ing so it can serve as a sub­sti­tute to tra­di­tion­al latent cat­a­lysts. It is the most effec­tive in the inner lay­er of man­u­fac­tured boards, as evi­denced by high ten­sile strength per­pen­dic­u­lar­ly to plane. In com­par­i­son with wood­en boards man­u­fac­tured with such tra­di­tion­al hard­en­er as ammo­nia sul­fate wood­en boards man­u­fac­tured with МО‑1,5 have 20…40% low­er formalde­hyde con­tent. Thus МО‑1,5 per­forms also as a mod­i­fi­er of urea-formalde­hyde resin pro­vid­ing low­er tox­i­c­i­ty of wood­en board. 

Key­words: cit­ric acid, urea, ammo­nia, hard­en­er, urea-formalde­hyde resin, tox­i­c­i­ty of wood board, particleboard

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Govyadin I.K., Chu­bin­sky A.N. Study of the influ­ence of tem­per­a­ture on a 3Dprinter on the prop­er­ties of a wood-poly­mer thread. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 231–242 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.231–242

Abstract

Cur­rent­ly, extru­sion is the most com­mon tech­no­log­i­cal process of man­u­fac­tur­ing prod­ucts from wood-poly­mer com­pos­ite mate­ri­als with a ther­mo­plas­tic poly­mer matrix. This tech­nol­o­gy can be imple­ment­ed by the method of lay­er-by-lay­er fusion (FDM) for the man­u­fac­ture of over­head dec­o­ra­tive ele­ments of fur­ni­ture, as well as sou­venirs, toys and oth­er prod­ucts. A fil­a­ments of var­i­ous types of plas­tic is used as a con­sum­able mate­r­i­al. Sam­ples print­ed on an FDM print­er made from wood-poly­mer fil­a­ment based on poly­lac­tide and wood flour of grade 120 accord­ing to GOST 16361–87 from soft­wood in a 70/30 ratio were to be inves­ti­gat­ed. All sam­ples were man­u­fac­tured on an FDM print­er (Cre­al­i­ty 3D CR-10 5S) with a noz­zle size of 0.2 mm. When using such a com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al col­ors, the struc­ture of the sur­face of prod­ucts will be clos­er to the wood. In the course of research, the phys­i­cal prop­er­ties of sam­ples print­ed at dif­fer­ent tem­per­a­ture con­di­tions (190, 200, 210, 220 ºС) were stud­ied. The research results showed that the tem­per­a­ture of print­ing on a 3D print­er affects a num­ber of phys­i­cal prop­er­ties of the formed mate­r­i­al, first of all, its den­si­ty and col­or. The change in den­si­ty and col­or can be caused by the destruc­tion of the wood sub­stance at high tem­per­a­ture, an increase in the pack­ing den­si­ty of macro­mol­e­cules, and the influ­ence of oth­er fac­tors. No sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences were found in the sur­face rough­ness and mois­ture con­tent of the sam­ples from the woodad­he­sive com­po­si­tion based on poly­lac­tide and wood flour. 

Key­words: FDM-print­ing, wood-poly­mer fil­a­ments, 3D-print­ing, wood fibers, WPCPLA

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4. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

Zay­ats A.M., Khabarov S.P. Research of the oper­a­tion algo­rithm of a dis­trib­uted for­est ter­ri­to­ry mon­i­tor­ing sys­tem. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 243–254 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.243–254

Abstract

Pro­posed an approach to net­work mod­el­ing of the oper­a­tion algo­rithms of the nodes of a dis­trib­uted sys­tem using only one com­put­er, but with the pos­si­bil­i­ty of inter­ac­tion between nodes net­work via a wire­less com­mu­ni­ca­tion chan­nel, which allows you to use net­work mon­i­tors such as Wire­shark or Microsoft Net­work Mon­i­tor to ana­lyze the pro­to­col stack and the struc­ture of pack­ets cir­cu­lat­ing in a wire­less net­work. For the pos­si­bil­i­ty of full-fledged func­tion­al mod­el­ing Python 3 soft­ware code tem­plates were devel­oped for all ele­ments of a dis­trib­uted system.

Key­words: dis­trib­uted sys­tems, wire­less net­works, net­work programming

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Alek­seevа S.V. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing of one type of three-link manip­u­la­tor robot­’s. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 255–265 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.255–265

Abstract

Deter­mi­na­tion of para­me­ters and con­di­tions under which, when oper­at­ing robot manip­u­la­tors, the set opti­mal­i­ty cri­te­ria can be achieved is an urgent task. In this regard, there is a prob­lem of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing of the Exec­u­tive sys­tem of the manip­u­la­tion robot. The arti­cle deals with manip­u­la­tors hav­ing rota­tion­al, trans­la­tion­al and rota­tion­al kine­mat­ic pairs of the fifth class. Giv­en three pos­si­ble kine­mat­ics for these manip­u­la­tors. To describe the motion of the han­dling robot intro­duces the gen­er­al­ized coor­di­nates that unique­ly define its con­fig­u­ra­tion as gen­er­al­ized coor­di­nates were tak­en of the angles of rel­a­tive rota­tions and a lin­ear rel­a­tive dis­place­ment of the links. A Carte­sian rec­tan­gu­lar coor­di­nate sys­tem was con­nect­ed to each link of the manip­u­la­tor and to the fixed base. The prob­lem of deter­min­ing the rel­a­tive posi­tion of the links and their posi­tion in iner­tial space was solved on the basis of the trans­for­ma­tion of one coor­di­nate sys­tem to anoth­er. As a result, we found the basic kine­mat­ic rela­tions that deter­mine the posi­tion, speed and accel­er­a­tion of the cen­ters of mass of the links in a fixed coor­di­nate sys­tem for robot manip­u­la­tors with one trans­la­tion­al and two rota­tion­al degrees of mobil­i­ty. On the basis of these rela­tions the prob­lem of con­struc­tion of equa­tions of dynam­ics in the form of Lagrange equa­tions of the sec­ond kind was solved. The advan­tage of this form of record­ing is the closed form of expres­sions that deter­mine the dynam­ics of the sys­tem, which makes it pos­si­ble to prop­er­ly take into account the inter­nal forces act­ing in the sys­tem. Sys­tems of three non­lin­ear dif­fer­en­tial equa­tions of the sec­ond order describ­ing their dynam­ics were obtained for each of the con­sid­ered manip­u­la­tors . Due to the need to esti­mate the moment of load aris­ing on the shaft of the con­trol dri­ve, the exter­nal gen­er­al­ized forces were reduced to the cor­re­spond­ing gen­er­al­ized coordinate.

Key­words: three-link manip­u­la­tor, kine­mat­ic rela­tions, dynam­ic equations

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5. CHRONICLE OF SCIENTIFIC LIFE

Alek­seev A.S. Notes on the new book «Hon­orary mem­bers of IUFRO: 1953–2017». Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 266–269 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.266–269

Abstract

In Sep­tem­ber 2017, the inter­na­tion­al Union of for­est research orga­ni­za­tions (IUFRO) cel­e­brat­ed its 125th anniver­sary. To this event a book of Teplyakov V.K. «Hon­orary mem­bers of IUFRO: 1953–2017» was writ­ten. The review ana­lyzes the infor­ma­tion con­tent of the book and gives it a high rating.

Key­words: review, IUFRO, awards, hon­orary mem­ber, V. Teplyakov

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She­ba­shev V.E., Romanov E.M., Vojtko P.F., Samo­jlenko V.G. In mem­o­ry of the sol­dier, sci­en­tist, and pub­lic fig­ure Yuri Yakovle­vich Dmitriev (1919–1997). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 229, pp. 270–275 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.229.270–275

Abstract

The arti­cle describes the life of Yuri Dmitriev, a sci­en­tist who made a major con­tri­bu­tion to the devel­op­ment of the sci­ence of for­est raft­ing. The brief list of his works is giv­en, which are rel­e­vant up to the present time. 

Key­words: per­son­al­i­ties

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Issue 228
1. ECOLOGY OF DENDROPHILOUS INSECTS

Kriv­ets S.A., Bisiro­va E.M., Kerchev I.A., Pats E.N., Simono­va G.V. . The state of four-eyed fir bark bee­tle pop­u­la­tion and its role in the forests of the north­east­ern part of the «Kuznet­sk Alatau» Reserve (Kemero­vo Oblast). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 7–28 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.7–28

Abstract

Four-eyed-fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf. (Coleoptera, Cur­culion­idae: Scolyti­nae), a dan­ger­ous inva­sive pest of Siber­ian fir, was noticed on the «Kuznet­sk Alatau» Reserve’s ter­ri­to­ry for the first time. The com­plex of ana­lyzed basic para­me­ters of the alien pest pop­u­la­tion char­ac­ter­izes its abun­dance in the mid­dle moun­tain fir stands of the north­east­ern part of the reserve as con­sis­tent­ly low. The pro­por­tion of trees col­o­nized by P. prox­imus and killed with its par­tic­i­pa­tion in dif­fer­ent stands made up for 4.6–9.7% of the total num­ber of dying and dead trees. The aver­age den­si­ty of the par­ent gen­er­a­tion was 1.9±1.4 families/dm²; the total length of the mater­nal gal­leries per fam­i­ly is 6.3±2.1 cm; the aver­age fecun­di­ty of the female was 53.3±14.5 eggs. The aver­age den­si­ty of the young gen­er­a­tion was 16±10.0 beetles/dm²; the aver­age breed­ing rate was 6.6±4.7. The main fac­tor deter­min­ing the low lev­el of P. prox­imus pop­u­la­tion in the study area is weath­er and cli­mat­ic con­di­tions such as: fre­quent and heavy rain­falls that impede bee­tles dur­ing the peri­od of dis­per­sal flight and short veg­e­ta­tion sea­son in moun­tain­ous areas, which lim­its the devel­op­ment of the sec­ond gen­er­a­tion. The low pop­u­la­tion rate of the alien pest can also be explained by the preva­lence of healthy and slight­ly weak­ened trees in the stands and high abun­dance of the spe­cial­ized preda­tor flies of the Mede­tera genus. Four-eyed fir bark bee­tle in the forests of the north­east­ern part of the «Kuznet­sk Alatau» Reserve involved in the process of elim­i­na­tion of weak­ened Siber­ian fir trees togeth­er with abo­rig­i­nal stem den­drophagous insects, among which the main impor­tance belongs to the long­horn bee­tle Mono­chamus urusso­vi Fisсh.

Key­words: bio­log­i­cal inva­sions, four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf., pop­u­la­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics, Siber­ian fir forests, South­ern Siberia, Kuznet­sky Alatau

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Petrov A.V., Shtapo­va N.N. Biol­o­gy fea­tures of Scoly­tus koeni­gi Schevyrew, 1890 (Coleoptera: Cur­culion­idae: Scolyti­nae) in for­est-steppe zone of the Euro­pean part of Rus­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 29–41 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.29–41

Abstract

We aimed to study bio­log­i­cal fea­tures of Scoly­tus koeni­gi Schevyrew, 1890, a rare xylophilous insect species. Phe­nol­o­gy of the species is insuf­fi­cient­ly stud­ied through­out the dis­tri­b­u­tion range. It was found that adult emer­gence peri­ods as well as lar­vae and pupae devel­op­ment dura­tion dif­fer between Turk­menistan, Dages­tan, and for­est-steppe zone of Voronezh Province (Branch of Insti­tute of For­est Sci­ence Russ­ian Acad­e­my of Sci­ences Teller­man Exper­i­men­tal For­est Dis­trict RAS, TEF RAS). In the north­ern parts of the range, name­ly in Khop­er Riv­er basin, flight of bee­tles occurs from the sec­ond decade of July and lasts up to the first decade of August. Lar­vae is the over­win­ter­ing stage. Pupa­tion occurs from the first decade of June and lasts up to the sec­ond decade of July. There is one gen­er­a­tion per year. The species breeds on dif­fer­ent maple species (Acer spp.). In the stands of TEF RAS the species was only record­ed on Nor­way maple (Acer pla­tanoides L.). The main pop­u­la­tion para­me­ters of S. koeni­gi in TEF RAS are as fol­lows: length of gallery is from 13 to 47 mm, set­tle­ment den­si­ty is from 0.01 to 3 egg gall./ dm2 , gen­er­a­tion sur­vival is from 41 to 94%. Mor­tal­i­ty of S. koeni­gi dur­ing the tree infes­ta­tion is attrib­uted to the preda­tor bee­tle Clerus mutil­lar­ius Fabri­cius, 1775 (Coleoptera: Cleri­dae) and at the lar­val stage mor­tal­i­ty was main­ly influ­enced by C. mutil­lar­ius lar­vae and par­a­sitic Braconidae. 

Key­words: bark bee­tles, Scoly­tus, Coleoptera, Cur­culion­idae, Scolyti­nae, Khop­er Riv­er basin

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Utk­i­na I.A., Rubtsov V.V. Brown oak slen­der is a long known, but still lit­tle stud­ied species. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 42–57 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.42–57

Abstract

The brown oak slen­der Acro­cer­cops brong­niardel­la (F., 1798) (Lep­i­doptera, Gracil­lari­idae) is a well-known species of leaf min­ers that has been wide­ly repro­duc­ing in oak forests of the Euro­pean part of Rus­sia, Ukraine, and West­ern Euro­pean coun­tries. In the past two decades, evi­dence of an increase in its abun­dance and pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty in some regions has appeared. How­ev­er, there are still gaps in knowl­edge on the devel­op­ment fea­tures of this species. Accord­ing to some authors, the moth pro­duces one gen­er­a­tion per year, while oth­er authors indi­cate two. This dis­crep­an­cy may be due to dif­fer­ent weath­er con­di­tions in dif­fer­ent habi­tats, or the change in con­di­tions of the same habi­tat. With simul­ta­ne­ous mass repro­duc­tion of the brown oak slen­der and the win­ter moth Oper­oph­tera bru­ma­ta (L., 1758) (Lep­i­doptera: Geometri­dae), the defo­li­a­tion of the crowns of both phe­no­log­i­cal forms of the oak occurs dif­fer­ent­ly, due to the fact that the pri­ma­ry foliage of the ear­ly form of the oak dam­aged by the win­ter moth, the brown oak slen­der does not col­o­nize and begins to mine the leaves of the oak of the late and inter­me­di­ate forms not dam­aged by the win­ter moth. This increas­es the lev­el of defo­li­a­tion. After pupa­tion of the win­ter moth, when del­i­cate sec­ondary foliage appears on ear­ly oak, the brown oak slen­der suc­cess­ful­ly uti­lizes it. At this point, oak trees expe­ri­ence a more pro­longed and inten­sive dam­age to the foliage of dif­fer­ent gen­er­a­tions, which affects their cur­rent state and fur­ther devel­op­ment. Thus, at a high den­si­ty of the win­ter moth pop­u­la­tion, it exerts a cer­tain pres­sure on the pop­u­la­tion of the brown oak slen­der, depriv­ing it of the oppor­tu­ni­ty to feed on the spring foliage of the ear­ly-shaped oak. The flight of the brown oak slen­der is annu­al­ly long, dur­ing the whole sum­mer, but it occurs very uneven­ly in dif­fer­ent types of oak forests and sig­nif­i­cant­ly depends on the weath­er con­di­tions. The dam­age caused by the brown oak slen­der is still high. The out­break of the win­ter moth stopped after a severe frost in January–February of 2012. 

Key­words: brown oak slen­der, Acro­cer­cops brong­niardel­la F., win­ter woth, Oper­oph­tera bru­ma­ta L., com­mon oak, oak stand, forest-steppe

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Shchurov V.I., Zamo­ta­jlov A.S., Bon­darenko A.S., Shchuro­va A.V., Skvortsov M.M., Glushchenko L.S. The oak lace bug Cory­thucha arcu­a­ta (Say, 1832) (Het­eroptera: Tingi­dae) in the North­west­ern Cau­ca­sus: phe­nol­o­gy, biol­o­gy, mon­i­tor­ing of the ter­ri­to­r­i­al expan­sion, and harm­ful­ness. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 58–87 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.58–87

Abstract

The oak lace bug Cory­thucha arcu­a­ta (Say, 1832) entered Krasnodar Krai in 2015 through Krym­sk and Krasnodar. The first for­est stands with pro­nounced chloro­sis were record­ed in the south­west­ern part of the region in July 2016. By the autumn of 2017, the pest reached oak woods in the cen­ter of the steppe zone of Krasnodar Krai and forests in the Repub­lic of Adygeya up to the Belaya Riv­er Val­ley in the East, pen­e­trat­ing up to the alti­tude of 1300 m above sea lev­el. First air migra­tion of the bugs through the Main Cau­casian Range to the south-east was observed in May 2018 near heads of Pshish and Pshekha rivers at the alti­tude of 1600–1900 m above sea lev­el. Sub­se­quent­ly the first adults and egg mass­es of the pest were found in the west­ern dis­tricts of the City of Sochi. By July 2018, the pest reached Mzym­ta Riv­er Val­ley and formed 2 gen­er­a­tions in the low­er reach­es of the Dagomys Riv­er. Simul­ta­ne­ous­ly, the first egg mass­es of C. arcu­a­ta were found at the bor­der of Stavropol Krai. By ear­ly Sep­tem­ber the pest reached the bor­der of the Repub­lic of Karachai-Cherkessia east­wards of the Urup Riv­er Val­ley, as well as the mid­dle reach­es of the Malaya Laba Riv­er (Umpyr site). Obser­va­tions of 2016–2019 allowed to describe the sea­son­al devel­op­ment and deter­mine the den­si­ty dynam­ics of the life phas­es of C. arcu­a­ta in dif­fer­ent phe­no­log­i­cal peri­ods. Sum of the effec­tive tem­per­a­tures (SET) totals 394 degree-days with the min­i­mum effec­tive tem­per­a­ture of 11.0–12.5 С. Cory­thucha arcu­a­ta nor­mal­ly devel­ops in 3 annu­al gen­er­a­tions in the steppe and for­est-steppe zones and par­tial­ly in the moun­tains in the horn­beamoak forests (at the 10–700 m above sea lev­el) from April to Novem­ber. This cor­re­sponds to the cal­cu­lat­ed SET and the fac­tu­al data obtained in the wild. The 4th gen­er­a­tion was record­ed in the Abrau Penin­su­la. The aver­age num­ber of eggs in an egg mass reach­es 42–46 with the max­i­mum num­ber more than 600. The num­ber of eggs in a sin­gle egg mass increas­es until August. Adults over­win­ter under the bark of decid­u­ous trees (Ulmus, Acer, Cratae­gus), some­times form­ing groups up to 115 spec­i­mens per square decime­ter. Migra­tions of adults are observed after hiber­na­tion, after com­ple­tion of the devel­op­ment of each gen­er­a­tion, and before over­win­ter­ing. Indi­vid­u­als of dif­fer­ent gen­er­a­tions can simul­ta­ne­ous­ly devel­op at dif­fer­ent alti­tu­di­nal zones at close dis­tance from each oth­er from June to Sep­tem­ber. This sig­nif­i­cant­ly com­pli­cates prog­no­sis of the oak leaf dam­age (which dis­tri­b­u­tion area in the region exceed­ed 800 thou­sand hectares in 2018), with­out tak­ing the wind rose into account, as well as the imple­men­ta­tion of any pro­tec­tive mea­sures in nat­ur­al forests.

Key­words: North­west­ern Cau­ca­sus, Krasnodar region, adven­tive pest of oak, the sea­son­al rhythm, ima­go migra­tion, mass repro­duc­tion foci

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2. ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ ФАУНЫ ЧЛЕНИСТОНОГИХ-ФИТОФАГОВ

Zhuko­va E.A. Phyl­lophagous arthro­pods of lime trees in the Sum­mer Gar­den after its restora­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 88–103 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.88–103

Abstract

Lime trees (genus Tilia) make 95.4% of the trees in the Sum­mer Gar­den, Saint Peters­burg. The mon­i­tor­ing of the state of trees and shrubs in the gar­den with lime trees in par­tic­u­lar has been car­ried out since 2012. There are 29 species of phyl­lophages on lime trees, how­ev­er only 9 species cause sig­nif­i­cant dam­age and the dam­age rate depends on the weath­er con­di­tions. For instance, in some years, there was a mass repro­duc­tion of Erio­phyes leio­so­ma Nalepa (main­ly on young trees), Oper­oph­tera bru­ma­ta L., Eran­nis defo­liaria Cler­ck, Cos­mia trapez­i­na L., Caliroa annulipes Klug, and Eucal­lipterus tili­ae Schrank, while in oth­er years there was a notice­able decline in these species’ abun­dance. It is not­ed that in old-age lime trees dam­age is most­ly caused by Schizote­trany­chus telar­ius L. and Phyl­lono­ryc­ter issikii Kuma­ta. How­ev­er, on young spec­i­mens plant­ed in the trel­lis­es and berceaux, despite the high occur­rence of the phyl­lophages, due to care mea­sures the dam­age rate decreased since 2014 and have not exceed­ed 10%. More­over, in some years only iso­lat­ed injuries were not­ed. The mass repro­duc­tion of Buc­cu­la­trix tho­ra­cel­la Thun­berg on the plant­ed lime trees in the trel­lis­es and berceaux, observed since 2011, decreased by 2014 to sin­gle occurences and did not exceed 10% in the fol­low­ing years. The occur­rence of oth­er species is main­ly 5–10%, and the dam­age caused by them is usu­al­ly sporadic. 

Key­words: Sum­mer gar­den, phyl­lophagy, lime

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Karpun N.N. Fea­tures of for­ma­tion of den­drofagous inva­sive pest fau­na in the humid sub­trop­ics of Rus­sia at the begin­ning of the XXI cen­tu­ry. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 104–119 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.104–119

Abstract

Humid sub­trop­ics of the Russ­ian Black Sea coast are the recip­i­ent region for many inva­sive species of harm­ful organ­isms. At the begin­ning of the XXI cen­tu­ry, 35 new species of den­drophilous insects were iden­ti­fied in the humid sub­trop­i­cal zone of Rus­sia, 26 of which can be con­sid­ered inva­sive: 17 species are new for Rus­sia and 9 are new for the sub­trop­i­cal zone of the Black Sea coast of the Cau­ca­sus. Spe­cial fea­tures of the inva­sive process among phy­tophages were stud­ied using fol­low­ing para­me­ters: tax­o­nom­ic com­po­si­tion, donor regions, vec­tors and path­ways of inva­sion, biotopic dis­tri­b­u­tion of the species and inva­sion dynam­ics. Dur­ing the peri­od of 2000–2017, a decrease in the rep­re­sen­ta­tives of order Hemiptera and an increase in the rep­re­sen­ta­tives of order Lep­i­doptera has been record­ed. In recent years, the largest num­ber of inva­sive species has North Amer­i­can ori­gin rather than East Asian, which was typ­i­cal for the region over the pre­vi­ous one and a half cen­turies. The fol­low­ing inva­sion vec­tors were spec­i­fied for the new­ly record­ed species: unin­ten­tion­al impor­ta­tion with plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al, inva­sion with traf­fic flow, unin­ten­tion­al impor­ta­tion with goods of non-plant ori­gin, inde­pen­dent migra­tion. All inva­sive species of East Asian, Amer­i­can, and Aus­tralian ori­gin are char­ac­ter­ized by two-stage inva­sion, name­ly arriv­ing to Rus­sia from the sec­ondary inva­sive range in Europe. The max­i­mum num­ber of alien species has set­tled in the plan­ta­tions of orna­men­tal species (land­scape ecosys­tems), and this trend is tra­di­tion­al for the region. The rate of inva­sive species on the Black Sea coast of the Cau­ca­sus in the ear­ly XXI cen­tu­ry was once in nine months, which is 7,4 times high­er than in the ear­ly XX century.

Key­words: inva­sion, phy­tophage, pest, humid sub­trop­ics, inva­sive process, woody plants

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Niko­lae­va A.M., Ruchin A.B., Trushit­sy­na O.S., Sevmishin G.B., Trapezniko­va I.V. . Study on the den­dro­biont fau­na of true bugs (Insec­ta, Het­eroptera) by the bar­ri­er trap method. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 120–134 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.120–134

Abstract

The goal of the study was to deter­mine tax­o­nom­ic com­po­si­tion as well as eco­log­i­cal and fau­nis­tic fea­tures of tree species of true bugs (Insec­ta, Het­eroptera). Insects were caught using bar­ri­er traps in two bor­der­ing regions of Rus­sia, Ryazan Region and the Repub­lic of Mor­dovia. The sam­ples were col­lect­ed dur­ing a peri­od of four years (2013–2016). A total of 65 species of Het­eroptera were col­lect­ed, 20 of which were den­dro­bionts. Six new for the region den­dro­biont species were found in the Mor­dovskiy Nature Reserve: Aradus obtec­tus, Aradus betuli­nus, Phy­lus coryli, Pilopho­rus clava­tus, Orius hor­vathi, and Miris stria­tus. Also, we col­lect­ed two species includ­ed in the Red Data Book of the Repub­lic of Mor­dovia: Himacerus apterus and Zicrona caerulea. Almost half of the iden­ti­fied species are preda­tors that reg­u­late abun­dance of harm­ful insects. Among col­lect­ed species, only Aradus сin­namo­meus is a harm­ful phy­tophagous species. True bugs of Ara­di­dae amount­ed 30% of total col­lec­tion. There­fore, the bar­ri­er trap method can be rec­om­mend­ed to use for researchers of this group of Het­eroptera. In total, Het­eroptera com­prised less than 1% of the col­lect­ed insects. The bar­ri­er trap method can be used for study­ing of den­dro­biont Het­eroptera, pro­vid­ed that oth­er col­lec­tion meth­ods are also used. There are nature-sav­ing trap­ping meth­ods that are of cur­rent inter­est to pro­tect­ed areas.

Key­words: Het­eroptera, fau­na, bar­ri­er trap, Mor­dovskiy Nature Reserve, Meshch­er­sky Nation­al Park

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Rozhi­na V.I Data on the fau­na of thrips (Insec­ta: Thysanoptera) of trees and shrubs in Kalin­ingrad Region, Rus­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 135–145 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.135–145

Abstract

The study presents data on the species of thrips (Thysanoptera) col­lect­ed from trees and bush­es in the Kalin­ingrad region in 2013–2018. Thir­ty-three species of thrips were col­lect­ed. Fif­teen species are record­ed for the first time in the Kalin­ingrad region: (Aeolothripser­i­cae, Ae. ver­si­col­or, Ae. melaleu­cus, Myc­terothrips latus, Neo­hy­dаthrips gra­cil­icor­nis, Oxythrips aju­gae, Ox. bicol­or, Tae­nio­thrips incon­se­quens, Thrips cal­cara­tus, Th. minutis­simus, Th. sam­bu­ci, Hap­lothrips sub­tilis­simus, Hoploan­drothrips bidens, Tre­herniel­la infer­na, Xylaplothrips fulig­i­nosus). Most of the iden­ti­fied species are phy­tophagous (79%). All­to­geth­er, 13 species (39%) of iden­ti­fied thrips are den­dro­biont. The den­dro­biont phyl­lophagous species com­prised 24% of all species col­lect­ed. The most com­mon species on flow­er­ing plants was Th. major. This species was found on plants of 9 fam­i­lies. Th. fuscipen­niswas the sec­ond most fre­quent species, it was found on plants from 7 fam­i­lies. In spring and ear­ly sum­mer, the most com­mon and numer­ous species on veg­e­tat­ing non-flow­er­ing plants is Th. minutis­simus it was iden­ti­fied on plants from 6 fam­i­lies. Rep­re­sen­ta­tives of Rosaceae and Adox­ac­eae fam­i­lies are remark­able in thrips species richness.

Key­words: thysanoptera, fau­na, Kalin­ingrad region, thrips, den­dro­biont, tamnobiont

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Fedo­to­va Z.A. Fau­na, troph­ic con­nec­tions, and mor­pho-func­tion­al adap­ta­tions of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyi­idae) form­ing parenchy­mal leaf galls of arbo­re­al and shrub­by plants. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 146–188 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.146–188

Abstract

Gall midges form­ing parenchy­mal leaf galls on trees and shrubs in the world fau­na are rep­re­sent­ed by 108 species (38 gen­era of 12 tribes), most of which belong to the sub­fam­i­ly Lasiopteri­nae (65 species of 25 gen­era). They form galls on 123 plant species (37 gen­era belong­ing to 20 fam­i­lies) of 15 orders from the clades of Super­rosids (47 gall midges), Superas­terids (60 sp.), and Eudi­cots (1 sp.). The high­est num­ber of gall midges (64 species of 13 gen­era) belong to 5 orders of the advanced clade Superas­terids (Caryophyl­lales, Cor­nales, Aster­ales, Dip­sacales, and Lami­ales). The remain­ing 44 species of 25 gen­era belong to 10 orders of the more archa­ic clades of Eudi­cots (Buxales) and Super­rosids (Fabales, Ros­ales, Fagales, Malpi­giales, Celas­trales, Myr­tales, Mal­vales, Sapin­dales, Sax­ifra­gales). The great­est num­ber of host plants in humid habi­tats was found in Sapin­dales, on which devel­op 15 species of gall midges belong­ing to 6 gen­era and on the clade Fagales devel­op 13 species of 7 gen­era. Among arid species the great­est num­ber found in Caryophyl­lales (Ama­ran­thaceae and Polyg­o­naceae) – 56 species of 7 gen­era of the spe­cif­ic tribe Bal­drati­i­ni. Herb host plants are rep­re­sent­ed by the Cam­pan­ulids (Aster­ales) and Lami­ids (Lami­ales) orders, among which Aster­ales dom­i­nates. Groups of gall midges that dif­fer in the degree of mor­pho-func­tion­al adap­ta­tions of adults dur­ing gall for­ma­tion and con­nec­tions with host plants were iden­ti­fied: spe­cif­ic for host gen­era and non-spe­cif­ic (1 genus of gall midges is asso­ci­at­ed with sev­er­al gen­era of one or sev­er­al plant fam­i­lies). In total, 13 mono­typ­ic gen­era of gall midges form­ing parenchy­mal galls were iden­ti­fied (34.2% of 36 gen­era). The pro­por­tion of spe­cif­ic gen­era of gall midges is 57,9% (22 of 38). Mono­typ­ic gen­era include gall midges with spe­cif­ic pierc­ing-type ovipos­i­tors (Monarthropal­pus Rübs., Atraphax­i­o­la Fedo­to­va, Pro­brug­gman­niel­la Möhn и Ribesia Gag­né). Also, the archa­ic con­nec­tions of gall midges with plants are man­i­fest­ed in the species Drisi­na Gia­rd, Acerovesicu­lomyia Fedo­to­va, Lit­chiomyia Yang, Mikomya Kief. (lobed egg-folds) that lay eggs on the sur­face of the leaves of plants of one fam­i­ly (Sapin­daceae, Sapin­dales), which occu­pies a cen­tral place in the phy­lo­ge­net­ic tree of Angiosper­mae. These exam­ples are indi­rect evi­dence of the tran­si­tion of gall midges to gall for­ma­tion dur­ing the peri­od of flour­ish­ing of flow­er­ing plants. Parenchy­mal gall midges are known on the main for­est-form­ing species, and they are dan­ger­ous pests of orna­men­tal and food plants. Adven­tive species of parenchy­mal gall midges are found in all zoo­geo­graph­i­cal regions. 

Key­words: parenchy­mal galls, gall midges, arbo­re­al shrubs, main forest­form­ing species, mor­pho-func­tion­al adap­ta­tions, ovipositors

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3. PROBLEMS OF FOREST PATHOLOGY

Bul­gakov T.S., Bon­darenko-Boriso­va I.V. Xylotroph­ic basid­iomycetes of the Donet­sk Botan­i­cal Gar­den (Donet­sk city, Ukraine): tax­o­nom­ic struc­ture and eсo­log­i­cal fea­tures. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 189–215 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.189–215

Abstract

The arti­cle presents the main results of a long-term study of xylotroph­ic macromycete species com­po­si­tion in the Donet­sk Botan­i­cal Gar­den (Donet­sk city, Ukraine). In total, 84 species of xylotroph­ic macromycetes were found dur­ing 2014–2018, among which 30 species were record­ed here for the first time (com­par­ing to the stud­ies of 1970s), and repeat­ed find­ings con­firmed the pres­ence of 47 of 54 ear­li­er record­ed species. All found xylotroph­ic macromycetes belong to 59 gen­era, 29 fam­i­lies and 8 orders of 2 class­es of the divi­sion Basid­iomy­co­ta (main­ly to the class Agari­comycetes – 83 species, 98.8%), and could be attrib­uted to the 4 tra­di­tion­al arti­fi­cial groups of fun­gi: aphyl­lophoroid – 54 species, agari­coid – 26 species, tremel­loid («gel­ly fun­gi») – 3 species, and gas­teroid fun­gi – 1 species. The most numer­ous orders (by the num­ber of fam­i­lies, gen­era and species) are Agar­i­cales (15 fam­i­lies, 21 genus, 30 species), Poly­po­rales (5 fam­i­lies, 19 gen­era, 26 species), and Hymenochaetales (3 fam­i­lies, 10 gen­era, 14 species) that account for the major­i­ty (83.3%) of all iden­ti­fied species. The quan­ti­ta­tive preva­lence of the fol­low­ing groups were observed: 1) species devel­op­ing on unde­stroyed and poor­ly destroyed wood (81%) over the species devel­op­ing on heav­i­ly destroyed wood (19%); 2) eury­troph­ic species (70.2%) over stenotroph­ic ones (29.8%); 3) phy­topath­o­gen­ic species (60.7%), name­ly fac­ul­ta­tive sapro­trophs and fac­ul­ta­tive par­a­sites, over oblig­ate sapro­trophs (39.3%); 4) species that have annu­al basid­iomes (81%) over species that have peren­ni­al basid­iomes (19%); 5) native species (92.9%) over alien species (7.1%), oblig­ate­ly relat­ed to alien woody plants intro­duced from oth­er regions. 

Key­words: xylotroph­ic macromycetes, wood-destroy­ing fun­gi, aphyl­lophoroid fun­gi, agari­coid fun­gi, woody plants, Donet­sk Botan­i­cal Garden

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Niko­lae­va М.А., Var­entso­va E.Yu. Phy­topa­to­log­i­cal sta­tus and preser­va­tion of spruce in prove­nance tri­als of the Lyuban­sky For­est Dis­trict of Leningrad Region Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 216–233 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.216–233

Abstract

Prove­nance tri­als of spruce, estab­lished on the ter­ri­to­ry of the Lyuban­sky For­est Dis­trict of the Leningrad Region in 1977, are a part of a vast exper­i­ment start­ed on the ter­ri­to­ry of the for­mer USSR. On the basis of the stud­ies per­formed, the first results of the assess­ment of the spruce resis­tance to fun­gal pathogens are pre­sent­ed. The aver­age preser­va­tion of 40-year-old tri­als in the Picea abies prog­e­nies group is 39% and in P. ovo­va­ta is 26%. Dur­ing the whole peri­od of cul­tures’ devel­op­ment north­ern and east­ern prog­e­nies had low­er rate of preser­va­tion. The decrease in the preser­va­tion of prove­nance tri­als is due to fac­tors of geo­graph­i­cal ori­gin of seeds, as well as the lack of selec­tion thin­ning. Foci of necro­sis-can­cer­ous dis­eases and rots were iden­ti­fied. A high dis­tri­b­u­tion rate of necro­sis-can­cer­ous dis­eases (51–62%) was traced to the prog­e­nies of Pskov, Kostro­ma, Myedvezh’egorsk and Segezha cli­matypes. Stem rot is in the ini­tial stage of devel­op­ment: rot­ten knots and fruit­ing bod­ies of pathogens on grow­ing trees have not been found. There are signs of the devel­op­ment of hon­ey fun­gus Armil­lar­ia mel­lea s.l., which caus­es root and butt rot. The state cat­e­go­ry of the object is 2.85, with fluc­tu­a­tions from 2.67–2.76 (P. abies and hybrid forms of P. abies) to 2.95–3.09 (P. оbo­va­ta and its hybrid forms), which indi­cates decline, or strong decline of for­est stands with loss of their sus­tain­abil­i­ty. The low state cat­e­go­ry (3.3–3.4) is not­ed in the prog­e­nies of hybrid forms with P. obo­va­ta prop­er­ties of Karelian-Myedvezh’egorsk and Arkhangel­sk-Ple­set­sk ori­gins. In the group of prog­e­nies P. abies, a sig­nif­i­cant depen­den­cy of the cat­e­go­ry of state on the geo­graph­i­cal ori­gin of seeds was traced: if we go fur­ther to the North and East, the state of the trails is get­ting worse. Among the hybrid forms with the prop­er­ties of P. оbo­va­ta, the east­ern prog­e­nies have the best state. 

Key­words: prove­nance tri­als, spruce, geo­graph­i­cal ori­gin, cli­matype prog­e­ny, preser­va­tion, fun­gal dis­eases, wound can­cer, rot, con­di­tion category

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Prosyan­niko­va I.B., Kravchuk E.A., Repet­skaya A.I., Kadochniko­va V.I Inven­to­ry of the species com­po­si­tion of oblig­ate par­a­sitic plant myco­bio­ta of the pro­tect­ed stow Oak Grove «Lev­ad­ki». Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 234–249 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.234–249

Abstract

The study pro­vides the species inven­to­ry of the oblig­ate phy­topath­o­gen­ic micromycetes of the pro­tect­ed stow Oak Grove «Lev­ad­ki» locat­ed in the Pied­mont Crimea. Plant par­a­sitic fun­gi were col­lect­ed in the plant com­mu­ni­ties of the Oak Grove dur­ing the grow­ing sea­son (April–October) in 2009–2011 and 2017–2018 using the route method. Affect­ed plants or their parts were col­lect­ed and botanized with stan­dard labels. The mate­r­i­al was exam­ined using light microscopy. Phy­topath­o­gen­ic species iden­ti­fi­ca­tion was made based on the pub­lished iden­ti­fi­ca­tion keys. Dur­ing the course of the study, 68 species of oblig­ate-par­a­sitic fun­gi from 22 gen­era, 12 fam­i­lies, and 6 orders belong­ing to 3 divi­sions of fun­gi and fun­gi-like organ­isms were iden­ti­fied. The Basid­iomy­co­ta divi­sion was rep­re­sent­ed by 36 species, the over­whelm­ing major­i­ty of which belongs to the order Puc­ciniales. From the divi­sion Ascomy­co­ta we found only pow­dery mildew fun­gi (26 species, Erysiphales). Oomy­co­ta was rep­re­sent­ed by 6 species from the orders Albug­i­nales and Per­onospo­rales. Phy­topath­o­gen­ic fun­gi were record­ed on 70 species from 58 gen­era of 28 fam­i­lies of angiosperms, main­ly of Mag­no­liop­si­da. The largest num­ber of par­a­sitic fun­gi species was reg­is­tered on the fam­i­lies Rosaceae and Aster­aceae (9 and 8 species of par­a­sitic micromycetes, respec­tive­ly), 6 species on the fam­i­ly Lami­aceae, and by 5 species on the fam­i­lies Fabaceae and Ranun­cu­laceae. The men­tioned above plant fam­i­lies host almost half of the total num­ber of the iden­ti­fied path­o­gen­ic species. Five species are new to the Crimea:Erysiphe friesii, Phyl­lac­tinia corni, Puc­cinia stachy­dis, Sporiso­ri­um andro­pogo­nis, and Uro­cys­tis ranun­culi.

Key­words: plant oblig­ate par­a­sitic fun­gi, host plants, pro­tect­ed stow Oak Grove “Lev­ad­ki”, Pied­mont Crimea

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Senasho­va V.A., Safrono­va I.Ye., Vilko­va T.L Phy­topath­o­gen­ic micromycetes of Scots pine (Рinus sylvestris L.) in the ter­ri­to­ry of the Low­er Pri­an­garye. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 250–265 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.250–265

Abstract

Nat­ur­al for­est regen­er­a­tion plays an impor­tant role in the enhance­ment of eco­log­i­cal integri­ty of the region and is a key to a sus­tain­able forestry. To estab­lish new for­est plan­ta­tions, exten­sive knowl­edge of phy­tosan­i­tary sit­u­a­tion is required. The goal of our research was to study phy­topath­o­gen­ic micromycetes that cause the decline in Scots pine seedlings in the Low­er Pri­an­garye. The study was car­ried out dur­ing the peri­od from 1996 to 2016 at a for­est nurs­ery (Yeni­sei forestry Mak­lakovsky nurs­ery) and nat­ur­al forests (Gre­muchin­skoe, Manzen­skoe, and Moty­gin­skoe fore­stries). Macro­scop­ic, micro­scop­ic, and myco­log­i­cal meth­ods were used. The type of sporu­la­tion of micromycetes, the struc­ture of fruit bod­ies, the size of spores and their loca­tions were used for the analy­sis. We iden­ti­fied the fol­low­ing ascomycetes that cause the pine nee­dle dis­eases, both in the seedlings and young pines: Lopho­der­mi­um sedi­tio­sum Minter, Sta­ley & Mil­lar, Lopho­der­mi­um pinas­tri (Schrad.) Chevall., Grem­me­nia infes­tans (P. Karst.) Crous (=Phacid­i­um infes­tans P. Karst.), Cycla­neusma minus (Butin) DiCos­mo, Pere­do & Minter. In a for­est nurs­ery con­di­tions, vas­cu­lar dam­age of seedlings due to the activ­i­ty of the fun­gi Alternar­ia sp., Fusar­i­um sp., Ver­ti­cil­li­um sp. were diag­nosed. The most com­mon dis­ease of Scots pine in the juve­nile stage among all seedlings of arti­fi­cial and nat­ur­al plan­ta­tions was Lopho­der­mi­um nee­dle cast. In the nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion con­di­tions, the dam­age caused by Sarea dif­formis was a codom­i­nant dis­ease. At the same time, the great­est preva­lence of pine under­growth infect­ed with this pathogen was reg­is­tered in the lichen pine for­est, while the low­est – was in the sedge-forb forest. 

Key­words: nat­ur­al renew­al, phy­topath­o­gen­ic micromycetes, nee­dle dis­eases, dis­eases of conif­er­ous seedlings and under­growth, Bia­torel­la canker

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Cher­pakov V.V. Nature of the Dutch elm dis­ease: new aspects of diag­nos­tics, patho­gen­e­sis, and eti­ol­o­gy. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 266–293 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.266–293

Abstract

Dis­cor­dance on estab­lish­ing the prime cause of the Dutch elm dis­ease (DED) arose soon after its dis­cov­ery in 1918. Through the years dif­fer­ent caus­es were spec­i­fied in lit­er­a­ture: phy­topath­o­gen­ic bac­te­ria (Bacil­lus amylovorus, Micro­coc­cus ulmi, Pseudomonas lig­ni­co­la) and fun­gi Ophios­toma (Cer­atostomel­la) ulmi (Graphi­um ulmi). The bac­te­r­i­al drop­sy togeth­er with obstruc­tion of ves­sels was described in 1937. Hence, even 80–100 years ago the mixed eti­ol­o­gy was not­ed. How­ev­er, bac­te­rios­es were con­sid­ered as a doubt­ful rea­son. Lat­er on, an aggres­sive pathogen Ophios­toma novo-ulmi and close species – O. himal-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi sub­sp. novo-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi sub­sp. amer­i­cana were found. At the same time, bac­te­r­i­al drop­sy (Pec­to­bac­teri­um caro­tovo­rum), fire blight (Erwinia of group Amylovo­ra), Pseudomonas amyg­dali pv. ulmi con­nect­ed to the injuries of bark, and Xylel­la fas­tidiosa caus­ing foliage burn, were revealed on elms. Some species of phy­topath­o­gen­ic bac­te­ria are also involved in symp­toms of DED. The analy­sis of fac­tors of patho­gen­e­sis of G. ulmi shows ambi­gu­i­ty of their man­i­fes­ta­tion in DED symp­toms. The aggres­siv­i­ty of O. novo-ulmi was not in patho­gen­e­sis, these fun­gi force anoth­er species O. ulmi out. Prod­ucts of bac­te­ria metab­o­lism (acid, gas, and enzymes) destroy cel­lu­lose, lignin cell walls, mid­dle plate, and starch, caus­ing gum, spu­tum, exu­date, block­age of ves­sels, necro­sis, mac­er­a­tion, cracks of bark and wood. Graphio­sis set­tles on the pre­pared tis­sues where G. ulmi grows as a fac­ul­ta­tive par­a­site togeth­er with bac­te­ria with­out show­ing any antag­o­nism. It is sug­gest­ed that DED has poly­func­tion­al eti­ol­o­gy of the mixed bac­te­r­i­al and fun­gi ori­gin or inde­pen­dent bac­te­r­i­al ori­gin. Dis­tri­b­u­tion areas of elms, taxa of the Ophios­toma ulmi com­plex and the main bac­te­rios­es of elms have over­lap­ping zones, that sug­gests mixed or asso­ci­at­ed patho­gen­e­sis. The the­o­ry of fun­gal monoin­fec­tion in a prob­lem of DED requires a change of the par­a­digm of phy­topatho­log­i­cal diag­nos­tics and use of metage­nom­ic analy­sis in the diagnostics.

Key­words: dutch elm dis­ease, bac­te­rio­sis, diag­nos­tics, patho­gen­e­sis, etiology

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4. МОНИТОРИНГ И КОНТРОЛЬ ФИТОПАТОГЕНОВ И НАСЕКОМЫХ-ВРЕДИТЕЛЕЙ ДРЕВЕСНЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ

Lyamt­sev N.I. Assess­ment and fore­cast of Siber­ian moth mass prop­a­ga­tion risks in the Kras­no­yarsk Krai forests. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 294–311 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.294–311

Abstract

Fore­cast of Siber­ian moth (Den­drolimus sibir­i­cus Tschetverikov (Lep­i­doptera: Lasio­camp­i­dae) mass repro­duc­tion risk is based on its recur­rence (fre­quen­cy), pop­u­la­tion thresh­old den­si­ty, and favourable weath­er con­di­tions (drought rate). The paper presents an assess­ment of these indi­ca­tors based on lit­er­a­ture data and for­est pathol­o­gy mon­i­tor­ing of the Kras­no­yarsk Krai forests. The analy­sis result­ed in pro­posed pro­ce­dures, mod­els, and algo­rithms to fore­cast the risk of mass repro­duc­tion. The most com­pre­hen­sive are the mul­ti-year data on insect pop­u­la­tion mon­i­tor­ing (pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics phase pat­tern) that enable risk rate assess­ment based on avail­able pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty and repro­duc­tion coef­fi­cient in rela­tion to the thresh­old den­si­ty (5 cater­pil­lars per tree). Such data and pop­u­la­tion stage curve of Siber­ian moth dur­ing 1955–1972 were used for the analy­sis. With the lack of the phase pat­terns, risk pre­dic­tion should be based on ret­ro­spec­tive data (1962–2017) on Siber­ian moth out­break area dynam­ics. Com­par­i­son of aver­age fre­quen­cy of out­break devel­op­ment (11 years pro­vid­ed the most favourable con­di­tions for the insect) and the dura­tion of the peri­od between out­breaks (5 years) with the cur­rent data on these indi­ca­tors enables iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of risk occur­rence tim­ing (year). Risk rate is based on the indi­ca­tors’ excess over the mean assess­ment val­ues. For the mass out­break start, in addi­tion to the thresh­old pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty, dry weath­er is essen­tial. The chance of such weath­er con­di­tions in dark conif­er­ous south taiga forests of the Kras­no­yarsk Krai is 20%, and dur­ing the devel­op­ment of two suc­ceed­ing moth gen­er­a­tions is around 9%. Out­breaks most­ly devel­op at the peak of solar activ­i­ty or right after­wards. Our results enable to ensure the most accu­rate and time­ly mass repro­duc­tion fore­cast due to com­pre­hen­sive appli­ca­tion and inte­gra­tion of information. 

Key­words: siber­ian moth, pop­u­la­tion dynam­ics, mass repro­duc­tion, outbreaks

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Meshko­va V.L. Decline of pine for­est in Ukraine with con­tri­bu­tion from bark bee­tles: caus­es and trends. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 312–335 (In Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.312–335

Abstract

The goal of the research was inte­gra­tion of pub­lished and own data on the con­di­tions for the occur­rence of foci of pine for­est decline and the prospects for mit­i­gat­ing this process. The data were obtained from ref­er­ence mate­ri­als on for­est fund struc­ture in for­est enter­pris­es, for­est health, weath­er con­di­tions, and the results of own field and lab­o­ra­to­ry research (for­est inspec­tions, lab­o­ra­to­ry rear­ing of the bark bee­tles in branch­es, and eval­u­a­tion of pop­u­la­tion para­me­ters). The main para­me­ters of the for­est cli­mat­ic zones (heat, humid­i­ty, and con­ti­nen­tal­i­ty) have changed dur­ing the last decades. This affects forests’ health and their sus­cep­ti­bil­i­ty to bark bee­tle col­o­niza­tion. The increase in the impact of Ips genus bark bee­tles in the com­plex of stem pests in pine forests of Ukraine is per­ti­nent to their mul­ti­vol­tine devel­op­ment. Bee­tles of cer­tain gen­er­a­tions and phe­no­log­i­cal groups of pine engraver bee­tle (Ips acumi­na­tus) col­o­nize weak­ened and wind­thrown trees and log­ging residues dur­ing con­sid­er­able part of veg­e­ta­tion peri­od. A pos­si­bil­i­ty of devel­op­ment of three gen­er­a­tions per year has been proven for Ips acumi­na­tus in Kharkov region (for­est-steppe zone). How­ev­er, quick dry­ing of log­ging residues com­bined with increas­ing tem­per­a­ture may pre­vent the com­ple­tion of pest’s devel­op­ment. Slow dry­ing of har­vest­ed wood and log­ging residues in Pole­sie was an impor­tant rea­son for the inten­sive devel­op­ment of bark bee­tle out­breaks in the region. It was sug­gest­ed to eval­u­ate a poten­tial area of dry­ing for­est in the regions or nat­ur­al zones with con­sid­er­a­tion of the pro­por­tion of pure pine stands and their age. For cer­tain for­est stands, the prox­im­i­ty of every plot to clear-cuts of the last two years must be tak­en into account. The flaws of forestry reg­u­la­to­ry leg­is­la­tion are not­ed. These flaws pre­vent time­ly har­vest­ing of tim­ber in the bark bee­tles’ foci before this tim­ber turns into firewood. 

Key­words: for­est cli­mat­ic zon­ing, pine engraver bee­tle, pre­dic­tion of foci spread, forestry reg­u­la­to­ry framework

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Sidel’nikova M.V., Vlasov D.Yu. Dis­tri­b­u­tion fea­tures of fun­gi dis­eases on trees and shrubs in the parks of the State Muse­um Reserve «Peter­hof». Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 336–351 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.336–351

Abstract

The results of phy­topatho­log­i­cal obser­va­tions of trees and shrubs in the parks of the State Muse­um-Reserve Peter­hof are pre­sent­ed. Col­lec­tion of mate­r­i­al and analy­sis of the plant dis­eases dis­tri­b­u­tion were made in the sum­mer-autumn peri­ods of 2013–2017 (Upper Gar­den and Low­er Park in Peter­hof, Low­er Gar­den and Upper Park of Oranien­baum). The Alexan­dria Park and the Kolonist­sky Park were includ­ed in the research in the sum­mer of 2018. A 120 species of fun­gi (micro- and macromycetes) were found on trees and shrubs in the parks. The major­i­ty of the species (97) were micromycetes. Some of them were asso­ci­at­ed with dis­eases such as pow­dery mildew, spot­ting, rust, and necro­sis. Sapro­troph­ic species were also observed. Most often micromycetes were found on dry branch­es and live leaves. Pow­dery mildew was found on the leaves of oak, maple, alder, pea shrub, hawthorn, lilac, vibur­num, and elder. In most cas­es, the dis­ease had mod­er­ate devel­op­ment, but cov­ered large areas. Leaf spots occur local­ly. In some cas­es, they had a focal char­ac­ter. Some dis­eases of lin­den, larch, and elm were char­ac­ter­ized by high sever­i­ty. Sporu­la­tion of the causative agent of thy­rostro­mo­sis was reg­is­tered every­where on the branch­es of lin­den in the alleys plant­i­ngs as well as on sin­gle stand­ing trees. In total, 23 species of xylotroph­ic macromycetes were iden­ti­fied. In reg­u­lar parts of parks xylotrophs were found more com­mon­ly on liv­ing trees. Species from order the Poly­po­rales were pre­dom­i­nant. A dis­tri­b­u­tion map of macromycetes in the Low­er Park is pre­sent­ed. Pos­si­ble fac­tors affect­ing the dis­tri­b­u­tion and devel­op­ment of fun­gal dis­eases of trees and shrubs on the ter­ri­to­ry of State Muse­um-Reserve Peter­hof are dis­cussed. The dis­tri­b­u­tion of path­o­gen­ic fun­gi in the bio­cenoses of parks can be char­ac­ter­ized as irreg­u­lar. It could be attrib­uted to the com­po­si­tion and den­si­ty of plan­ta­tions, the degree of anthro­pogenic influ­ence on some areas, and fea­tures of the cur­rent plant care. 

Key­words: dis­eases of trees and shrubs, micro­fun­gi, macro­fun­gi, sub­ur­ban parks

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Stcherbako­va L.N., Shevchenko S.V., Moshcheniko­va N.B. The prob­lem of the Dutch elm dis­ease in Saint Peters­burg. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 228, pp. 352–366 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.228.352–366

Abstract

In the recent decade, Dutch elm dis­ease epi­phy­tot­ic has been induc­ing cat­a­stroph­ic elms dieback in Saint Peters­burg. Genet­ic stud­ies showed that there are two fun­gi species caus­ing the Dutch elm dis­ease in Saint Peters­burg, name­ly Оphios­toma ulmi and О. novo-ulmi. Anthro­pogenic fac­tor affects tree defense and favors the spread of the dis­ease. The dynam­ics of the dis­ease cen­ters in Saint Peters­burg dur­ing 2009–2017 is pre­sent­ed. The dis­ease cen­ters are cat­e­go­rized as com­menc­ing, in effect, and ceas­ing. Cur­rent­ly, ran­dom cut­ting of the dis­eased or dead elms with­out rec­om­men­da­tions of phy­topathol­o­gists does not pre­vent the spread of the Dutch elm dis­ease in Saint Peters­burg. We pro­vide revised rec­om­men­da­tions how to improve effi­cien­cy of san­i­ta­tion cuttings.

Key­words: Dutch elm dis­ease, elm dieback eti­ol­o­gy, dis­ease dynam­ics, san­i­ta­tion cutting

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Issue 227
1. FORESTRY

Alek­seev A.S., Guryanov M.O., Gerasi­mo­va A.I. Devel­op­ment of soft­ware for zon­ing of the ter­ri­to­ry by the degree of dam­age to veg­e­ta­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 6–18 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.6–18

Abstract

The cre­ation of soft­ware that allows zon­ing the ter­ri­to­ry by the degree of dam­age to plant veg­e­ta­tion. In the pre­sent­ed arti­cle, two types of pol­lu­tion sources were con­sid­ered – point (chem­i­cal, met­al­lur­gi­cal enter­pris­es, etc.) and lin­ear (motor­ways, pow­er lines, etc.). The method­ol­o­gy for col­lect­ing and pro­cess­ing empir­i­cal data for them is large­ly iden­ti­cal and depends on a num­ber of fac­tors, the main ones being the size of the sur­veyed object, the com­po­nents of ecosys­tems on the basis of which their state, pol­lu­tion scale, etc. are assessed. When study­ing the impact of local pol­lu­tion sources by one of the opti­mal objects of mon­i­tor­ing are stands, the state of which is assessed on per­ma­nent and tem­po­rary tri­al plots laid in plan­ta­tions of the main for­est-form­ing species on dif­fer­ent rai dis­tances from the source. When con­sid­er­ing lin­ear sources of pol­lu­tion, it is not nec­es­sary to take into account the influ­ence of the wind, instead the dis­tance between tri­al plots along the traces is con­sid­ered. Stands in the zone of anthro­pogenic load. In par­tic­u­lar, adja­cent to OJSC «Henkel-ERA» Tosnen­sky dis­trict and street Com­mune of St. Peters­burg. A pro­gram has been devel­oped that allows to esti­mate the spa­tial dis­tri­b­u­tion of veg­e­ta­tion dam­age, iden­ti­fy zones of strong, medi­um and weak dam­age, build maps of dam­age zones and deter­mine the areas of each of the zones. The con­sid­ered method and the soft­ware prod­uct Plant­Zon­ing based on it, can be used in the analy­sis of anthro­pogenic impact on plan­ta­tions in order to deter­mine its spa­tial dynam­ics and sub­se­quent plan­ning of for­est man­age­ment mea­sures aimed at assess­ing and elim­i­nat­ing the dam­age caused, as well as increas­ing the sta­bil­i­ty of plan­ta­tions and their absorp­tive capacity. 

Key­words: anthro­po­ge­neous load, spa­tial place­ment of veg­e­ta­tion dam­age, zon­ing of the ter­ri­to­ry, indices of the state of the trees

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Ale­senkov Yu.M., Ermako­va M.V. Fea­tures of struc­ture of rad­i­cal dark­conif­er­ous for­est stands of Vishera Nature Reserve. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 19–33 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.19–33

Abstract

On the basis of the stan­dard tech­niques the pedi­gree struc­ture of for­est stands and dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees on diam­e­ter of cli­max dark-conif­er­ous stands of the Vishera nation­al Nature Reserve locat­ed in the north­east of Perm Dis­trict (North­ern Urals) is stud­ied and analysed. It is estab­lished that the wood lay­er of the explored cli­max dark­conif­er­ous forests of North­ern Urals has mul­ti­species struc­ture. At dom­i­na­tion of a spruce fir and the fir (up to 5 units) and, sub­stan­tial­ly a birch and, also par­tic­i­pates, the cedar. In type of the wood Fir-spruce fer­ny-tall­grass as the as a part of a for­est stand there is a rowan. Both low-pro­duc­tive, and high­ly pro­duc­tive for­est stands are formed. In a struc­ture of for­est stands of the dark-conif­er­os woods of Vishera Nature Reserve the con­sid­er­able vari­a­tion of trees on diam­e­ter caused both by for­est veg­e­ta­tion con­di­tions of plant­i­ngs, and influ­ence of neg­a­tive nat­ur­al fac­tors – the peri­od­ic local fires and a wind­fall is revealed. Dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees on diam­e­ter in for­est stands, except for post-wind­fall, is well approx­i­mat­ed by the equa­tions of the 2‑nd order. Dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees on diam­e­ter in post-wind­fall dark-conif­er­ous com­mu­ni­ty is best of all described by the equa­tion of the 4‑th order. The con­sid­er­able right-hand asym­me­try of dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees on diam­e­ter for all stud­ied for­est stands, and, in par­tic­u­lar, the affect­ed local fires or a wind­fall is not­ed. Such dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees on diam­e­ter class­es of a trunk reflects process­es of nat­ur­al renew­al and devel­op­ment of for­est stands, long on time. The revealed fea­tures of dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees on pedi­gree struc­ture and of diam­e­ter class­es in the stud­ied rad­i­cal for­est stands demon­strate that even in the con­di­tions of influ­ence of neg­a­tive nat­ur­al fac­tors process­es of nat­ur­al renew­al in gen­er­al, pro­vide main­te­nance of mul­ti­species struc­ture of rad­i­cal plant­i­ngs. How­ev­er, impact of the peri­od­ic local fires neg­a­tive­ly affects renew­al of a cedar.

Key­words: North­ern Urals, rad­i­cal dark-conif­er­ous woods, struc­ture of for­est stands

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Babikov B.V., Shury­gin S.G., Bog­dano­va L.S. Growth of pine stands on the dried lands of the Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 34–44 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.34–44

Abstract

Fea­ture of research­es with assess­ment of change of a con­di­tion of wood plant­i­ngs – need of long study­ing. For com­plex assess­ment of the impact of drainage on for­est bio­geo­cenoses and the envi­ron­ment in Lisi­no by the depart­ment of soil sci­ence and hydrome­lio­ra­tion in 1973 put a con­stant tri­al areas «Mali­novsky». In arti­cle data of 40 sum­mer obser­va­tions of dynam­ics of growth pine for­est stands are giv­en in the drained ter­ri­to­ries. Results of soil research­es and the loud­speak­er of pow­er of peat after drainage are also given. 

Key­words: drainage, pine for­est stands, peat soils, dis­tance between chan­nels, the draft of peat, char­ac­ter­is­tic of a for­est stand

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Zubko A.V., Slepyh V.V. Restora­tion of oak in wal­nut crops in the Cau­casian min­er­al waters region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 45–56 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.45–56

Abstract

Dur­ing the research of the nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion process in the nat­ur­al and arti­fi­cial forests in the Cau­casian Min­er­al Waters region, we have dis­cov­ered poten­tial­ly suc­cess­ful under­growth of the Eng­lish oak (Quer­cus robur L.) and the rock oak (Quer­cus petraea L.) in the degrad­ed arti­fi­cial stands of the wal­nut (Juglans nigra L., Juglans regia L.). The aim of the study was to assess the influ­ence of light inten­si­ty under the for­est canopy on the process of suc­ces­sion in spe­cif­ic for­est con­di­tions. Sev­en sam­ple plots were laid in the wal­nut stands on the south­ern slope of the Verblud Moun­tain (Stavropol­skiy kray). The tax­a­tion indi­ca­tors of a for­est stand, char­ac­ter­is­tics of renew­al process and illu­mi­na­tion under a canopy are described. It is estab­lished that as a result of degra­da­tion there was a change of mono­cul­tur­al wal­nut crops in the direc­tion of mixed com­po­si­tion with the par­tic­i­pa­tion of Eng­lish oak, rock oak, com­mon ash and some oth­er species. This process does not occur uni­form­ly in dif­fer­ent areas, which leads to the for­ma­tion of a vari­ety con­di­tions, most of which influ­enced the resump­tion of oak favor­ably. The num­ber of reli­able under­growth of oak ranges from 1.7 to 7.3 thou­sand units/ha. The high­est num­ber of medi­um and large oak under­growth found in areas where degrad­ed wal­nut stands have come young stands, involv­ing oak 6–8 num­ber of units of the com­po­si­tion. The illu­mi­na­tion over the sur­face of the soil there is between 10 and 23%. The grad­ual nat­ur­al thin­ning of the moth­er canopy in com­bi­na­tion with the mod­er­ate den­si­ty of the under­sto­ry and ground cov­er allowed form­ing opti­mal light­ing con­di­tions for oak undergrowth.

Key­words: nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, under­growth of oak, wal­nut crops, light intensity

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Kerdyashkin A.V., Kerdyashk­i­na G.V. The clas­si­fi­ca­tion of Picеа schrenkiana seeds on the sizes of germs and endosperms. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 57–67 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.57–67

Abstract

The forests of Zailiysky Alatau (1450–2850 m above sea lev­el), con­sist­ing of the Schrenk’s spruce, have the impor­tant slope strength­en­ing, water reg­u­lat­ing and mud pro­tec­tion for­est mean­ing. Mean­while, dur­ing the last cen­tu­ry, the forests have been strong­ly influ­enced by the anthro­pogenic fac­tors (cat­tle graz­ing, fires, etc.), which led to a reduc­tion in the area cov­ered by them, an increase in the num­ber of low-den­si­ty and over­ma­ture stands, a decrease in their pro­tec­tive prop­er­ties. There is the risk of mud­slides, land­slides and avalanch­es. Par­tic­u­lar atten­tion should be giv­en to the high­moun­tain forests, where the sil­vi­cul­tur­al work isn’t car­ried out. There is a spe­cial spruce eco­type and its seeds have very low ger­mi­na­tion. There­fore, the sci­en­tif­ic task was to deter­mine the rea­sons of low seed ger­mi­na­tion. For this pur­pose it was decid­ed to use a X‑ray method. X‑ray method for the seed Schrenk’s spruce was devel­oped. This method allowed us to get the high-qual­i­ty images of seed inter­nal con­tents. The images were tak­en with the fol­low­ing phys­i­cal para­me­ters of appa­ra­tus: amper­age 90 μA, volt­age 40 kV, expo­sure time 15–20 min, with dis­tance from focus of lens to mages 30 cm. The dose of irra­di­a­tion was 2 R in 20 min. The clas­si­fi­ca­tion by seed size of their germs and endosperms is devel­oped. One of the main rea­son of the low seed ger­mi­na­tion in the high­lands is a large num­ber of emp­ty and under­de­vel­oped seeds. There is a cor­re­la­tion between the quan­ti­ty of ger­mi­nat­ing seeds and the seeds with devel­oped endosperms and germs (≥ ¾ of norm). The con­tent of ger­mi­nal seeds with endosperm more than ¾ from norm varies from 19 to 49%. Only a small part (less than 8.5%) among the full seeds had ful­ly devel­oped nor­mal germs, the remain­ing seeds had germs with var­i­ous sizes, or there was not inter­nal con­tent (emp­ty).

Key­words: Schrenk spruce, Zailiysky Alatau, X‑ray, seed ger­mi­na­tion, seed qual­i­ty, seed clas­si­fi­ca­tion, endosperm, germ

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Novikov A.I. Tech­nol­o­gy of Scotch Pine Seeds Grad­ing on a Quan­ti­ta­tive Attribute: Some Results of Appro­ba­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 68–87 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.68–87

Abstract

The choice of mech­a­nized tech­nol­o­gy of Scots pine seeds grad­ing is depends on the high­est prob­a­bil­i­ty of obtain­ing a pos­i­tive result at an ear­ly stage onto­ge­n­e­sis. How­ev­er, very lit­tle infor­ma­tion about seedlings growth and rel­a­tive growth rate from seeds simul­ta­ne­ous­ly grad­ed by col­or and size. The object of obser­va­tion was the seeds grad­ing tech­nol­o­gy, and the sub­ject – Scots pine seedlings dur­ing the first grow­ing sea­son on the open ground site. Seeds grad­ed by stan­dard opti­cal sep­a­ra­tor into three col­or groups and then each group grad­ed by stan­dard screen sep­a­ra­tor into two size groups using a sieve with round holes of 2.5 and 3.5 mm. The rota­tion of con­tain­er-grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, includ­ing plant­i­ng and cul­tur­al care, car­ried out on stan­dard equip­ment of the Voronezh for­est selec­tion seed-grow­ing cen­tre in the peri­od from may to Octo­ber 2017. The result­ing con­tain­er-grown seedlings of six groups were imme­di­ate­ly plant­ed under the sword of Kolesov in the bot­tom of the fur­row on the test site. The site is locat­ed on the pyro­genic dis­turbed lands of the left-Bank forestry of the edu­ca­tion­al and exper­i­men­tal forestry of the Voronezh State Uni­ver­si­ty of Forestry and Tech­nolo­gies named after G.F. Moro­zov. At the first juve­nile stage of 2018, the height and sur­vival of seedlings were con­trolled from may to Sep­tem­ber, once every 33–34 days. The results were processed by bio­met­ric analy­sis. The rel­a­tive growth rate of seedlings was cal­cu­lat­ed, as well as the asym­me­try and kur­to­sis of the height dis­tri­b­u­tion. It is estab­lished that the design of devices for rapid analy­sis and sort­ing of seeds and the devel­op­ment of the algo­rithm of pre-treat­ment process must take into account the influ­ence of both qual­i­ta­tive and quan­ti­ta­tive para­me­ters. For exam­ple, it is sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant to sep­a­rate large dark seeds for aer­i­al seed­ing, the seedlings of which have high val­ues of the rel­a­tive growth rate and sur­vival rate. In order to pro­vide opti­mal feed­ing area and clas­si­fi­ca­tion for con­tain­er seedling pro­duc­tion, it is sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant to sep­a­rate light large and dark small as giv­ing seedlings with max­i­mum and min­i­mum heights, respec­tive­ly. The results of the study are to some extent con­sis­tent with the pre­vi­ous­ly known data on the onto­ge­n­e­sis of Scots pine, spec­i­fy­ing them at the stage of pre-sow­ing prepa­ra­tion fea­tures of the effect of simul­ta­ne­ous sep­a­ra­tion of seeds by spec­tro­met­ric and dimen­sion­al char­ac­ter­is­tics on the growth and devel­op­ment of seedlings. It should be not­ed that there are many ques­tions that require addi­tion­al research: whether the nature of the dis­tri­b­u­tion of the para­me­ters of seedlings remains con­stant in the sub­se­quent stages of onto­ge­n­e­sis or the data obtained? Is the vari­abil­i­ty of the seedling height fac­tor a result of the influ­ence of exter­nal fac­tors only? Is the genet­ic diver­si­ty of repro­duc­tive mate­r­i­al impaired by this technology?

Key­words: tech­nol­o­gy, seeds grad­ing, tech­no­log­i­cal scheme, Scots pine seeds, quan­ti­ta­tive attribute, seed size, seed coat col­or, seedlings, rel­a­tive growth rate, RGR, juve­nile stage, asym­me­try, kur­to­sis, reforestation

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Pakharko­va N.V., Kuzmi­na N.A., Kuznetso­va G.V., Kuzmin S.R. Diag­nos­tics of genus Pinus rep­re­sen­ta­tives resis­tance to peri­od­i­cal tem­per­a­ture increas­es dur­ing win­ter-spring peri­od. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 88–106 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.88–106

Abstract

The research address­es intraspe­cif­ic dif­fer­ences between some species of genus Pinus (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus sibir­i­ca and Рinus koraien­sis) in resis­tance to tem­per­a­ture increase dur­ing win­ter-spring peri­od. The objects of the research are arti­fi­cial plan­ta­tions of these species of dif­fer­ent ori­gin. For the study of trees dor­mant peri­od acti­va­tion and break­ing the method of curves reg­is­tra­tion of ther­mal induced changes of zero flu­o­res­cence lev­el was used, also chloro­phylls and abscisic acid per­cent­age in nee­dles was deter­mined. After analy­sis of intraspe­cif­ic dif­fer­ences, it was revealed that in the prove­nance tri­al of Kras­no­yarsk krai north­ern cli­matypes (in com­par­i­son with south­ern) have high­er speed of pho­to­syn­thet­ic activ­i­ty increase dur­ing win­ter dor­man­cy break­ing. Sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences were revealed between Scots pine cli­matypes: boguchany and bal­gazyn (p0.001); Siber­ian stone pine cli­matypes: ermakovskoe and she­garsky (p0.01) and Kore­an stone pine cli­matypes: obluchye and chuguev­ka (p 0.01). In the nee­dles of north­ern cli­matypes, which were evo­lu­tion­ary formed in cold­er regions, in ear­ly spring peri­od the per­cent­age of pho­to­syn­thet­ic pig­ments is high­er than in plants of south­ern cli­matypes. Along with small­er dor­man­cy depth, it indi­cates high poten­tial readi­ness of north­ern plants to renew­al of pho­to­syn­thet­ic activ­i­ty. The amount of abscisic acid, as dor­man­cy indi­ca­tor in close to win­ter peri­od, is clear high­er in the nee­dles of south­ern cli­matypes than in north­ern ones for all stud­ied species. As a result it could be con­clud­ed, that rep­re­sen­ta­tives of south­ern cli­matypes of all three species of genus Pinus have big­ger win­ter dor­man­cy depth and high­er resis­tance to peri­od­i­cal tem­per­a­ture increas­es. In future for for­est cul­ti­va­tion in peri­od of essen­tial cli­mate change, it could be advis­able to use seed and plant mate­r­i­al from south­ern cli­matypes for min­i­miza­tion of plant mate­r­i­al loss­es dur­ing win­ter peri­od from phys­i­o­log­i­cal dehydration.

Key­words: Pinus, prove­nance tri­al, cli­mate change, win­ter dor­man­cy, flu­o­res­cence, chlorophyll

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Dang Viet Hung, Phan Van Dung, Potokin A.F. Diver­si­ty of med­i­c­i­nal plants in the com­po­si­tion forestry veg­e­ta­tion on the ter­ri­to­ry of reserve «Dong Nai», Viet­nam. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 107–122 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.107–122

Abstract

Viet­nam is one of the rich­est coun­tries in the world in nat­ur­al resources. In this regard, Viet­nam dif­fers from many coun­tries in very rich veg­e­ta­tion. The plant resources of Viet­nam play an impor­tant role in the coun­try’s econ­o­my. In Viet Nam, there are 4 main cen­ters of bio­di­ver­si­ty: Hoang Lien Son, South and Cen­tral Truong Son, Tay Nguyen and the East­ern Nam Bo. Dong Nai nature reserve is locat­ed in the vicin­i­ty of East­ern Nam Bo. In this regard, the ter­ri­to­ry of the reserve is the most rel­e­vant for the study of bio­di­ver­si­ty, as in this ter­ri­to­ry there are quite a lot of endem­ic plant species and species list­ed in the Red book. The objects for research were for­est ecosys­tems on the ter­ri­to­ry of Dong Nai reserve. Eco­log­i­cal and geo­graph­i­cal analy­sis of the species com­po­si­tion of forests in the reserve indi­cates cer­tain links between regions and envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions, reveals their envi­ron­men­tal speci­fici­ty. Geob­otan­i­cal and floris­tic research was car­ried out on 10 test sites. The com­po­si­tion of the veg­e­ta­tion of the reserve iden­ti­fied 4 groups of for­ma­tions: ever­green broad-leaved trop­i­cal rain for­est, decid­u­ous trop­i­cal moist decid­u­ous trop­i­cal for­est, decid­u­ous trop­i­cal moist decid­u­ous for­est, for­est plan­ta­tion. The analy­sis of the flo­ra of Dong Nai reserve revealed 1401 species of plants, 540 species of med­i­c­i­nal plants belong­ing to 365 gen­era and 117 fam­i­lies. Accord­ing to the phar­ma­co­log­i­cal analy­sis of the use of the iden­ti­fied med­i­c­i­nal plants, 7 groups in the areas of use were iden­ti­fied. Of these, the largest num­ber of species are: med­i­c­i­nal plants used in dis­eases of the gas­troin­testi­nal tract – 140 species (25,9%); med­i­c­i­nal plants used in bone frac­tures – 112 species (20,7%).

Key­words: bio­di­ver­si­ty, med­i­c­i­nal plants, veg­e­ta­tion, Dong Nai reserve

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Polyako­va A.Yu. Water-phys­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil of the Palace park in Gatchi­na. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 123–133 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.123–133

Abstract

The arti­cle deals with the phys­i­cal and water-phys­i­cal indi­ca­tors of the soils of the Palace Park. Sev­en sites of the park, four of which are islands, were explored. The influ­ence of bulk and allu­vial soils on the stud­ied water-phys­i­cal prop­er­ties is shown. The den­si­ty and the humid­i­ty of soil hori­zons has been deter­mined. To inter­pret the water-phys­i­cal para­me­ters, the weight­ed aver­age humid­i­ty was cal­cu­lat­ed. For the com­par­ing of the plots accord­ing to the degree of mois­ture the water reserves in the top soil lay­er with a thick­ness of 30 cm and 50 cm were cal­cu­lat­ed. The prob­a­bil­i­ty of flood­ing of root-occu­pied soil hori­zons was deter­mined. The rela­tion­ship of indi­ca­tors (den­si­ty, ground­wa­ter lev­el) with human inter­ven­tion in the park envi­ron­ment is con­sid­ered. It is pro­posed to improve the water regime of the soil by adding fer­tile soil to the islands and to low­er areas of the park, also the plan­ning of the restora­tion with ele­ments of recon­struc­tion is offered.

Key­words: water regime of soil, humid­i­ty, den­si­ty, pro­duc­tive mois­ture, water sup­ply in the soil lay­er, wilt­ing humid­i­ty, root zone, loose soil, prob­a­bil­i­ty of flood­ing of the soil hori­zon, allu­vial soils

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Tolkach O.V., Zalesov S.B., Frey­berg I.A. Archi­tec­ton­ics of the root sys­tem of Pinus Sylvestris L. in artif­i­cal forests at solonet­zes in Trans-Ural for­est-steppe. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 134–148 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.134–148

Abstract

The Trans-Ural for­est-steppe is char­ac­ter­ized by a com­plex soil cov­er, which is deter­mined by the large var­ie­ga­tion of the par­ent under­ly­ing rocks, often sat­u­rat­ed with read­i­ly sol­u­ble salts. The sec­ond type of soils is rep­re­sent­ed by var­i­ous solonet­zes. Arti­fi­cial for­est plan­ta­tions aged 8 to 27 years of the Trans-Ural for­est-steppe are inves­ti­gat­ed. The objects of the study are con­fined to saline soils that dif­fer in the com­po­si­tion of salts, the degree of salin­i­ty, the upper bound­ary of salin­i­ty, and the thick­ness of the supra-solonetz hori­zon. To assess the pos­si­bil­i­ty of adapt­ing woody plants to saline soils, they attract­ed such para­me­ters as the ash residue of the nee­dles and its com­po­si­tion. The idea of salt tol­er­ance of plants can be com­piled on the basis of study­ing the archi­tec­ton­ics of the root sys­tem and the con­tent of tox­ic salts in its zone of dis­tri­b­u­tion. On the sam­ple plots, a study was made of the root sys­tems of pine trees. The inves­ti­ga­tion of the pine root sys­tem was aimed at iden­ti­fy­ing pine salt tol­er­ance lim­its for the region of the Trans-Ural for­est-steppe and the influ­ence of the mechan­i­cal bar­ri­er of the colum­nar illu­vial hori­zon of solonetz soil, the hard­ness of which is 17–30 kg/cm2. It is estab­lished that in pine forests in plan­ta­tions on solonets of the Trans-Ural for­est-steppe there are no adap­tive reac­tions to the spe­cif­ic con­di­tions of the lat­ter, which is expressed in the low­er ash con­tent of the nee­dles and a high­er con­tent of sesquiox­ides in com­par­i­son with the saline (solon­chak) forms of pine. The root sys­tem of the pine, pen­e­trat­ing into the soil, pass­es through a dense and firm solonets hori­zon and branch­es into it. The bound­ary of root prop­a­ga­tion deep into the soil is formed by soil lay­ers con­tain­ing tox­ic amounts of read­i­ly sol­u­ble salts. Pine quite sat­is­fac­to­ri­ly grows on mead­ow-steppe solonet­zes with tox­ic con­tent of HCO3 ‑0.065%, Cl – 0.02%, SO4 – 0.181% (in the pres­ence of gyp­sum 0.885%) in the soil root zone. In mead­ow solonet­zes, the pine tol­er­ates the con­tent of Cl ions to 0.03%, CO3 to 0.005%.

Key­words: solonet­zes, Scotch pine, archi­tec­ton­ics of the root sys­tem, for­est arti­fi­cial, Trans-Ural forest-steppe

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Adon­ina N.P. Sys­tem­at­ic Review of the col­lec­tion of trop­i­cal and sub­trop­i­cal plants of the Botan­i­cal Gar­den of Saint Peters­burg State For­est Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty­on the basis of mod­ern inter­na­tion­al clas­si­fi­ca­tions. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 149–173 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.149–173

Abstract

The his­to­ry of the col­lec­tion of trop­i­cal and sub­trop­i­cal plants of the Botan­i­cal Gar­den of St. Peters­burg State For­est Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty is 175 years old. It dates back to 1834, when the first green­house was built on the ter­ri­to­ry of the St. Peters­burg For­est Insti­tute. For almost two cen­turies, the col­lec­tion was formed and used to sup­port the edu­ca­tion­process. In XIX and ear­ly XX cen­turies cat­a­loging of col­lec­tion funds was car­ried out accord­ing to the sys­tem of A. Engler, start­ing from 1980s, accord­ing to the sys­tem of A.L. Tah­ta­jyan. The paper presents a review of the col­lec­tion of trop­i­cal and sub­trop­i­cal plants based on mod­ern inter­na­tion­al clas­si­fi­ca­tions (APG IV, PPG I, etc.), based on mol­e­c­u­lar stud­ies. The col­lec­tion accounts for 1344 tax­ons of which 996 species, 65 vari­etiesand 283 cul­ti­vars. All plants belong to the class Equi­se­top­si­da C.Agardh, and are includ­ed in 7 sub­class­es, 53 orders, 124 fam­i­lies and 428 gen­era. The pteri­do­phyte col­lec­tion is rep­re­sent­ed by three orders and includes 14 fam­i­lies, 25 gen­era, 52 species and 14 cul­ti­vars (66 taxa).The angiosperm col­lec­tions have one sub­class Mag­no­li­idae, 10 super­orders, 41 orders, 101 fam­i­lies, 386 gen­era, 920 species, 65 vari­eties, 264 cul­ti­vars (1249 taxa). This inter­na­tion­al­ly uni­fied approach to the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of plants is an impor­tant step in strength­en­ing the inter­na­tion­al stan­dard­iza­tion of training

Key­words: Angiosperm Phy­loge­ny Group, angiosperms, gym­nosperms, liv­ing col­lec­tions, pteri­do­phytes, Pteri­do­phyte Phy­loge­ny Group, trop­i­cal and sub­trop­i­cal plants, vas­cu­lar plants

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Kadatskaya M.M., Vino­gradov A.Yu., Kat­sadze V.A., Belenkiy Yu.I., Bacherikov I.V., Hvalev S.V., Kalyashov V.A. Analy­sis of meth­ods for cal­cu­lat­ing non-erod­ing speed in the design of cul­verts and drainage forestry facil­i­ties. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 174–187 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.174–187

Abstract

To improve the effi­cien­cy of any log­ging pro­duc­tion, it is nec­es­sary to design high­qual­i­ty recla­ma­tion and trans­port routes in the exploit­ed for­est resource base. One of the main para­me­ters in engi­neer­ing prac­tice in cal­cu­lat­ing and design­ing small for­est hydraulic struc­tures and road drainage sys­tems is non-erod­ing speed – the high­est val­ue of the aver­age water flow rate, at which, under con­di­tions of a uni­form flow regime and small bot­tom slopes, only cer­tain par­ti­cles of the soil of a giv­en par­ti­cle size are observed their break­down. The arti­cle rais­es the ques­tion of the ambi­gu­i­ty of the results of apply­ing the exist­ing method­olo­gies for deter­min­ing this para­me­ter for non-cohe­sive soils. The arti­cle car­ried out cal­cu­la­tions and ana­lyzed the results obtained by 7 main meth­ods for cal­cu­lat­ing non-erod­ing speeds, com­pared the obtained val­ues with tab­u­lar ones in reg­u­la­to­ry doc­u­ments, ana­lyzed incon­sis­ten­cies in var­i­ous lit­er­a­ture sources using the same cal­cu­la­tion meth­ods. A sta­tis­ti­cal analy­sis of the results was car­ried out, the results of field obser­va­tions of the ero­sion of bot­tom sed­i­ments at the post Mint­se­vo of the Porus­sia riv­er per­formed in 2017–2018 and their com­par­i­son with the cal­cu­lat­ed val­ues, are pre­sent­ed. As a result of the analy­sis, the fol­low­ing con­clu­sions were obtained: the cal­cu­lat­ed depen­dence of the bot­tom speed on the depth of the flow and the par­ti­cle diam­e­ter of the erod­ed bot­tom area was estab­lished; Cal­cu­lat­ed and tab­u­lat­ed val­ues of ero­sion rates may dif­fer from those observed by 40% or more, which leads either to an unjus­ti­fied rise in the cost of con­struc­tion of small hydraulic and cul­vert road con­struc­tions of the for­est indus­try, or to ero­sion of the blind area of drainage canals and engi­neer­ing struc­tures with pos­si­ble sub­se­quent destruc­tion. Based on the results of the work, it is pro­posed to devel­op a mod­el for esti­mat­ing the bot­tom non-erod­ing speed, which takes into account the phys­i­cal essence of the inter­ac­tion between the water flow and the channel.

Key­words: non-erod­ing speed, non-cohe­sive soils, strength­en­ing of the bridge sec­tions of the riverbed

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Vlasov Yu.N. The­o­ret­i­cal study of the effect of pro­cess­ing time and mould­ing speed on den­si­ty of saw­dust bri­quettes. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 188–198 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.188–198

Abstract

The arti­cle is devot­ed to devel­op­ment and research of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of mould­ing of saw­dust, which estab­lish­es rela­tion­ship between den­si­ty of the bri­quettes, speed of a work­ing body and press­ing pres­sure. The­o­ret­i­cal basis of the study includes posi­tions of strained medi­um mechan­ics. Mod­el of Bing­ham elas­tic-vis­cous-plas­tic body was used as a rhe­o­log­i­cal mod­el of the raw mate­r­i­al to be mould­ed, the mod­el para­me­ters were adopt­ed as non-lin­ear func­tions of the den­si­ty of the saw­dust. The study used clas­si­cal numer­i­cal Runge-Kut­ta method when solv­ing non­lin­ear dif­fer­en­tial equa­tion of the stress-strain state of the mate­r­i­al being mould­ed. As shown by the results of cal­cu­la­tions, at con­stant press­ing pres­sure, the den­si­ty of the bri­quette varies non­lin­ear­ly over pro­cess­ing time and has a lim­it, reach­ing 1 g/cm3 at the pres­sure of 50 MPa, 1.2 g/cm3 at the pres­sure of 100 MPa, and 1.25 g/cm3 at the pres­sure of 150 MPa. After unload­ing, the bri­quette depress­ing occurs with­in 2–3%. It has been estab­lished, that the used rhe­o­log­i­cal mod­el of Bing­ham body with vari­able val­ues of its para­me­ters makes it pos­si­ble to take into account phys­i­cal pic­ture of mould­ing of saw­dust. The min­i­mum thresh­old val­ue of ratio­nal time of the pro­cess­ing has been deter­mined (for exam­ple, when the time of the pro­cess­ing is less than 60 s at a press­ing pres­sure of 150 MPa,the bri­quette den­si­ty will be less than 1.1 g/cm3). Pro­cess­ing the cal­cu­la­tion results also allowed us to obtain approx­i­mate equa­tion for esti­mat­ing the den­si­ty of the bri­quette depend­ing on the ini­tial den­si­ty of the raw mate­r­i­al, press­ing pres­sure and the pro­cess­ing time, and one more equa­tion for esti­mat­ing the required press­ing pres­sure depend­ing on the ini­tial and required den­si­ty of the bri­quette, pro­cess­ing time or con­stant speed. The equa­tions can be used at the ini­tial stage of design­ing the tech­no­log­i­cal process of saw­dust bri­quet­ting in order to estab­lish a ratio­nal range of the press oper­at­ing modes depend­ing on require­ments for the final product.

Key­words: fuel bri­quettes, waste wood pro­cess­ing, Bing­ham mod­el, press­ing pres­sure, press equip­ment oper­a­tion modes

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Mohamed A.Kh., Turin N.A. Opti­miza­tion of the orga­ni­za­tion of the for­est road con­struc­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 199–208 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.199–208

Abstract

The main pur­pose of this work is to opti­mize the earth­mov­ing machin­ery uti­liza­tion in the for­est road con­struc­tion, by min­i­mize the oper­at­ing cost. That goal may achieve by the opti­mal dis­tri­b­u­tion of the machine com­bi­na­tion in the con­struc­tion sites, with the abil­i­ty of rent­ing addi­tion­al machines. Eco­nom­i­cal math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el has been devel­oped for cal­cu­lat­ing the effec­tive struc­ture of the machine group to achieve the required pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. The pos­si­bil­i­ty of hire and rent machines allows the man­ag­er to improve the tech­ni­cal eco­nom­ic deci­sion for the machines oper­a­tion. By using the devel­oped mod­el it can gives good results to hav­ing bet­ter deci­sions for plan­ning and design­ing the earth work­ing oper­a­tions in the road con­struc­tion com­pa­nies, ren­o­va­tion of the machine parks, as well as the choos­ing the best option for using the exist­ing machine com­bi­na­tion, pre­dict­ing the dura­tion and pre­dict­ing the cost of the whole work.

Key­words: opti­miz­ing the uti­liza­tion of the road con­struc­tion machine, earth work­ing, com­bi­na­tion of the road con­struc­tion machines, cost min­i­miza­tion, the rent of road con­struc­tion equipment

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Zubo­va O.V., Silet­skiy V.V., Turin N.A., Grom­skaya L.Ya., Antono­va T.S. Research of the process of struc­ture for­ma­tion with the strength­en­ing of organ­ic sed­i­ments of wash water of the Vodokanal State Uni­tary Enter­prise with com­plex binde. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 209–223 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.209–223

Abstract

In research­es appli­ca­tion of the deposit of wash­ing waters SUE Vodokanal of SPb strength­ened organ­ic and min­er­al knit­ting, as road-build­ing mate­r­i­al with high physi­co­me­chan­i­cal indi­ca­tors and the increased frost resis­tance and also low heat con­duc­tiv­i­ty is con­sid­ered. Results of a research of mix of the deposit of wash­ing waters strength­ened by nepheline slime, bitu­men and a port­landtse­ment of M‑400 brand are pre­sent­ed. The received indi­ca­tors con­firm a pos­si­bil­i­ty of use of this mix at con­struc­tion of a road bed, con­struc­tion pro­tect­ing from frost and the heat-insu­lat­ing lay­ers of the road bases. Use of the received mate­r­i­al also pos­i­tive­ly will affect an eco­log­i­cal con­di­tion of the North­west region as dur­ing cre­ation of mate­r­i­al indus­try waste is encap­su­lat­ed that allows to uti­lize them with­out harm to the environment.

Key­words: nepheline sludge, for­est roads, wash water sed­i­ment, bitumen

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Tjurin N.A., Grom­skaya L.Ya., Antono­va T.S. Zubo­va O.V., Silet­skiy V.V. Opti­miza­tion loca­tion of for­est fire sta­tions. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 224–235 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.224–235

Abstract

The arti­cle deals with the place­ment of for­est fire-chem­i­cal sta­tions in order to min­i­mize the time of arrival at the place of extin­guish­ing for­est fires. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el and method of ratio­nal ter­ri­to­r­i­al loca­tion of fire-chem­i­cal sta­tions, which allows you to find such coor­di­nates of the fire-chem­i­cal sta­tion loca­tion, which pro­vide a min­i­mum amount of dis­tances from the sta­tion to the objects of pro­tec­tion and com­pli­ance with the stan­dards of the deliv­ery time of forces and fire-fight­ing equip­ment to the for­est areas cor­re­spond­ing to the class­es of their nat­ur­al fire dan­ger, tak­ing into account the trans­port infra­struc­ture. The opti­miza­tion prob­lem is solved by the method of non­lin­ear pro­gram­ming in the add-in MS Excel «Solver» on the exam­ple of the exper­i­men­tal forestry in Leningrad region. The method can be rec­om­mend­ed for the design of region­al fire-fight­ing arrange­ment of forests, for the for­est infra­struc­ture design, includ­ing for­est fire roads.

Key­words: for­est fires, for­est fire sta­tion, for­est infra­struc­ture, for­est roads

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Khitrov E.G., Taradin G.S., Andronov A.V., Kotenev E.V., Pushkov Yu.L. The­o­ret­i­cal study of rut depth com­paction of snow cov­er under influ­ence of for­est machine rover. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 236–248 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.236–248

Abstract

The pur­pose of our arti­cle is devel­op­ing and inves­ti­gat­ing a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of rut­ting and com­paction of snowy vir­gin soil, caused by the action of for­est machine rover. The­o­ret­i­cal basis of the study con­sists of the­o­ry of off-the-road loco­mo­tion. Research meth­ods include math­e­mat­i­cal analy­sis, com­pu­ta­tion­al exper­i­ment and approx­i­ma­tion of the cal­cu­lat­ed data. The study com­piles inte­gral equa­tions for cal­cu­lat­ing the rut depth and com­pres­sion of snow sur­face under the rover influ­ence. The equa­tions take into account changes in mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the snow in the com­paction process. Bas­ing to the results of approx­i­ma­tion of numer­i­cal solu­tion of the equa­tions, sim­pli­fied rela­tions were obtained, allow­ing to deter­mine the rut depth and snow com­pres­sion as func­tions of the ini­tial snow den­si­ty, snow cov­er thick­ness, aver­age con­tact pres­sure and geo­met­ric para­me­ters of the con­tact patch. The study estab­lish­es that bear­ing capac­i­ty of snow-cov­ered sur­face increas­es fol­low­ing the increas­ing pres­sure on the con­tact patch, which is caused by both a decrease in thick­ness of deformable snow lay­er and an increase in mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of snow dur­ing com­paction, which reflects phys­i­cal pat­tern of rut­ting on snow-cov­ered sur­face. With a con­tact pres­sure of 50% of the bear­ing capac­i­ty, the rut depth will be approx­i­mate­ly 20% of the thick­ness of the deformable lay­er, and at a pres­sure close to the bear­ing capac­i­ty – 60% of snow cov­er thick­ness. The ratio of absolute com­pres­sion defor­ma­tion of snow and the rut depth at the pres­sure of up to 10% of the bear­ing capac­i­ty is approx­i­mate­ly 1:1. With an increase in the pres­sure up to 20% of the bear­ing capac­i­ty, the ratio will be 1:2, and with an increase in the pres­sure up to 100% of the bear­ing capac­i­ty, the ratio will be 1:4.

Key­words: vir­gin snow, strength­en­ing, bear­ing capac­i­ty, defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus, rut­ting, compaction

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Toropov A.S., Soloviev A.N. Deter­mi­na­tion of para­me­ters of the sub­ject of labor for­est prepa­ra­tion for the pur­pose of pre­dict­ing the prod­uct out of the prod­uct at the stage of the rolls tree. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 249–259 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.249–259

Abstract

This arti­cle dis­cuss­es a new approach to the prob­lem of pre­dict­ing the out­put of prod­ucts from wood at the stage of felling trees. The analy­sis of sci­en­tif­ic papers of pre­vi­ous years on this sub­ject is car­ried out, method­olog­i­cal and the­o­ret­i­cal approach­es are eval­u­at­ed, the ana­lyt­i­cal forms described for the forms of the whips and the meth­ods of their opti­mal cut­ting are eval­u­at­ed. The advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages of the exist­ing meth­ods are con­sid­ered as well as the pos­si­ble ways of their improve­ment. The authors pro­pose and the­o­ret­i­cal­ly jus­ti­fy a new approach to solv­ing the prob­lem of deter­min­ing the para­me­ters of the object of labor log­ging, tak­ing into account the indi­vid­ual nat­ur­al fea­tures of the real stand. Accord­ing to the authors, the most accu­rate and expe­di­ent approach to the descrip­tion of the sub­ject of labor will be a method­ol­o­gy based on the nat­ur­al law of growth of the stand. In the bio­log­i­cal sci­ences, when study­ing the growth of liv­ing organ­isms, such a method­ol­o­gy is the the­o­ry of rel­a­tive growth. The bio­log­i­cal essense of the phe­nom­e­non of rel­a­tive allo­met­ric growth is that most often the ratio of the growth rate of dif­fer­ent organ­isms in ono­to­ge­n­e­sis remains con­stant, although the absolute val­ues of these speeds vary. In rela­tion to the absolute val­ues of these tree species are estab­lished between the pos­si­bil­i­ty of using this law to iden­ti­fy the ration of lin­ear and vol­u­met­ric sizes of trees and tree stands. The paper presents the struc­ture of a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for deter­min­ing a tree based on the allo­met­ric method. The effi­cien­cy of the devel­oped mod­el and the reli­a­bil­i­ty of the results of fore­cast­ing the yield of pro­duc­tion para­me­ters are giv­en, the cal­cu­la­tion results con­firm­ing the log­ging and wood pro­cess­ing indus­tries before felling trees.

Key­words: log­ging, cut­ting, opti­miza­tion, the­o­ry of growth, allometriya

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Leonovich A.A., Zakharov S.S. Mod­i­fi­ca­tion of veneer by ami­dophos­phate for the man­u­fac­ture of fire-resis­tant ply­wood. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 260–270 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.260–270

Abstract

The aim of the work was to mod­i­fy the birch veneer with ami­dophos­phate so that fire-proof water-resis­tant ply­wood could be pro­duced from it accord­ing to the gen­er­al­ly accept­ed tech­nol­o­gy. The method of study is based on the recep­tion of impreg­na­tion of veneer with flame retar­dant- aque­ous solu­tion ami­dophos­phate in two ver­sions – cap­il­lary treat­ment and dif­fu­sion impreg­na­tion. Еhe influ­ence of impreg­na­tion tem­per­a­ture and dura­tion at vari­able con­cen­tra­tion of impreg­nat­ing solu­tion was stud­ied. As a result of the work, the influ­ence of para­me­ters in the form of lin­ear effects and inter­ac­tion effects on the con­tent of absolute dry flame retar­dant is estab­lished. Using cor­re­la­tion depen­dences and desir­abil­i­ty func­tion it became pos­si­ble to obtain ply­wood char­ac­ter­ized by the absence of self-com­bus­tion and decay when remov­ing the igni­tion source with a loss of weight of 4.4–5.9% at the lev­el of treat­ment in the range of 14.5–23.5% of dry flame retar­dant con­tent. In this case, the strength of the man­u­fac­tured ply­wood sam­ples is sat­is­fac­to­ry, for exam­ple, the bend­ing strength is 77–100 MPa for the stud­ied vari­ants, with the require­ments of indus­try spec­i­fi­ca­tions of at least 60 MPa of at least 60 MPa. The results obtained are intend­ed to devel­op indus­tri­al-strength reg­u­la­tion for man­u­fac­ture of ply­wood for var­i­ous appli­ca­tions where there are restric­tions on Flam­ma­bil­i­ty and water resis­tance. This paper has pre­sent­ed insights on the for­mu­la­tion of a flame retar­dant in con­nec­tion with the con­di­tions of for­ma­tion of a phe­nol-formalde­hyde ply­wood adhe­sive and rec­om­men­da­tions on the orga­ni­za­tion of pro­duc­tion of hard com­bustible ply­wood with addi­tion­al tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tions and equip­ment of the node impreg­na­tion of veneer and dry­ing after the impreg­na­tion with a solu­tion of flame retar­dant with the max­i­mum approx­i­ma­tion to the cur­rent mode of pro­duc­tion of stan­dard plywood.

Key­words: ply­wood, veneer, fire pro­tec­tion, ami­dophos­phate, impreg­na­tion, phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Lurie M.S., Lurie O.M., Frol­ov A.S. . Indus­tri­al flowme­ters in the pulp and paper indus­try. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 271–292 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.271–292

Abstract

The work is devot­ed to the review of the flow mea­sure­ment equip­ment used in pulp and paper pro­duc­tion (pulp and paper) oper­a­tions (pulp and paper). The main require­ments for flowme­ters used in the reg­u­la­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of pulp and paper are pre­sent­ed. The design fea­tures and oper­at­ing prin­ci­ple of var­i­ous types of flowme­ters are con­sid­ered, and their advan­tages and dis­ad­van­tages are also pre­sent­ed. The tech­no­log­i­cal scheme of pro­duc­tion of newsprint and cor­ru­gat­ing paper with the indi­ca­tion of the arrange­ment of flow meters fix­ing the vol­ume of fibrous mass­es with a giv­en con­cen­tra­tion and degree of grind­ing is pre­sent­ed. The speeds of fibrous sus­pen­sions cir­cu­lat­ing through inter­nal pipe lines are con­sid­ered depend­ing on the con­cen­tra­tion and diam­e­ter of the pipeline. The analy­sis of the data, tak­ing into account the basic require­ments for flowme­ters, has shown that vor­tex devices are a very promis­ing type of flowme­ters. The prin­ci­ple of actions and the main types of such devices are con­sid­ered: with the pre­ces­sion of the vor­tex and the body of flow. The math­e­mat­i­cal rela­tion­ships of the process of flow mea­sure­ment by vor­tex devices are pre­sent­ed. Fig­ures show the flow pat­tern of a cylin­der by a liq­uid flow and the method of increas­ing the sta­bil­i­ty of a vor­tex for­ma­tion by means of a feed­back chan­nel. The method is shown to con­vert flow into a use­ful sig­nal in vor­tex flowme­ters by means of spe­cial devices which are called – receiv­er-pre­o­braza­torom vor­tex oscil­la­tions (CPVC), which in turn are divid­ed into groups. As an exam­ple, one of the TSTCs called con­tact-con­duc­to­met­ric is con­sid­ered. The design and oper­a­tion prin­ci­ple of promis­ing types among vor­tex flowme­ters called sub­mersible flowme­ters is con­sid­ered. Con­clu­sions are drawn about the prospects of using sub­merged vor­tex flowme­ters in pulp and paper man­u­fac­tur­ing processes.

Key­words: pulp and paper pro­duc­tion, flow mea­sur­ing equip­ment, tech­no­log­i­cal process­es, vor­tex flowme­ter, feed­back chan­nel, mea­sure­ment error

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Romano­va A.N., Kaza­kov Y.V., Malkov A.V. Influ­ence of the fibrous raw mate­ri­als type on the evo­lu­tion of local defor­ma­tions in toplin­er board when ten­sile test­ing. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 293–306 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.293–306

Abstract

The reg­u­lar­i­ties of prop­a­gat­ing the local ten­sile (lon­gi­tu­di­nal), com­pres­sive (trans­verse) and shear defor­ma­tions in a toplin­er board sam­ples from vir­gin and recy­cled fibrous raw mate­ri­als have been estab­lished. To car­ry the research out the Method of quan­ti­ta­tive esti­mat­ing the dis­tri­b­u­tion of local strains in a sam­ple of pulp-and-paper mate­r­i­al when uni­ax­i­al ten­sile test­ing was used. As the test sam­ples the indus­tri­al­ly man­u­fac­tured white toplin­er board – vir­gin and recy­cled – were cho­sen. They had basis weight (125 and 130 g/m2), and dif­fer­ent struc­ture inho­mo­gene­ity (for­ma­tion index was of 250 and 150) and anisotropy degree (TSIMD/CD was of 2.6 and 2.0). The reg­u­lar­i­ties were estab­lished depend­ing on the direc­tion of their fiber ori­en­ta­tion (it ranged from 0 to 90° to machine direc­tion – MD). Exper­i­men­tal data were obtained while ten­sile test­ing and pho­to-fix­ing the sam­ples with dimen­sions of 100 × 25 mm and a pre-applied dot-matrix with a step of 4 × 4 mm to their white top. The coor­di­nates of the matrix dots and their dis­place­ment when test­ing were deter­mined by means of using the spe­cial soft­ware. Data analy­sis and val­ues cal­cu­la­tion of local defor­ma­tions were per­formed due to finite ele­ment method algo­rithms. It has been estab­lished that, increas­ing the cutout angle to MD of the sam­ples of toplin­er board from dif­fer­ent type of fibers led to as fol­lows: local lon­gi­tu­di­nal defor­ma­tions increased, trans­verse – decreased, and shear – had their max­i­mum at 45° to MD. In addi­tion, increas­ing the total defor­ma­tion val­ue caused a more pro­nounced char­ac­ter of depen­den­cies. As it was estab­lished, the preva­lence of com­pres­sion defor­ma­tions in the sam­ples cut in MD (sam­ples of 0°) was relat­ed to com­press­ing, act­ed per­pen­dic­u­lar­ly to the pre­dom­i­nant axis of the fiber ori­en­ta­tion in sam­ples’ struc­ture. A large amount of trans­verse defor­ma­tions in recy­cled toplin­er board was asso­ci­at­ed with a low­er degree of anisotropy and a small­er aver­age length of fibers that increased the role of inter-fiber bonds. It was shown that, the het­ero­gene­ity of local strains increased along with their absolute val­ue, and the trends of changes depend­ed on the type of fibers and the direc­tion of their ori­en­ta­tion in the sam­ple structure. 

Key­words: toplin­er board, vir­gin fiber, recy­cled fiber, struc­ture inho­mo­gene­ity, anisotropy, local strains, FEM

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Kazy­mov D.S., Makhoti­na L.G., Nikan­drov A.B., Kuznetsov A.G., Akim E.L. Selec­tion of opti­mal modes for larch wood pro­cess­ing in CTMP tech­nol­o­gy. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 227, pp. 307–318 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.227.307–318

Abstract

Ana­lyze the pos­si­bil­i­ty of chem­i­cal-ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal pulp (CTMP) pro­duc­tion from larch wood and com­par­i­son of its char­ac­ter­is­tics with spruce wood CTMP, which was obtained at same lab­o­ra­to­ry con­di­tions were the main pur­pos­es of this study. Since larch is one of the most wide­spread tree species in Rus­sia, which accounts for about 40% of all for­est plan­ta­tions [Akim et al., 2012], this work has great rel­e­vance. The struc­ture and com­po­si­tion of larch wood is sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent from oth­er conifers. It belongs to typ­i­cal heart­wood species. The share of the core wood is about 70–90% of the tree trunk. Tra­chei­ds takes more than about 90% of a woody sub­stance [Levin et al., 1978; Babkin et al., 2004]. There­fore, it was nec­es­sary to per­form series of exper­i­ments that made it pos­si­ble to eval­u­ate the effect of Na2SO3 con­sump­tion, the tem­per­a­ture of impreg­nat­ing solu­tion and the impreg­na­tion time on the prop­er­ties of CTMP and the spe­cif­ic ener­gy con­sump­tion on refin­ing. In addi­tion, a char­ac­ter­is­tic fea­ture of larch is a water-sol­u­ble poly­sac­cha­ride ara­bino­galac­tan, con­tained in it in an amount of about 14% (with vari­a­tions from 5 to 30%), as well as the pres­ence in the larch core of sub­stances of the group of flavonoids, rep­re­sent­ed main­ly by quercetin and dihy­dro­quercetin [Babkin et al., 2004] and Azarov et al., 2010. There­fore, dur­ing the work, it was nec­es­sary to ana­lyze the effect of pre­vi­ous water extrac­tion on the prop­er­ties of the obtained product. 

Key­words: larch wood, che­mi-ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal pulp, pro­cess­ing modes, sodi­um sul­fite con­sump­tion, opti­cal prop­er­ties, physi­co-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, preextraction

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Issue 226
1. FORESTRY

Andreyev G.V. Form­ing, growth and devel­op­ment of spruce and fir gener­a­ra­tions of sec­ond storey of a few series of age-regen­er­a­tive Dynam­ics at South­ern Ural. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 6–19 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.6–19

Abstract

The exam­i­na­tion of form­ing, growth and devel­op­ment of sec­ond storey spruce and fir of few series of age-regen­er­a­tive dynam­ics by geo­graph­i­cal-genet­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of for­est type at South­ern Ural had been the goal of these inves­ti­ga­tions. The work had been made in pre­dom­i­nant for­est site type of Yuruzan’-Upper-Ai dis­trict of South­ern­bo­re­al and mixed forests sub­zone in Chelyabin­sk region. These inves­ti­ga­tions had been car­ried out at alti­tude 450–550 m above seal lev­el in pre­dom­i­nant for­est type on gen­tle slopes with thick drained soils. This cor­re­sponds orig­i­nal small grass and green moss for­est type. The quan­ti­ta­tive indices of form­ing, growth and devel­op­ment of spruce and fir of sec­ond (II) storey in a dif­fer­ent series of age-regen­er­a­tion dynam­ics are giv­en on this arti­cle. The spruce and fir of sec­ond storey are younger of main gen­er­a­tion of these species from 0 to 145 years. II (sec­ond) storey of short-sec­ondary birch stands is formed with spruce and fir which are the same age or old­er than birch age to 15 years, equal age it, or younger from 0 to 115 years. The spruce age of II storey of long term-sec­ondary aspen stands may be not old­er age of aspen than 25 years, or equal it, or younger it to 50 years. The fir age of II storey of such stands may be old­er the aspen to 27 years, or equal it, or younger to 45 years. The growth of height and diam­e­ter of spruce is near and reli­able didn’t dif­fer in dark conif­er­ous stands, also in short-sec­ondary birch stands and long term-sec­ondary aspen stands. The fir growth of height and diam­e­ter char­ac­ter­izes reli­able worse in short-sec­ondary birch stands and long term-sec­ondary aspen stands. This cased small­er den­si­ty of main storey of dark conif­er­ous stands com­par­a­tive­ly with sec­ondary stands and loca­tion of spruce and fir II storey in gaps of main canopy in spruce-fir stands. The fir is pre­dom­i­nant in all inves­ti­gat­ed age-regeni­ra­tion series in sec­ond storey. The dark conif­er­ous stands short-sec­ondary birch stands and long termsec­ondary aspen stands well are dif­fered from sta­ble sec­ondary birch and aspen stands with basis quan­ti­ta­tive cor­re­la­tion seedlings and sec­ond storey. The spruce and fir regen­er­a­tion in sta­ble sec­ondary leaf stands is dif­fi­cult because of strong soil devel­op­ment of grass cov­er and also absent of seed origin.

Key­words: South­ern Ural, spruce and fir of sec­ond storey, their gen­e­sis, growth and development

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Zdornov I.A., Nag­i­mov Z.Ya. Phy­tomass of birch trees in sus­tain­able road­side pro­tec­tive for­est strips of North­ern Kaza­khstan. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 20–32 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.20–32

Abstract

Some for­ma­tion pecu­liar­i­ties of the above­ground phy­tomass of birch trees in the road­side pro­tec­tive for­est belts has been stud­ied on 4 tri­al plots with 60 felled and mea­sured mod­el trees spec­i­men as the exper­i­men­tal mate­r­i­al. It is estab­lished that in the for­est belts of var­i­ous designs the nature of the dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion of trees accord­ing to the mass of trunks and crowns (foliage) has the same ten­den­cies as in nat­ur­al plan­ta­tions. It was revealed, that some frac­tions changes in the of their above­ground phy­tomass char­ac­ter­is­tic for nat­ur­al plan­ta­tions depend on the age and size of the trees. Trees of the same diam­e­ter in the old­er age are char­ac­ter­ized by high­er val­ues of the weight of the trunks and low val­ues of the mass of crowns (foliage). In pro­tec­tive for­est belts, the opaque (mar­gin­al) effect as the addi­tion­al fac­tor has a sig­nif­i­cant influ­ence on the for­ma­tion of the above­ground phy­tomass of trees. Trees of the same diam­e­ter and age in the extreme rows of for­est belts are char­ac­ter­ized by low val­ues of height and species num­bers and more growth of crowns inten­sive, com­par­a­tive­ly with the cen­tral ones. There­fore, they have a small­er mass of trunks and a larg­er mass of crowns (foliage). The feath­er­ing effect gives grounds for con­sid­er­ing pro­tec­tive for­est belts when assess­ing their phy­tomass as a spe­cial object of for­est tax­a­tion. There is a nat­ur­al change in the ratio of the struc­tur­al parts of the above­ground phy­tomass to each oth­er depend­ing on the age, size and loca­tion of trees in for­est belts.

Key­words: phy­tomass of birch trees, road­side pro­tec­tive for­est strips, North­ern Kaza­khstan, pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion, opaque (mar­gin­al) effect

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Nag­i­mov Z.Ya., Sheveli­na I.V., Sal­niko­va I.S., Metelev D.V. Devel­op­ment of stan­dards of assess­ment of vol­ume of log­ging residues pro­duced in the process of ille­gal log­ging. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 33–46 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.33–46

Abstract

The arti­cle proves the pos­si­bil­i­ty and expe­di­en­cy of com­pil­ing for­est tax­a­tion stan­dards based on math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els of the above­ground phy­tomass of trees for esti­mat­ing the vol­umes of log­ging residues left after ille­gal log­ging. Data dock­ing of the phy­tomass of the trees and the vol­ume tables ensure the man­u­fac­tura­bil­i­ty and high accu­ra­cy of such stan­dards. It is not­ed that the using the vol­ume stem in dock­ing equa­tions of phy­tomass gives the best results. It should be stressed that to take into account the nat­ur­al laws of the for­ma­tion of crowns and their struc­tur­al parts, it is advis­able to use the vol­ume, age and ratio D : H of trees in the equa­tions. On the basis of the obtained equa­tions, it is estab­lished that the weight of the crown and nee­dles in trees of the same thick­ness increas­es reg­u­lar­ly from the top height class­es to the bot­tom ones, and with­in one height class increas­es with a decrease in the age of the tree stands. It is report­ed that infor­ma­tive­ness and demand for stan­dards increas­es if weight and vol­ume para­me­ters are used togeth­er. The pro­ce­dure for the tran­si­tion to vol­ume para­me­ters in a sol­id mea­sure is solved with the use of the cor­re­spond­ing den­si­ty coef­fi­cients of the phy­tomass frac­tions, to the vol­ume para­me­ters in the stacked mea­sure with the use of their stack­ing fac­tors. Rec­om­men­da­tions are giv­en on the basis of the devel­oped stan­dards for deter­min­ing the vol­ume of log­ging residues in for­est stra­ta, left after ille­gal logging.

Key­words: phy­tomass of trees, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, vol­ume tables, height class­es, den­si­ty coef­fi­cient, stack­ing fac­tor, ille­gal log­ging, log­ging residues

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Alek­san­drov V.A., Alek­san­drov A.V., Gomon D.Yu. Vibrat­ing load of the oper­a­tor of the feller-bunch­er in the process of clean­ing the base of the tree from snow by turn­ing the han­dle. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 47–54 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.47–54

Abstract

In arti­cle the mod­el of bio­dy­nam­ic sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor – feller – the pack­ag­ing car (feller – bunch­er machine)». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagrange sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion sus­pen­sion seats of the oper­a­tor by a method of Runge–Kutta, by Math­CAD. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly let out feller-bunch­er LP-17A in the dis­per­sal mode at start-off from the place. As a result of research­es it is estab­lished: vibroload­ing oper­a­tors of feller-pack­ag­ing cars exceeds the san­i­tary code in 4–6 times.

Key­words: feller bunch­er, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, vibra­tion, seat

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Bazarov S.M., Belenkiy Yu.I., Bacherikov I.V., Ilyushenko D.A., Bazaro­va M.V., Nguen Phuc Sue Improv­ing the effi­cien­cy of for­est man­age­ment based on the opti­miza­tion of non-con­tin­u­ous felling of grow­ing plan­ta­tions. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 55–65 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.55–65

Abstract

Analy­sis of the dynam­ic state of the sys­tem «forest–harvesting» from the stand­point of solv­ing the kinet­ic equa­tions of the eco­log­i­cal mod­el «hares–foxes» (hares – for­est, fox­es – har­vest­ing) indi­cates the pos­si­bil­i­ty of a sus­tain­able oscil­lat­ing state of for­est man­age­ment with the nat­ur­al renew­al of resources. As a result of the kinet­ic equa­tions solu­tion it becomes pos­si­ble to deter­mine the fre­quen­cy of sta­ble oscil­la­tions of the foresthar­vest­ing sys­tem (direct prob­lem solu­tion) and to real­ize the prin­ci­ple of nat­ur­al and man­made sys­tems har­mo­ny. Here the process of har­vest­ing is car­ried out by non-flat (even­ly­grad­ual) felling, the role of the age class per­forms the peri­od of oscil­la­tion cor­re­spond­ing to the deter­mined fre­quen­cy. With this approach, it is pos­si­ble to for­mu­late the same inverse prob­lem: the cho­sen fre­quen­cy of sta­ble oscil­la­tions of the sys­tem and the growth dynam­ics of plant­i­ngs to deter­mine the appro­pri­ate para­me­ters of the work piece.

Key­words: fre­quen­cy, age class, sys­tem, sta­bil­i­ty, drop

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Pham Ngoc Linh, Valyazhonkov V.D., Pushkov Yu.L. Prob­a­bilis­tic-sta­tis­ti­cal esti­ma­tion of tim­ing modes of skid­ding and trans­porta­tion of assort­ment by a skid­der. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 66–81 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.66–81

Abstract

The pur­pose of the arti­cle is to iden­ti­fy tem­po­rary modes of oper­a­tion wheeled trac­tor selec­tor assort­ment (WTSA) on the per­for­mance of the log­ging process (LP) move­ment of assort­ments direct­ly from the cut­ting area to the con­sumer using math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing. To accom­plish the goal, a struc­tur­al scheme of cycle time costs LP and a set of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els of tem­po­ral modes of oper­a­tion WTSA. The prob­a­bilis­tic-sta­tis­ti­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of the time-con­sum­ing com­po­nents of the cycle of deliv­ery of assort­ments by selec­tor assort­ment MTW-952.4 + ONIAR 12Т WD in the mid-taiga con­di­tions of the North-West. To iden­ti­fy the nature and extent of the influ­ence of the length of the path and speed dur­ing the freight move­ment of the WTSA in the above con­di­tions on the total cost of cycle time LP obtained mul­ti­ple non­lin­ear regres­sion equation.

Key­words: tem­po­rary oper­at­ing modes wheeled trac­tor selec­tor assort­ment, log­ging process of assortments

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Valyazhonkov V.D., Dobrynin Yu.A., Mosh­takov A.A. Mod­el of ener­gy assess­ment of the ratio­nal­i­ty of com­bin­ing up of forestry machines. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 82–89 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.82–89

Abstract

The choice of the best ver­sion of the machine and trac­tor unit (MTU) is usu­al­ly car­ried out by means of the trac­tion effi­cien­cy (E) of the trac­tor ηm or unit effi­cien­cy ηа. Appli­ca­tion of these index­es by draw­ing up units is not absolute­ly suc­cess­ful. With the help ηm it is pos­si­ble to give a pow­er assess­ment only to the basic trac­tor, but not the unit in gen­er­al as it opens the use­ful share of pow­er not on an action of the aggre­gat­ed tool, and on a trac­tor hook. The pow­er brought to a tool action con­sid­ers ηа, but there is no reli­able method of its mea­sure­ment. How­ev­er the main lack of these indi­ca­tors is that they do not reflect very impor­tant par­ty of the phe­nom­e­non – what num­ber of tech­no­log­i­cal work can be cre­at­ed on it is use­ful the spent ener­gy. For assess­ment of ratio­nal­i­ty of draw­ing up machine and trac­tor units when per­form­ing forestry and land­scape works the com­plex index – the spe­cif­ic pow­er effi­cien­cy rep­re­sent­ing the atti­tude of tech­ni­cal effi­cien­cy towards the used engine capac­i­ty of the basic trac­tor is offered to use. This index reflects the num­ber of the per­formed tech­no­log­i­cal work at the spent pow­er that the design per­fec­tion of forestry and land­scape machine and trac­tor units and their adapt­abil­i­ty to real­iza­tion of the cor­re­spond­ing tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tion gives the chance of assess­ment from the pow­er point of view.

Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, pow­er assess­ment, forestry, ratio­nal­i­ty of com­bin­ing up machine and trac­tor units

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Cao Huy Giap, Kochnev A.M., Nguyen Long Lam Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the inter­ac­tion of wheeled skid­der with skid trail in the rotate mode. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 90–98 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.90–98

Abstract

The inter­ac­tion of the wheeled skid­der with a pack of wood and fiber in the mode of rota­tion is not giv­en enough atten­tion. The devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els do not take into account such impor­tant prop­er­ties of the object of study as elas­tic-damp­ing char­ac­ter­is­tics of tires in the lon­gi­tu­di­nal, trans­verse direc­tions and twist­ing, elas­tic­damp­ing prop­er­ties of the mech­a­nism with the lay­ing and the trill pack­et of wood, the non­lin­ear nature of the sys­tem ele­ments and their rela­tion­ship to each oth­er, etc. The pur­pose of this arti­cle is to devel­op a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of inter­ac­tion wheel skid­der trac­tor with fiber in the mode of rota­tion, tak­ing into account the elas­tic prop­er­ties of tires, fold­ing mech­a­nism and a trill pack­et of wood. Research method-math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing. The study of the obtained sys­tem of dif­fer­en­tial con­trols on a com­put­er makes it pos­si­ble to solve both direct and inverse prob­lems of dynam­ics. Stud­ies have con­firmed the ade­qua­cy of the devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of inter­ac­tion wheel skid­der with a bun­dle of wood and fiber in the mode of rota­tion, the dis­crep­an­cy of results – 12–16%, which allows to rec­om­mend it for use in ASNI and CAD «Wheel skidder».

Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, wheel skid­der, mode of rota­tion, a pack of wood

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Velikonivt­se­va S.A., Pitukhin A.V., Shilovsky V.N. The eval­u­a­tion of reli­a­bil­i­ty con­struc­tions ele­ments of log­ging machines in the con­di­tions of the Repub­lic of Kare­lia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 99–110 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.99–110

Abstract

In mov­ing to a mar­ket econ­o­my and increased com­pe­ti­tion require­ments for the lev­el of reli­a­bil­i­ty of log­ging equip­ment sig­nif­i­cant­ly increased. In the Repub­lic of Kare­lia there is short log log­ging tech­nol­o­gy and har­vesters and for­warders of firms John Deere, Pon­sse, Komat­su are gen­er­al­ly used. Indus­try insti­tu­tions pre­vi­ous­ly involved in for­est machines have been vir­tu­al­ly elim­i­nat­ed and objec­tive data on fail­ures can only be eva­l­ut­ed direct­ly at log­ging enter­pris­es. There­fore, the objec­tive of this arti­cle is to present meth­ods of eval­u­a­tion accu­mu­la­tion on fail­ure con­struc­tions ele­ments of the har­vesters and for­warders of the com­pa­ny’s pro­duc­tion of Komat­su on the basis of infor­ma­tion in the account­ing state­ments about the write-off of spare parts in the oper­a­tion of com­plex­es in the Repub­lic of Kare­lia. The cost of spare parts, their name and quan­ti­ty are record­ed in the report­ing peri­od in which they were replaced. The aver­age total cost of parts for one unit per cal­en­dar 2015 on for­warders made 2398,46 thou­sand RUB over medi­um engine hours 2956; har­vesters the aver­age total cost for the same peri­od amount­ed to 2617,79 thou­sand RUB over medi­um engine hours 3167. Sta­tis­ti­cal data pro­cess­ing is per­formed on all machines for parts that are most fre­quent­ly changed dur­ing oper­a­tion. The arti­cle presents the results of the esti­mat­ed time between fail­ures and their dis­per­sions for the har­vester saw tire and for the for­warder dehu­mid­i­fi­er fil­ter, char­ac­ter­ized by the low­est time between fail­ures. Sta­tis­ti­cal infor­ma­tion on machine fail­ures col­lect­ed on the basis of month­ly cost account­ing state­ments is lim­it­ed (incom­plete) because there is insuf­fi­cient data to esti­mate the dis­tri­b­u­tion of time between fail­ures. When ana­lyz­ing the data using Bartlet­t’s cri­te­ri­on, it was revealed that the sam­ples sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer from each oth­er and there­fore they can not be com­bined. Con­se­quent­ly, the reli­a­bil­i­ty esti­mates cal­cu­lat­ed using the sam­ples obtained dif­fer sig­nif­i­cant­ly. For a com­plete analy­sis, it is nec­es­sary to con­duct longer obser­va­tions of the equip­ment dur­ing oper­a­tion and to record each fail­ure with the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of the cause.

Key­words: har­vester, for­warder, spare part, mean time between failures

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Khitrov E.G., Kotenev E.V., Andronov A.V., Taradin G.S., Bozh­bov V.E. The­o­ret­i­cal cal­cu­la­tion of bear­ing capac­i­ty of cohe­sive soil on the cone index and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 111–123 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.111–123

Abstract

The arti­cle devotes to study­ing the rela­tion­ship of mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, cone index and bear­ing capac­i­ty of var­i­ous types of cohe­sive soils. The mate­r­i­al for the study are ref­er­ence data and the­o­ret­i­cal for­mu­las for cal­cu­lat­ing the bear­ing capac­i­ty and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil. Research meth­ods include com­pu­ta­tion­al exper­i­ment, approx­i­ma­tion of the cal­cu­lat­ed data, the least squares method. The arti­cle uses domes­tic method of cal­cu­lat­ing the bear­ing capac­i­ty of a deformable soil lay­er under influ­ence of a stamp, tak­ing into account the lay­er thick­ness, geom­e­try of the con­tact patch, cohe­sive prop­er­ties and spe­cif­ic weight of the soil, devi­a­tion of stamp direc­tion from the nor­mal to the soil sur­face. Accord­ing to the results of cal­cu­la­tions, bear­ing capac­i­ty of cohe­sive soils is deter­mined by the inner cohe­sion and angle of inter­nal fric­tion and express­es by a pow­er equa­tion regard­less of the cohe­sive soil type. At the sec­ond stage, the study makes com­par­i­son of the defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus and the cone index of cohe­sive soil with its cohe­sive prop­er­ties and bear­ing capac­i­ty. The val­ues of defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus, shear mod­u­lus, inner cohe­sion and angle of inter­nal fric­tion obtained for soils of dif­fer­ent poros­i­ty and con­sis­ten­cy, depend­ing on the soil type. The val­ues of the cone index are deter­mined by the­o­ret­i­cal solu­tion of the prob­lem of pen­e­tra­tion of con­i­cal inden­ter into half-space. It has been estab­lished that cal­cu­lat­ed val­ue of bear­ing capac­i­ty of clay, loam, sandy loam, for­est and marshy soil is asso­ci­at­ed with the defor­ma­tion mod­u­lus also by pow­er depen­dence, the coef­fi­cients of which depend on the type of soil. The cal­cu­lat­ed val­ue of bear­ing capac­i­ty of clay, loam, sandy loam, for­est and marshy soil can be obtained by the cone index, which is deter­mined by sound­ing, also using a pow­er equa­tion, the coef­fi­cients of which are deter­mined by the type of cohe­sive soil.

Key­words: for­est soil, marshy soil, cohe­sive soils, inden­ta­tion, bear­ing capac­i­ty, cohe­sive prop­er­ties, defor­ma­tion modulus

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3. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Bay­dakov D.L., Vigra­nenko Yu.T. Elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty and elec­trode prop­er­ties of the chalco­genide films PbS-AgI-As2S3, PbS-Ag2S‑As2S3 и PbI2-Ag2SAs2S3, obtained by chem­i­cal depo­si­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 124–138 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.124–138

Abstract

Chalco­genide films PbS-AgI-As2S3, PbS-Ag2S-As2S3 and PbI2-Ag2S-As2S3, were syn­the­sized from the solu­tions of chalco­genide glass­es in n‑butylamine. The elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty and elec­trode prop­er­ties of glass­es and films of the same com­po­si­tions were stud­ied. The syn­the­sis of glass­es was car­ried out accord­ing to the pro­ce­dure described in [Legin, 1985]. The films were pre­pared as fol­lows. The sam­ple of the glass was placed in boil­ing n‑butylamine, then stirred for 3–4 hours until the glass was com­plete­ly dis­solved in the amine. To pre­vent oxi­da­tion by air oxy­gen, the films were applied in a closed box under a nitro­gen atmos­phere. The sub­strate was placed on a rotat­ing device, a solu­tion was applied there­to, and then the sub­strate was rotat­ed at a speed of 3000–4000 rpm for 1 minute. Anneal­ing of the films was car­ried out in the box at a tem­per­a­ture of 90–100 C for 30–60 min. Elec­trodes with mem­branes PbSAg2S-As2S3 and PbI2-Ag2S-As2S3 showed high sen­si­tiv­i­ty to cations Pb2+. The Nernst region of the elec­trode response lies in the range 10–2–10–6 mol/l lead nitrate, and the detec­tion lim­it reach­es 10–7 mol/l. Thin film elec­trodes with PbS-AgI-As2S3 mem­branes showed a fair­ly high sen­si­tiv­i­ty to the Ag+ cations. The Nernst region of the elec­trode response is 10–1–10–6 mol/l sil­ver nitrate, the detec­tion lim­it of Ag+ cations reach­es 10–7 mol/l. It has been estab­lished that the elec­trode prop­er­ties of chalco­genide glass­es and films of sim­i­lar com­po­si­tion are prac­ti­cal­ly the same.

Key­words: chalco­genide glass­es and films, chem­i­cal depo­si­tion from nbuty­lamine, elec­tri­cal con­duc­tiv­i­ty and elec­trode prop­er­ties of glass­es and films of the sim­i­lar composition

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Vurasko A.V., Simono­va I.E., Minako­va A.R. Sorp­tion mate­ri­als on the basis of tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from straw and rice husk. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 139–154 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.139–154

Abstract

Cel­lu­lose from the fruit shells of cere­als has a high sorp­tion capac­i­ty. How­ev­er, rel­a­tive­ly short fibers make it dif­fi­cult to obtain durable paper mate­r­i­al. At the same time, straw cel­lu­lose, on the con­trary, has a rel­a­tive­ly long fiber length and accept­able sorp­tion prop­er­ties. For the devel­op­ment of effec­tive cel­lu­lose sor­bents of inter­est is a com­pos­ite mate­r­i­al of cel­lu­lose husks and cel­lu­lose straw. The aim of the work is to obtain sorp­tion mate­ri­als on the basis of tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from straw and rice husks obtained by oxi­da­tion-organo­sol­vent method with pre-alka­line treat­ment of veg­etable raw mate­ri­als. In the course of work, tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from straw and rice husks with ash con­tent of 0.05% of com­plete­ly dry cel­lu­lose was obtained. Upon receipt of the sorp­tion mate­r­i­al, cel­lu­lose from rice straw is used as a base cel­lu­lose, and cel­lu­lose from rice husk as cel­lu­lose is an adsor­bent. With a con­stant con­tent of cel­lu­lose base in the com­po­si­tion, regard­less of its degree of grind­ing, cap­il­lary absorben­cy varies with­in the mea­sure­ment error. With a con­stant con­tent of cel­lu­lose-base in the com­po­si­tion and the addi­tion of cel­lu­lose-adsor­bent with an increas­ing degree of grind­ing cap­il­lary absorben­cy decreas­es slight­ly (1…2,5 mm). The sorp­tion capac­i­ty of iodine depends on the degree of grind­ing, as cel­lu­lose-adsor­bent, and the degree of grind­ing of cel­lu­lose-base. With increas­ing degree of grind­ing sorp­tion capac­i­ty of iodine increas­es. Adsorp­tion capac­i­ty of meth­yl­ene blue at a con­stant con­tent of cel­lu­lose-base 50 % in the com­po­si­tion and the addi­tion of cel­lu­losead­sor­bent with an increas­ing degree of grind­ing (35, 39, 43.5, 47.5 0SHR) increas­es. It was found that the quan­ti­ta­tive eval­u­a­tion of the com­po­si­tion effi­cien­cy con­firmed the pres­ence of syn­er­gism effect, which is typ­i­cal for the adsorp­tion capac­i­ty of meth­yl­ene blue and increas­es with increas­ing the degree of cel­lu­lose-adsor­bent grind­ing from 1.07 to 1.12, tak­ing into account the exper­i­men­tal error.

Key­words: cel­lu­lose, sorp­tion mate­ri­als, oxida­tive-organo­sol­vent cook­ing, husks, straw, non-wood raw materials

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Viunkov S.N. The effect of urea on the cur­ing of urea formalde­hyde resins. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 155–161 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.155–161

Abstract

Cur­ing of urea-formalde­hyde resins with dif­fer­ent molar ratio in the sys­tem urea : formalde­hyde flows through dif­fer­ent mech­a­nisms. Thus, at a molar ratio of urea : formalde­hyde 1 : 2, the cur­ing process is direct­ed towards the for­ma­tion of inter­mol­e­c­u­lar bonds – meth­yl­ene and meth­yl­ene-ether, as evi­denced by a decrease in the con­tent of hydroksimethyl groups. The intro­duc­tion of urea into the resin to the molar ratio urea : formalde­hyde 1 : 1.65 leads to the destruc­tion of meth­yl­ene-ether bonds under the action of amide groups of urea, the for­ma­tion of meth­yl­ene bridges in their place, the for­ma­tion of monomer prod­ucts, which include urea and its hydroskimethyl derivatives.

Key­words: urea-formalde­hyde resin, urea, formalde­hyde, hydrox­ymethyl group, cur­ing, meth­yl­ene bond, meth­yl­ene-ether bond

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Kovernin­skiy I.N., Prokopenko K.D., Duboviy V.K., Krinitsin N.A., Suslov G.A. The study of the frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of bleached chem­i­cal ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal pulp and com­po­si­tions with waste-cel­lu­lose fiber. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 162–170 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.162–170

Abstract

In this paper, the study of the frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion and physi­co-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of bleached chem­i­cal-ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal pulp (BCTMM) from poplar wood and the effect on the mechan­ic prop­er­ties of paper from com­pos­ites with recy­cled fiber from MS-5B paper was con­duct­ed. The nov­el­ty and fea­ture of BCTMM is its pro­duc­tion using extru­sion tech­nol­o­gy, which is fun­da­men­tal­ly dif­fer­ent from the clas­si­cal oper­a­tions of pre­treat­ment of wood in the form of chips and turn­ing it into a fiber-like scutch for sub­se­quent grind­ing steps. The stud­ied BCTMM from wood of poplar with a degree of grind­ing not low­er than 40 оSR has phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties com­pa­ra­ble to the sec­ondary fiber of MS-5B waste paper. Its addi­tives to the fibrous com­po­si­tion of paper for cor­ru­ga­tion and card­board-lin­er for flat lay­ers of cor­ru­gat­ed card­board are expe­di­ent in the range of 30–50%. Unbleached CTMM obtained by extru­sion tech­nol­o­gy, as a pri­ma­ry high-qual­i­ty cel­lu­losic fiber semi­fin­ished prod­uct can be effec­tive­ly used in the man­u­fac­ture of cor­ru­gat­ed pack­ag­ing. Extru­sive tech­nol­o­gy is promis­ing for the pro­cess­ing of illiq­uid wood and waste of tim­ber indus­try enter­pris­es and is rec­om­mend­ed for use in Russia.

Key­words: chem­i­cal ther­mo­me­chan­i­cal pulp, recy­cled fiber, waste-cel­lu­lose fiber, frac­tion­al com­po­si­tion, cor­ru­gat­ed paper, card­board-lin­er, physi­co-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties, extru­sive tech­nol­o­gy, extrud­er, fiber-like scotch

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Laty­she­vich I.A., Hapanko­va A.I., Klyuev A.Yu., Kozlov N.G., Bara­novsky A.V., Bezyazy­ch­naya T.V. Struc­ture of the main com­po­nents of mod­i­fied ter­penoid-male­ic adducts. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 171–184 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.171–184

Abstract

A method for the syn­the­sis of reac­tion prod­ucts of the main com­po­nents of ter­penoid-male­ic adducts with zinc acetate is pre­sent­ed. Based on the obtained NMR spec­troscopy data, it can be stat­ed that chem­i­cal trans­for­ma­tion as a result of the inter­ac­tion of male­opi­mar­ic acid with the mod­i­fi­er is observed at C‑18, and the anhy­dride ring is not affect­ed. IR and atom­ic emis­sion spec­troscopy, ele­men­tal analy­sis and com­put­er sim­u­la­tion by quan­tum chem­istry con­firm the struc­ture of the syn­the­sized prod­uct. Com­par­i­son of chem­i­cal shifts in the 13C-NMR spec­tra of male­opi­mar­ic acid and the salt shows that sig­nif­i­cant changes are observed for the car­bon nuclei C‑3, C‑5, C‑18 and C‑19. The great­est dif­fer­ence in the chem­i­cal shift is observed for the C‑18 nucle­us, and this sig­nal is strong­ly broad­ened. For the remain­ing nuclei, Δδ is less than 0,3 ppm. In the NMR spec­trum of the 1H prod­uct, the sig­nals are broad­ened, a fine struc­ture is not observed, and the dif­fer­ence in chem­i­cal shifts is insignif­i­cant in com­par­i­son with the male­opi­mar­ic acid and for most pro­tons is with­in the mea­sure­ment error (0,02 ppm). The great­est changes were record­ed for pro­tons at C‑24, which is some­what unex­pect­ed and requires fur­ther study. Because of the con­sid­er­able broad­en­ing of the lines in the NMR spec­trum of the 1H prod­uct, the spec­tral data of the COSY and HMBC exper­i­ments turned out to be poor­ly infor­ma­tive and the assign­ment of some sig­nals was per­formed by com­par­i­son with the data obtained from the analy­sis of the spec­tra of the male­opi­mar­ic acid. To con­firm the estab­lished struc­ture, ele­men­tal analy­sis was car­ried out, %: С – 66,63; H – 7,19; О – 18,38; Zn – 7,8. The pres­ence of zinc was proved by atom­ic-emis­sion spec­trom­e­try with induc­tive­ly cou­pled plas­ma. In the IR spec­trum of the syn­the­sized prod­uct, absorp­tion bands char­ac­ter­is­tic of the –C=О groups are found: 1697 and 1558 cm–1. This led to the con­clu­sion that the reac­tion pro­ceeds along the car­boxyl group at C‑18. It fol­lows from the cal­cu­la­tions that the zinc atom is local­ized in a cer­tain «mid­dle» state between the four oxy­gen atoms at C‑18 and C‑18′ atoms, while the Zn–O dis­tances agree with the val­ue of the sum of the ion­ic zinc and oxy­gen radii – 2,06Å. In this case, the cal­cu­lat­ed val­ues of the mag­ni­tudes of the bond orders, char­ac­ter­iz­ing the strength of each bond, indi­cate that the zinc atom is equal­ly con­nect­ed with all the oxy­gen in this struc­ture. It was found that, under giv­en con­di­tions, the α‑terpenene adduct does not react with zinc acetate.

Key­words: rosin, tur­pen­tine, ter­penoid-male­ic adducts, ter­peno­male­ic adduct, ros­in­male­ic adduct, rоs­in­ter­pen­male­ic adduct, male­opi­mar­ic acid, α‑terpenene adduct, tran­si­tion met­al acetate, modifier

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Arsenye­va D.Yu., Kaza­kov Ya.V., Okulo­va E.O. Fea­tures of obtain­ing cel­lu­lose from flax straw by per­ox­ide acetate method of cook­ing. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 185–196 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.185–196

Abstract

The paper dis­cuss­es the prop­er­ties of cel­lu­lose obtained from flax fires – waste flax pro­duc­tion, by using per­ox­ide-acetate method. The influ­ence of the con­cen­tra­tion of the main reagent on the results of cook­ing was stud­ied. Flax fire with a cel­lu­lose con­tent of 38.5%, lignin con­tent 15%, ash con­tent of 4.1% was cooked under lab­o­ra­to­ry con­di­tions at a liquor ratio of 7.5 : 1, 6.25 : 1, 5.0 : 1. The per­acetic acid (NAA) with a con­cen­tra­tion of 15% was used for cook­ing. Cook­ing con­di­tions were reg­u­lat­ed by chang­ing the total vol­ume of the cook­ing solu­tion by the ratio of NAA : water 1 : 0 and 2 : 1. In the obtained sam­ples, chem­i­cal, struc­tur­al-mor­pho­log­i­cal and hygro­scop­ic prop­er­ties were deter­mined by stan­dard meth­ods. It has been estab­lished that the use of the per­ox­ide-acetate pulp­ing method from flax fires makes it pos­si­ble to obtain a semi­fin­ished prod­uct in one step with a yield of 52%, white­ness up to 78%, ash con­tent of 0.6% and a kap­pa num­ber of 2–3 units. Dilu­tion of the cook­ing solu­tion in the ratio of NAA : water 2 : 1 results in a prod­uct with a reduced yield of 34%, a white­ness of 75% and an increased ash con­tent of 1.5%. Reduc­ing the liquor mod­ule to 6.25 : 1 reduces the con­sump­tion of NAA for cook­ing by 44% and con­tributes to improv­ing the qual­i­ty indi­ca­tors of flax pulp – reduc­ing the lignin con­tent, reduc­ing ash con­tent to 0.8%, main­tain­ing the aver­age fiber length and increas­ing water-hold­ing capacity.

Key­words: lin­seed cel­lu­lose, per­ox­ide-acetate method, per­acetic acid, flax, waste processing

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Fedoro­va O.V., Kaza­kov V.G., Sub­boti­na K.O. Absorp­tion of H2S with sodi­um hydrox­ide from the black liq­uid of sul­fate pulp pro­duc­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 197–207 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.197–207

Abstract

While black liquor from sul­fate pulp process treat­ment with sul­fu­ric acid (for par­tial or full sul­fate lignin pre­cip­i­ta­tion) emis­sion of hydro­sul­fide and oth­er sul­fur con­tain­ing gasses hap­pens. It is reviewed process of the gasses absorp­tion by sodi­um hydrox­ide solu­tion. The process of acid­i­fi­ca­tion of black liquor with sul­fu­ric acid is accom­pa­nied by the release of hydro­gen sul­fide, which must under­go absorp­tion. Indus­tri­al meth­ods for pro­duc­ing sul­phate lignin involve the use of hydro­gen sul­fide absorp­tion by aque­ous solu­tions of sodi­um hydrox­ide. Alka­li solu­tions or water are used as absorbents for absorp­tion of sul­fur-con­tain­ing gas­es, depend­ing on the com­po­si­tion of hydro­gen sul­fide gas­es and the fur­ther use of absorp­tion prod­ucts. Aque­ous solu­tions of sodi­um hydrox­ide are used for absorp­tion in cas­es where sig­nif­i­cant vol­umes of gas­es con­tain­ing pre­dom­i­nant­ly hydro­gen sul­fide are processed. In the process of absorp­tion is obtained a solu­tion of sodi­um sul­fide. In the case of acid­i­fi­ca­tion of black liquor with sul­fu­ric acid, hydro­gen sul­fide is sub­ject­ed to absorp­tion, which con­tains oth­er impu­ri­ties. In order for the absorp­tion of hydro­gen sul­fide by sodi­um hydrox­ide to form the final prod­uct of sodi­um sul­fide, it is nec­es­sary to use a cer­tain con­cen­tra­tion of alka­li. To achieve the required results, a sim­plex method was used for the inte­ger matrix, which allows choos­ing the opti­mal para­me­ters for the process of hydro­gen sul­fide absorp­tion by sodi­um hydrox­ide. As a result of the exper­i­ment, a solu­tion of white liquor with high sul­fid­i­ty is obtained. which is a pos­i­tive char­ac­ter­is­tic of the sul­phate pulp boil­ing process, as it reduces the cook­ing time to a cer­tain degree of pen­e­tra­tion, facil­i­tates the delig­ni­fi­ca­tion process, and also increas­es the cel­lu­lose yield. This allows reduc­ing the con­sump­tion of reagents in the prepa­ra­tion of white liquor fed to the cook­ing chips. Accord­ing to the pro­posed method, the pre­cip­i­ta­tion of the black liquor lig­no­hy­dro­car­bon com­plex is car­ried out with­out the use of soda recov­ery boil­ers, where the process of obtain­ing white liquor is asso­ci­at­ed with obtain­ing alka­line water and sub­se­quent pro­duc­tion of green liquor from it, with fur­ther regen­er­a­tion of white liquor used for cook­ing sul­phate pulp. As a result of the exper­i­ment, the prin­ci­pal pos­si­bil­i­ty of hydro­gen sul­fide absorp­tion by a hydrox­ide solu­tion was estab­lished with the ful­fill­ment of the require­ments for white liquor.

Key­words: hydro­gen sul­fide absorp­tion, alka­line solu­tions, black liquor, sul­phate pulp

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Shkol’nikov E.V. Kinet­ics of sital­liza­tion of semi­con­duct­ing AsSe1.5Snx (x = 0,13, 0,20) glass­es. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 208–221 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.208–221

Abstract

In the arti­cle [Shkol­nikov, 2014], struc­tur­al-chem­i­cal fea­tures of AsSe1.5Snx semi­con­duct­ing glass­es, prone to sital­liza­tion (uni­form bulk crys­tal­liza­tion), were inves­ti­gat­ed. Glass­es with 5 and 7.4 at. % Sn (x = 0.13 and 0.20) were syn­the­sized by vac­u­um melt­ing, usu­al­ly from extreme­ly pure ele­men­tal sub­stances at var­i­ous tem­per­a­tures in the range of 700–950 C fol­lowed by quench­ing ampoules with melts in air. The kinet­ics of step­wise trans­for­ma­tions dur­ing bulk isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of AsSe1.5Snx glass­es has been stud­ied in the tem­per­a­ture range of 210−310 °С using 119Sn Mȍss­bauer spec­troscopy, x‑ray phase analy­sis, and the den­si­ty and micro­hard­ness mea­sure­ments of the quenched sam­ples. The kinet­ics of the gross bulk crys­tal­liza­tion of glass­es have been ana­lyzed accord­ing to the data on den­si­ty mea­sure­ment using the Kolmogorov–Avrami equa­tion, which was gen­er­al­ized on step­wise and incom­plete isother­mal trans­for­ma­tions. It was found that the first stage of isother­mal sital­liza­tion of glass­es in the low-tem­per­a­ture range of 210–255 С is dom­i­nat­ed by homo­ge­neous nucle­ation and three-dimen­sion­al growth of fine­ly dis­persed SnSe phase crys­tals, which ini­ti­ate het­ero­ge­neous nucle­ation and two-dimen­sion­al growth of crys­tals of the main crys­tal­lo­chem­i­cal­ly sim­i­lar phase of As2Se3 at the sec­ond stage. Recon­struc­tive crys­tal­liza­tion of the inves­ti­gat­ed glass­es is asso­ci­at­ed with a con­tin­u­ous change in the chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion and is described by an inter­val of val­ues of the acti­va­tion ener­gy. At the tem­per­a­tures of 260–310 °C the first step sep­a­rates a mix­ture of SnSe and SnSe2 phas­es with the pre­dom­i­nance of the SnSe phase in the ini­tial stages, and the pre­cip­i­ta­tion of the basic crys­talline phase of As2Se3 is strong­ly retard­ed or not fixed.

Key­words: step­wise bulk crys­tal­liza­tion of glass­es, sitalls, com­ple­tion degree of crys­tal­liza­tion, kinet­ic para­me­ters of isother­mal gross crys­tal­liza­tion, 119Sn Mȍss­bauer spec­tra, Kolmogorov–Avrami gen­er­al equation

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4. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

Zatenko S.I., Tara­ban M.V. Com­par­i­son of mod­i­fied inter­val mod­els using the inho­mo­ge­neous Pois­son process­es with their stan­dard coun­ter­parts. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 222–232 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.222–232

Abstract

The arti­cle pro­vides a com­par­a­tive analy­sis of inter­val gen­er­al­ized Bayesian soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els based on non-uni­form Pois­son process­es with well-known and well-proven clas­si­cal mod­els of Joel–Okumoto and Musa–Okumoto. The new inter­val mod­els com­bine the max­i­mum like­li­hood func­tion prin­ci­ple and the Bayesian approach. To find the mod­el para­me­ters, the set of all para­me­ters is divid­ed into two sub­sets. Using the para­me­ters of the first sub­set and sta­tis­ti­cal data, a gen­er­al­ized Bayesian mod­el is con­struct­ed, with the help of which the bound­aries of the sets of prob­a­bil­i­ty dis­tri­b­u­tion func­tion sets are formed, depend­ing on the para­me­ters of the sec­ond sub­set. Fur­ther, these para­me­ters are cal­cu­lat­ed using the max­i­mum like­li­hood func­tion prin­ci­ple. This approach allows to obtain a qual­i­ta­tive pre­dic­tion of soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty even at the design stage, when sta­tis­ti­cal infor­ma­tion is insuf­fi­cient. The mod­el takes into account the increase in soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty in the process of debug­ging and can be adjust­ed by chang­ing the para­me­ter of cau­tion. The qual­i­ty of the pre­dic­tion of mod­els is ver­i­fied by com­par­ing the pre­dict­ed val­ues with the real val­ues of time to fail­ure in the process of debug­ging soft­ware. To assess the qual­i­ty of the pre­dic­tion of mod­els, the fol­low­ing indi­ca­tors are cal­cu­lat­ed: the max­i­mum devi­a­tion, the aver­age devi­a­tion and the stan­dard devi­a­tion of the pre­dict­ed data from the real val­ues. The aver­age val­ues of the devi­a­tions for the mod­els, cal­cu­lat­ed after pre­dict­ing 17 and 6 val­ues of the num­ber of fail­ures with the cau­tion para­me­ters s = 1 and s = 0,5, are ana­lyzed. From the results of the cal­cu­la­tion, it fol­lows that the qual­i­ty of the pro­posed inter­val mod­i­fi­ca­tions is high­er com­pared to the clas­si­cal mod­els. In addi­tion, it is clear­ly seen that the qual­i­ty of the pro­posed inter­val mod­els is sig­nif­i­cant­ly improved com­pared with con­ven­tion­al mod­els, when the num­ber of tests is small, that is, the amount of sta­tis­ti­cal infor­ma­tion is small. Ana­lyz­ing the qual­i­ty of the fore­cast of inter­val mod­els for dif­fer­ent val­ues of the para­me­ter of cau­tion, one can see that small­er val­ues lead to a high­er qual­i­ty of the fore­cast when there is a large amount of sta­tis­ti­cal data. How­ev­er, the qual­i­ty of the fore­cast falls with a rel­a­tive­ly small num­ber of sta­tis­ti­cal data. The oppo­site con­clu­sion can be made when ana­lyz­ing the case when the para­me­ter of cau­tion increas­es. The results of the analy­sis are pre­sent­ed in the form of graphs. This com­par­a­tive analy­sis showed that new reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els based on the use of inter­val reli­a­bil­i­ty indi­ca­tors allow us to obtain a high­er qual­i­ty pre­dic­tion com­pared to clas­si­cal prob­a­bilis­tic models.

Key­words: soft­ware reli­a­bil­i­ty, inter­val Bayesian reli­a­bil­i­ty mod­els, pes­simism coef­fi­cient, growth function

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Zay­ats A.M., Khabarov S.P. Con­struc­tion of neur­al net­work clas­si­fi­ca­tion of Fish­er iris­es based on JavaSCript. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2019, is. 226, pp. 233–247 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2019.226.233–247

Abstract

The pro­ce­dure for select­ing the struc­ture and para­me­ters of the neur­al net­work for the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of a data set known as Iris Fish­er, which includes data on 150 plant spec­i­mens of three dif­fer­ent species, is con­sid­ered. An approach to solv­ing this prob­lem with­out using addi­tion­al soft­ware and pow­er­ful neur­al net­work pack­ages using only the tools of the stan­dard OS brows­er is pro­posed. This required the imple­men­ta­tion of a num­ber of JavaScript pro­ce­dures with their load­ing into the devel­oped HTML inter­face page. The study of a large num­ber of dif­fer­ent struc­tures of mul­ti­lay­er neur­al net­works, trained on the basis of the back-prop­a­ga­tion error algo­rithm, made it pos­si­ble to choose the struc­ture of a neur­al net­work with only one hid­den lay­er of three neu­rons for a test dataset. This great­ly sim­pli­fies the imple­men­ta­tion of the Fish­er Iris clas­si­fi­er, allow­ing it to be for­mat­ted as an HTML page down­loaded from the server.

Key­words: neur­al net­works, clas­si­fi­ca­tion, expert sys­tems, web technology

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2018 issues

Issue 225
1. FORESTRY

Kovyazin V.F., Demi­dov P.M., Nguyen Thi Thuy The estab­lish­ment of square ele­ments of gar­den land­scapes using GIS-tech­nolo­gies. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 6–16 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.6–16

Abstract

Land­scape gar­dens and parks are part of the urban forests of St. Peters­burg. They per­form envi­ron­men­tal func­tions, are the basis of urban plan­ning and need cadas­tral reg­is­tra­tion. To account for pub­lic green spaces need a car­to­graph­ic and seman­tic data­base of ele­ments of land­scape gar­den­ing. When devel­op­ing the cadas­tre of veg­e­ta­tion, it is nec­es­sary to take into account all the objects of the city, tak­ing into account each ele­ment of land­scap­ing: the total area, the area of trees, shrubs, lawns, flower beds and oth­er real estate at the research object. A holis­tic view of the land­scape of gar­dens and parks can give a car­to­graph­ic image and the use of mod­ern geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tems (GIS). The results of sur­veys of green spaces are nec­es­sary for the pur­pos­es of com­pe­tent man­age­ment of plant resources of St. Petersburg.

Key­words: land­scape gar­den­ing, land­scap­ing ele­ment, area, geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tem (GIS tech­nol­o­gy), dig­i­tal map

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Tetyukhin S.V., Shu­bi­na M.A., Pavskaya M.V. Elec­tron­ic maps as a tool to ana­lyze spa­tial-tem­po­ral dynam­ics of for­est fund lands Lisin­skaya part of the teaching­ex­per­i­men­tal for­est in Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 17–27 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.17–27

Abstract

The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the pos­si­bil­i­ty of using dif­fer­ent mul­ti-tem­po­ral e‑cartographic mate­r­i­al in sci­en­tif­ic and indus­tri­al activ­i­ties of Edu­ca­tion­al-exper­i­men­tal forestry of the Leningrad region. It is estab­lished that due to pos­si­bil­i­ty to com­bine and simul­ta­ne­ous­ly ana­lyze in the diverse com­bi­na­tion of remote sens­ing data and var­i­ous mul­ti-tem­po­ral elec­tron­ic the­mat­ic maps (geo­graph­i­cal, geo­log­i­cal, soil, geob­otan­i­cal, for­est plan­ta­tion plans, etc.) we can talk about the new use of the car­to­graph­ic method. These mate­ri­als clear­ly show that the study of for­est ecosys­tems built on the wide­spread use of mul­ti-tem­po­ral e‑cards allows much more effec­tive than con­ven­tion­al meth­ods, to solve many sci­en­tif­ic and pro­duc­tion problems.

Key­words: elec­tron­ic car­to­graph­ic mate­ri­als, for­est lands, remote sens­ing data

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Usolt­sev V.А., Tse­pordey I.S., Osmirko А.А., Kovyazin V.F., Chasovskikh V.P., Аzarenok V.А., Аzarenok М.V., Kuz’min N.I. Mod­el­ing of the addi­tive bio­mass struc­ture of Pinus L. stands in cli­mat­ic gra­di­ents of Eura­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 28–46 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.28–46

Abstract

For­est bio­mass is a key ecosys­tem part and an impor­tant com­po­nent of the glob­al car­bon cycle. Mod­el­ling of bio­mass, sen­si­tive to cli­mate change, is ful­filed up-to-date at lev­els as for­est stands and sam­ple trees. How­ev­er, all cur­rent stud­ies of this mat­ter are car­ried out with­in lim­it­ed ecore­gions. The data­base on for­est bio­mass of the sub­genus Pinus L. in Eura­sia in a num­ber of 2460 sam­ple plots com­piled by the authors is the basis for reveal­ing transcon­ti­nen­tal reg­u­lar­i­ties. The first attempt is made to devel­op a bio­mass struc­ture mod­el har­mo­nized by means of addi­tive com­po­nent com­po­si­tion algo­rithm describ­ing bio­mass change in trans-Eurasian hydrother­mal gra­di­ents, name­ly, mean annu­al pre­cip­i­ta­tion and mean Jan­u­ary air tem­per­a­ture. Addi­tiv­i­ty of bio­mass com­po­nent com­po­si­tion means that the total of bio­mass com­po­nents (stems, branch­es, foliage, roots) derived from com­po­nent equa­tions is equal to the result obtained using the com­mon bio­mass equa­tion. It is stat­ed that in cold cli­mat­ic zones any increase in pre­cip­i­ta­tion leads to cor­re­spond­ing decrease in the bio­mass val­ues, but in warm zones – to its increase. In wet areas, the rise in tem­per­a­ture caus­es an increase of bio­mass val­ues, but in arid areas – their reduc­tions. Geo­met­ric view of this mod­el rep­re­sent­ed by a «pro­peller-shaped» sur­face is con­sis­tent with the results, for­mer­ly revealed by the oth­er authors in Rus­sia on local and region­al lev­els. The pro­posed transcon­ti­nen­tal mod­el of addi­tive struc­ture of for­est bio­mass gives a pos­si­bil­i­ty to pre­dict the change of bio­mass struc­ture in rela­tion to simul­ta­ne­ous increase or decrease of Jan­u­ary tem­per­a­ture and annu­al pre­cip­i­ta­tion. The devel­op­ment of such mod­els for basic for­est-form­ing species grown in Eura­sia enables to fore­cast any changes in the bio­log­i­cal pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of for­est cov­er of Eura­sia in rela­tion to cli­mate change.

Key­words: two-nee­dled pines of Eura­sia, for­est bio­mass, addi­tive bio­mass mod­el, mean Jan­u­ary air tem­per­a­ture, mean annu­al precipitation.

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Kho­dachek O.A., Popovichev B.G. Addi­tion­al nutri­tion of pine-eels in plant­i­ng with high recre­ation­al load in the Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 47–57 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.47–57

Abstract

A study was made of the dynam­ics of the state of the pine stand of an ordi­nary pine tree grow­ing in the vil­lage of Lem­bolo­vo in the Leningrad Region over a 4‑year peri­od: an esti­mate of the phy­tosan­i­tary state of trees with an aver­age stand­point over the years, the cal­cu­la­tion of dead trees, and the main fac­tors of weak­en­ing of the stand. It was estab­lished that trees with attempts to col­o­nize the pest were in most cas­es exposed to neg­a­tive anthro­pogenic effects. The method of count­ing the num­ber of pine lubo-food by the inten­si­ty of its sup­ple­men­tary feed­ing has been tested.In the course of field stud­ies it was revealed that the num­ber of shoots dam­aged by pests and their total mass per unit area of the sur­veyed area may dif­fer depend­ing on the size of the reg­is­tra­tion areas where the fall­en shoots were recorded.Based on the results of the sta­tis­ti­cal pro­cess­ing of the exper­i­men­tal data, infor­ma­tion is giv­en on the num­ber and size of the reg­is­tra­tion areas required, depend­ing on the accu­ra­cy of the exper­i­ment, and rec­om­men­da­tions are giv­en for choos­ing the opti­mal account­ing option.The prob­lem of win­ter­ing of the young gen­er­a­tion of bee­tles is considered.An approx­i­mate cal­cu­la­tion is made of the pop­u­la­tion den­si­ty of the win­ter­ing stock of a pine bee­tle with the deter­mi­na­tion of the loss of green nee­dles by trees with addi­tion­al nutri­tion of the pest. An analy­sis is made of the data on the num­ber and weight of dam­aged shoots on a per­ma­nent tri­al plot obtained in dif­fer­ent years.As a result of the research it was found that the num­ber of pine bee­tle in the lab­o­ra­to­ry is sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent, but in all cas­es it does not exceed the thresh­old of dam­age (up to 5 thou­sand pieces per hectare), hence the pest does not sig­nif­i­cant­ly influ­ence the state of the exam­ined stand.

Key­words: scots pine, atten­u­a­tion fac­tors, pine-eel, pop­u­la­tion account­ing, sup­ple­men­tary nutrition

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Mel’nik M.A., Volko­va E.S., Bisiro­va E.M., Kriv­ets S.A. Assess­ment of the eco­log­i­cal and eco­nom­ic dam­age to for­est use caused by the inva­sion of the four-eyed bark bee­tle into dark conif­er­ous ecosys­tems in Siberia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 58–75 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.58–75

Abstract

The arti­cle presents a method­olog­i­cal toolk­it for assess­ing the eco­log­i­cal and eco­nom­ic dam­age to for­est use from the death and degra­da­tion of fir forests as a result of the inva­sion of the Far East­ern bark bee­tle Poly­gra­pus prox­imus in Siberia. Tak­ing into account exist­ing domes­tic and for­eign sci­en­tif­ic and method­olog­i­cal approach­es used in the field of forestry to assess dam­age from adverse anthro­pogenic and nat­ur­al fac­tors, a method­ol­o­gy has been devel­oped for cal­cu­lat­ing the inte­grat­ed dam­age from loss of wood, sec­ondary wood resources and of eco­log­i­cal func­tions of the for­est due with activ­i­ty of the invad­er. For­mu­las are pro­posed for cal­cu­lat­ing the direct actu­al and poten­tial dam­age from the loss of wood, fir resin, fir paw and New Year fir, as well as indi­rect dam­age from the dis­tur­bance of the car­bon-deposit­ing, oxy­gen-pro­duc­ing and water pro­tec­tion func­tions of the stands. Appro­ba­tion of the method was car­ried out using mon­i­tor­ing data on 6 test sites in dark conif­er­ous forests in the south of the Tom­sk Oblast. On aver­age for all test sites, the amount of direct loss­es, based on the min­i­mum rates of pay­ment for wood at the root, was about 22 thou­sand rubles / ha, indi­rect dam­age – 25 thou­sand rubles / ha. The amount of dam­age to for­est use in the fir forests in the south of the Tom­sk Oblast, most affect­ed by P. prox­imus, cal­cu­lat­ed accord­ing to the pro­posed method­ol­o­gy, was esti­mat­ed at 92.14 mil­lion rubles, includ­ing direct dam­age of 44 mil­lion rubles, and indi­rect loss­es of 48.14 mil­lion rubles.

Key­words: inva­sion, four-eyed bark bee­tle, Poly­gra­pus prox­imus, Siber­ian fir forests, direct and indi­rect loss­es, actu­al and poten­tial dam­age, wood resources, eco­log­i­cal func­tions of forest.

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Polyako­va V.V., Shury­gin S.G. The influ­ence of the Ring Road on the growth of pine stands in Zher­novsky dis­trict forestry. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 76–89 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.76–89

Abstract

The ter­ri­to­ry of large cities is increas­ing, larg­er areas of bio­geo­cenoses are used for the con­struc­tion of lin­ear objects (urban infra­struc­ture). This leads to an increase of the load on the ecosys­tems of sur­round­ing areas. The most sig­nif­i­cant lin­ear object of the city of St. Peters­burg is the Ring Road. The con­struc­tion and oper­a­tion of the Ring Road leads to the dis­rup­tion of the links between the com­po­nents of bio­geo­cenoses and to changes in bio­geo­cenoses them­selves. In this paper the influ­ence of the Ring Road of St. Peters­burg on the com­po­nent of bio­geo­ceno­sis – pine stands was stud­ied. The quan­ti­ta­tive indi­ca­tor of pine stands growth is radi­al incre­ment. Para­me­ters of radi­al incre­ment reflect the qual­i­ty of grow­ing con­di­tions. The influ­ence of posi­tion of the Ring Road and cli­mat­ic con­di­tions on the radi­al incre­ments of pine stands was tak­en into account. The cor­re­la­tion analy­sis revealed a sig­nif­i­cant reli­able rela­tion­ship between the radi­al incre­ments of the pine stands of site 3 and the aver­age tem­per­a­ture over the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od by 25%. Also, the cor­re­la­tion analy­sis revealed a sig­nif­i­cant reli­able rela­tion­ship between the radi­al incre­ments of the stands of site 6 and the total amount of pre­cip­i­ta­tion tem­per­a­ture over the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od by 30%. Sin­gle-fac­tor analy­sis of vari­ance showed that the influ­ence of the Ring Road on the growth of pine stands of under­flood­ed sites 5 and 6 is reli­able and is 38 and 30%, respec­tive­ly, of all exter­nal fac­tors affect­ing the growth of stands. The Ring Road was built with the con­struc­tion tech­nol­o­gy infringe­ment. The road embank­ment works as a dam on the way of soil water and ground­wa­ter. The obtained results con­firm the reli­able influ­ence of the Ring Road on the growth of pine stands. The most sig­nif­i­cant devi­a­tion of the incre­ments of stands was on under­flood­ed sites with dis­turbed water and air conditions.

Key­words: the Ring Road, radi­al incre­ment of for­est stands, pine stands, water regime.

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Demi­do­va N.A., Durk­i­na T.M., Gogol­e­va L.G., Bykov Y.S., Para­monov A.A. The results of 35-years lodge­pole pine tests in the Euro­pean North of Rus­sia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 90–105 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.90–105

Abstract

The aim of the study is to assess the sur­vival, growth and devel­op­ment of lodge­pole pine in com­par­i­son with the Scots pine on the exper­i­men­tal plan­ta­tions on the Euro­pean North of Rus­sia (the Arkhangel­sk and Volog­da regions, and the Komi Repub­lic). The growth analy­sis of lodge­pole pine on the plan­ta­tions in the Arkhangel­sk region in dif­fer­ent grow­ing con­di­tions showed that the lodge­pole pine, over­takes Scots pine in terms of the cur­rent growth: in height – 1.2–1.5 times, in diam­e­ter — 1.4–2.0 times; in vol­ume and size of the aver­age growth by vol­ume — 1.2–2.3 times. Sim­i­lar results were obtained in the Repub­lic of Komi. The best in terms of growth and sur­vival in the Volog­da region were trees of more south­ern Cana­di­an ori­gin (55–58° N), which exceed the Scots pine in growth both in diam­e­ter and in height by 1.2 times. We should note that with age, the ten­den­cy of the supe­ri­or­i­ty of lodge­pole pine over Scots pine has remained, but the growth of lodge­pole pine has slowed. The fast growth and inten­sive accu­mu­la­tion of phy­tomass from the first years of life make the lodge­pole pine less resis­tant to wind and snow loads, espe­cial­ly on fer­tile soils and slopes. Accord­ing to the results of long-term cul­ti­va­tion of lodge­pole pine in the Euro­pean North of Rus­sia we did not notice its nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion that does not involve the dan­ger of con­t­a­m­i­na­tion of our forests by alien species. A sig­nif­i­cant peri­od of time (more than 30 years) has passed since the begin­ning of the first lodge­pole pine exper­i­men­tal plant­i­ng, there­fore, one can judge the prospects of its indus­tri­al cul­ti­va­tion in the north-west of Rus­sia. Based on the results of the con­duct­ed stud­ies, it was con­clud­ed that the Arkhangel­sk and Volog­da Regions and Komi Repub­lic are per­spec­tive areas for Pinus con­tor­ta Loud var. lat­i­fo­lia S. Wats. cul­ti­va­tion, that is con­firmed with domes­tic expe­ri­ence of this species cul­ti­va­tion in the regions of North-West of Rus­sia. It supe­ri­ors the native species by pro­duc­tiv­i­ty in this area.

Key­words: lodge­pole pine, Scots pine, ori­gin, plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al, conif­er­ous plan­ta­tion of exot­ic species, growth speed, inven­to­ry indices

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Tikhonov A.S. Cri­te­ri­on for the esti­ma­tion of for­est repro­duc­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 106–119 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.106–119

Abstract

The for­est code of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion requires the repro­duc­tion of forests – the process of for­est restora­tion with its inher­ent nat­ur­al prop­er­ties. In prac­tice, the cri­te­ri­on should take into account the rel­a­tive com­plete­ness of the first tier in order to avoid exces­sive thin­ning of stands in order to achieve greater par­tic­i­pa­tion of tar­get species. From these posi­tions ana­lyzed stands of spruce, pine and oak after con­tin­u­ous and even­ly-grad­ual felling for sev­er­al decades under the influ­ence of felling care. Found that more objec­tive­ly reflects the qual­i­ty of the resump­tion of the main species, not the scale of state forestry on the den­si­ty of the under­growth, and scale of occur­rence of its on exper­i­men­tal plots mea­sur­ing 10 m². The mag­ni­tude of occur­rence we can pre­dict the equi­ty share prin­ci­ple species formed in the com­po­si­tion of the for­est stand. Effec­tive was even­ly-grad­ual felling in spruce, the com­plete­ness of the first tier was 0.50. Pine resumed suc­cess­ful­ly after clear cut­ting with the salin­i­ty of the soil by cater­pil­lar skid­der in autumn.

Key­words: for­est sci­ence, forestry, refor­esta­tion, main fellings

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Nikitenko E.A. About pos­si­bil­i­ty of a Kore­an pine arti­fi­cial refor­esta­tion in Khasan­skij region of Pri­morskij bound­ary. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 120–130 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.120–130

Abstract

The aim of the work was to answer the ques­tions: did Kore­an pine (Pinus koraien­sis Siebold et Zucc.) grow in the Hasan dis­trict of Pri­morsky region, and if it grew, where and in what con­di­tions and how to restore it in these con­di­tions. The Hasan dis­trict occu­pies the south­ern­most part of the Pri­morsky region – south of 43° 25’N. In the sec­ond half of the XIXth cen­tu­ry Kore­an pine was found here as a sin­gle exam­ple in the decid­u­ous forests in the upper reach­es of the rivers at an alti­tude of more than 250 m above sea lev­el along steep slopes. The ques­tion of the indige­nous or sec­ondary char­ac­ter of the oak forests of the south of the Pri­morye remains debat­able from the time of the first researchers of the Far East. Fol­low­ing many authors of sci­en­tif­ic works, we believe that the south­ern slopes of south­ern Pri­morye were orig­i­nal­ly occu­pied by oak forests, and plant­i­ng Kore­an pine in xero­phyt­ic con­di­tions would be fruit­less. Exper­i­men­tal plant­i­ng in the Khasan­sky dis­trict was not cre­at­ed, but the pro­duc­tion plant­i­ng for 40 years were cre­at­ed under the canopy of oak trees, includ­ing those that were passed through selec­tive felling. Accord­ing to the for­est inven­to­ry book, since 1975, under the canopy of oak trees, 1877 hectares of pure and mixed Pinus koraien­sis Siebold et Zucc. with Abies holophilla Max­im. or Abies nephrolepis (Trautv.) Max­im. were plant­ed. The old­est pre­served plant­i­ng in the south­ern part of the Khasan­sky dis­trict were plant­ed in 1979. Plant­i­ng are under the canopy of a 55-year old oak for­est with an addi­tive of lin­den and ash; den­si­ty of 0.6. The aver­age height of the plant­i­ng is about 4 m, how­ev­er, part of the Kore­an pine trees came out in the first lay­er and has a height of 10–12 m. In addi­tion, plant­i­ng are large­ly affect­ed by wild boars. Cre­ation of Kore­an pine plant­i­ng can be rec­om­mend­ed under the canopy of oak forests with the den­si­ty of the stock­ing not exceed­ing 0.6, after recon­struc­tive felling in decid­u­ous forests, as well as on non-forest­ed areas in sub­area 3a of the facies of south­ern oak forests of the Khasan­sky district.

Key­words: kore­an pine, sub­or­di­nate plant­i­ngs, oak forest

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Skryp­nikov A.V., Chernysho­va E.V., Sam­cov V.V., Abasov M.A. Meth­ods of non-lin­ear pro­gram­ming used in the design of the route. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 131–143 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.131–143

Abstract

The paper con­sid­ers the gen­er­al tech­nol­o­gy for design­ing a for­est road route in space and the ratio­nale for choos­ing the most effec­tive method for spe­cif­ic con­di­tions. In the method of approx­i­ma­tion of a sequence of points, a dia­log mode, that is, a mode of oper­a­tive com­mu­ni­ca­tion between a design­er and a com­put­er in the process of solv­ing a prob­lem, is wide­ly used. In order to save com­put­er time, the cal­cu­la­tion of the route is car­ried out seg­ment­ed. The bound­aries of the seg­ments are assigned pro­gram­mat­i­cal­ly tak­ing into account the rec­om­men­da­tions received exper­i­men­tal­ly. Some­times they need to be adjust­ed, for exam­ple, if the seg­ment over­lap zone is insuf­fi­cient for sat­is­fac­to­ry con­ju­ga­tion of adja­cent sec­tions of the route. In these cas­es, use the inter­ac­tive func­tion with code 1. Under this direc­tive, the trace ele­ment num­ber at the begin­ning of the seg­ment and the num­ber of the last point of the sketch line on the seg­ment are dis­played on the dis­play screen. Both char­ac­ter­is­tics can be adjust­ed. The sys­tem pro­vides sev­er­al ways to obtain infor­ma­tion about a sketch line, the vol­ume of which is quite large (up to 2000 sixdig­it num­bers). Although auto­mat­ic data log­gers are usu­al­ly used to obtain it, the pos­si­bil­i­ty of errors is not ruled out. There­fore, the authors imple­ment­ed soft­ware con­trol of infor­ma­tion, which allows to detect gross errors by ana­lyz­ing the angles between adja­cent seg­ments of the sketch line. Since the meth­ods of steep­est and coor­di­nate-wise descent allow us to deter­mine only the local min­i­mum, it is nec­es­sary to ensure the con­struc­tion of the ini­tial approx­i­ma­tion locat­ed in the grav­i­ta­tion­al zone to the glob­al min­i­mum. The obtained results of exper­i­men­tal stud­ies indi­cate a suf­fi­cient­ly high reli­a­bil­i­ty of the meth­ods of form­ing the ini­tial approx­i­ma­tion, and a sat­is­fac­to­ry speed of the methods.

Key­words: design, for­est roads, method of sequence of points

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Salmi­nen E.О., Boroz­na A.A., Pushkov D.V., Cher­vo­nenko Yu.A., Kobyl­skov I.P. Increase of reli­a­bil­i­ty, dura­bil­i­ty and reduc­tion of pow­er con­sump­tion of forestry machin­ery. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 144–154 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.144–154

Abstract

The arti­cle presents the tech­nique and tech­nol­o­gy of main­te­nance of forestry machin­ery and equip­ment, which ensures the increase of reli­a­bil­i­ty, dura­bil­i­ty and reduc­tion of ener­gy inten­si­ty in the process of exploita­tion due to the use of repair and recov­ery mix­tures based on ser­pen­tine min­er­als. What is espe­cial­ly impor­tant, repair and restora­tion work is car­ried out with­out dis­as­sem­bly of machin­ery and with­out stop­ping the pro­duc­tion process. In the train­ing and research lab­o­ra­to­ry of the St. Peters­burg State Forestry Uni­ver­si­ty, an exper­i­ment was car­ried out using RVS tech­nol­o­gy to restore the old worn out engine ZIL-130 of the 1969 issue. The sci­en­tif­ic exper­i­ment was car­ried out on a exper­i­men­tal device, which con­sists of a rolling-brake stand KO-2204 and a ZIL-130 engine. Dur­ing the oper­a­tion of the mech­a­nism, a reac­tion occurs under the influ­ence of high tem­per­a­ture and pres­sure between the RVS par­ti­cles and the phas­es of the met­al, as a result of which a stronger lay­er with improved tri­bo­log­i­cal prop­er­ties is formed at the bound­ary. As a result of the research it was found that the com­pres­sion in the cylin­ders of a worn-out engine was restored to the spec­i­fi­ca­tions pro­vid­ed for the new engine, and the fuel econ­o­my was at a vary­ing load of 7 to 15%. The use of RVS tech­nol­o­gy in the forestry com­plex allows to extend the ser­vice life of exist­ing equip­ment and machines, sav­ing fuel, which is espe­cial­ly impor­tant in case of a dif­fi­cult eco­nom­ic sit­u­a­tion, to allo­cate freed funds for the restora­tion of domes­tic forestry machin­ery, to aban­don the cap­i­tal repair sys­tem, extend­ing the life cycle of machines and equipment.

Key­words: life cycle, reli­a­bil­i­ty, dura­bil­i­ty, geo­mod­i­fiers, ser­pen­ti­nite, RVS-technologies

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Kudryavt­sev G.V., Posy­panov S.V. Inves­ti­ga­tion find­ings of accel­er­a­tion of rigid float­ing con­tain­ers. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 155–167 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.155–167

Abstract

Eco­nom­ic acces­si­bil­i­ty of a sig­nif­i­cant part of for­est resources in the main for­est regions of the coun­try can be pro­vid­ed only by using a dense net­work of rivers, con­sist­ing main­ly of medi­um and small rivers. Ship­ments can play sig­nif­i­cant role in this. Typ­i­cal­ly, the barges are used for the trans­port of tim­ber along inland water­ways, because of their large size are not applic­a­ble at the small rivers and at medi­um sized rivers dur­ing peri­ods of low water lev­el. On these rivers pro­posed to use barge train, which dimen­sions are deter­mined by the giv­en riv­er con­di­tions. Their dimen­sions are deter­mined by the num­ber of con­tain­ers or barge mod­ule (BM) installed in the barge train. Engi­neer­ing val­u­a­tions of a BM and barge train are based on infor­ma­tion con­cern­ing water resis­tance to motion of a body. The goal of the work: deriva­tion of infor­ma­tion for deter­min­ing the para­me­ters motion dur­ing accel­er­a­tion of the BM. The method of inves­ti­ga­tion: exper­i­men­tal-the­o­ret­i­cal. In the course of the­o­ret­i­cal stud­ies deter­mi­na­tion the fac­tors that influ­ence the process of accel­er­a­tion of a BM in water and deter­mine the val­ue inter­val coef­fi­cient of imag­i­nary mass incre­ment (CIMI). Exper­i­men­tal stud­ies were car­ried out on mod­el accord­ing to the quadric plan. The regres­sion mod­el of the inter­val coef­fi­cient of imag­i­nary mass incre­ment (CIMI) of a BM dur­ing its accel­er­a­tion were worked out. Cog­ni­tion of the coef­fi­cient allows to deter­mine the para­me­ters motion of a BM in the men­tioned con­di­tions. As a result of the analy­sis of the mod­el, it was estab­lished that the inter­val coef­fi­cient of imag­i­nary mass incre­ment (CIMI) Ф lin­ear­ly increas­es with increas­ing Froude num­ber Fr. The inten­si­ty of this increase becomes larg­er with increas­ing draught of BM, that is, with a decrease in its rel­a­tive width. The increase of rel­a­tive length of the BM caus­es decrease of the coef­fi­cient Φ. It also decreas­es with increas­ing degree of com­plete­ness process of accel­er­a­tion. The influ­ence degree and pat­tern of the deter­min­ing fac­tors depend sig­nif­i­cant­ly on their inter­ac­tion. To esti­mate this influ­ence it is pos­si­ble to per­form cal­cu­la­tions cor­re­spond­ing to a cer­tain com­bi­na­tion of factors.

Key­words: float­ing con­tain­er, barge mod­ule, exper­i­men­tal research, non­sta­tion­ary motion, water resis­tance, speed, tim­ber trans­port, coefficient

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Alek­san­drov V.A., Alek­san­drov A.V., Gasy­mov G.Sh. Stress­es of feller bunch­er on thin­nings dur­ing tech­no­log­i­cal moves. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 168–175 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.168–175

Abstract

A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of a dynam­ic sys­tem has been devel­oped: «The feller bunch­er – sub­ject of labor – the tree». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is made up in the form of the Lagrange equa­tion of the 2nd kind. The sys­tem of equa­tions is solved by the Runge–Kutta method, using the Math­CAD pro­gram­ming envi­ron­ment. Appro­ba­tion of the mod­el is car­ried out on the exam­ple of the com­mer­cial­ly avail­able LP-19A feller bunch­er machines in accel­er­a­tion and stop­ping modes. Con­clud­ed that the dynam­ic load on the process equip­ment dur­ing tech­no­log­i­cal moves is com­pa­ra­ble to the load dur­ing the pro­cess­ing (pack­ag­ing) of the tree.

Key­words: feller bunch­er, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, dynam­ic load

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Bazarov S.M., Belenkiy Yu.I., Bacherikov I.V., Ilyushenko D.A., Bazaro­va M.V., Nguen Phuc Sue Solu­tion mod­el of nat­ur­al growth for­est stands. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 176–187 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.176–187

Abstract

The prob­lem of sus­tain­able for­est man­age­ment should be based on knowl­edge of the laws of the dynam­ic state of the for­est, as a man­i­fes­ta­tion of the Gen­er­al pat­tern of the phase devel­op­ment of nat­ur­al space-time struc­tures (begin­ning, struc­tur­ing, asymp­tot­ic state, destruc­tura­tion). Lin­ear and non­lin­ear equa­tions of vibra­tions (waves) describ­ing the phase dynam­ics of var­i­ous phe­nom­e­na reveal the uni­ty of nat­ur­al phe­nom­e­na and their uni­ver­sal­i­ty (mechan­i­cal, elec­tro­mag­net­ic, chem­i­cal, bio­log­i­cal, eco­nom­ic, etc.). Non­lin­ear­i­ty is an inher­ent prop­er­ty of any sys­tem evolv­ing over time. A spe­cial place in the the­o­ry of non­lin­ear oscil­la­tions is occu­pied by soli­tons. Soli­tons are sta­ble phase dynam­ic struc­tures, which are obtained by solv­ing non­lin­ear equa­tions of oscil­la­tions (and waves). Accord­ing to mod­ern con­cepts, soli­tons play an impor­tant role in the evo­lu­tion of nature, so a pos­si­ble analy­sis of the nat­ur­al growth of for­est stands from the per­spec­tive of the the­o­ry of non­lin­ear oscil­la­tions will show their com­mon­al­i­ty with a vari­ety of nat­ur­al phe­nom­e­na. It is known that the growth of plan­ta­tions, as a dynam­ic process, cor­re­spond to three main points: there is a begin­ning, devel­op­ment and asymp­tot­ic val­ue of the inven­to­ry para­me­ters (diam­e­ter, height, bio­mass). These are the prop­er­ties of soli­tons, they have a begin­ning, phase devel­op­ment and asymp­tot­ic state in time. The soli­tons result­ing from the solu­tion of non­lin­ear equa­tions of oscil­la­tions, enough to accu­rate­ly sum­ma­rize the avail­able exper­i­men­tal for­est (diam­e­ter, height, bio­mass) and reveal the dynam­ics of phase growth of for­est trees. The con­struct­ed soli­ton mod­el of the phase rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the growth dynam­ics of for­est stands fits it into the Gen­er­al log­i­cal pic­ture of the for­ma­tion of nat­ur­al struc­tures and can become an ele­ment of the foun­da­tions of the prin­ci­ple of har­mo­ny in the man­age­ment of for­est resources.

Key­words: phase, time, sta­bil­i­ty, asymp­tot­ic, structure

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Shara­pov E.S., Smirno­va E.V., Toropov A.S. Com­par­a­tive analy­sis of drilling tools for wood prop­er­ties eval­u­a­tion by the drilling resis­tance mea­sure­ments. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 188–201 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.188–201

Abstract

The use of dif­fer­ent para­me­ters for wood prop­er­ties eval­u­a­tion by the drilling resis­tance mea­sure­ments makes dif­fi­cul­ties in data com­par­i­son, and also reduces the lev­el of sci­en­tif­ic com­po­nent of the results. Drilling and feed­ing pow­er (W) can be used as uni­ver­sal out­put para­me­ters which char­ac­ter­ize the drilling process and prop­er­ties of wood. An IML-RESI PD 400 (IML Sys­tem GmbH, Wies­loch, Ger­many) and ResistYX (LLC NovlesTech, Yoshkar-Ola, Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion) drilling tools were used for com­par­a­tive analy­sis. Lab­o­ra­to­ry drilling resis­tance exper­i­ments were con­duct­ed using a stan­dard spade drill bit (IML Sys­tem GmbH) and defect free spec­i­mens of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Pon­derosa pine (Pinus pon­derosa Dougl. ex Laws.), Euro­pean beech (Fagus syl­vat­i­ca L.), Eng­lish oak (Quer­cus robur L.) and birch (Betu­la pen­du­la L.). Spec­i­mens were con­di­tioned in nor­mal cli­mate (20 °C/65%RH). Ratio coef­fi­cients between mean drilling resis­tance (%, PD-400) and drilling pow­er (W, ResistYX) were cal­cu­lat­ed for each spec­i­men. It was found that wood species has a sig­nif­i­cant effect (p=0.05) on the mean ratio coef­fi­cient of wood drilling resis­tance and drilling pow­er. A suf­fi­cient degree of con­ver­gence between drilling resis­tance and drilling pow­er in terms of ampli­tude and drilling depth was found for every sep­a­rate spec­i­men. Rota­tion­al speed and feed rate of drill bit influ­ence the nom­i­nal chip thick­ness (feed rate per major cut­ting edge) and should be tak­en into account for com­par­i­son of results obtained from used drilling tools. Lin­ear cor­re­la­tion (R2=0.99) was found between mean drilling resis­tance (PD-400) and drilling pow­er (ResistYX). The mod­el can be used for the results of the drilling resis­tance and drilling pow­er con­vert­ing or com­par­i­son obtained from the test­ed drilling tools.

Key­words: wood qual­i­ty assess­ment, wood prop­er­ties, den­si­ty, drilling resis­tance mea­sure­ment, drilling power

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Fedyaev A.A., Chu­bin­sky A.N. Inves­ti­ga­tion of the strength of the glu­ing of conif­er­ous saw-tim­ber. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 202–212 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.202–212

Abstract

The study of the strength of glued joints of glued beams has been devot­ed to a large num­ber of works of domes­tic sci­en­tists, the analy­sis of which allows us to iden­ti­fy sig­nif­i­cant fac­tors, the main ones being the mois­ture and den­si­ty of wood and the type of glue used. With an increase in mois­ture con­tent of more than 12% when glu­ing with urea and phe­nol-formalde­hyde adhe­sives, the lev­el of their adhe­sive inter­ac­tion with wood is unac­cept­ably reduced. Inves­ti­ga­tion was made of glued joints of sawn tim­ber vary­ing mois­ture (6–14%) from pine and spruce on melamine-ure­aformalde­hyde and emul­sion poly­mer-iso­cyanate glues. Fin­ger joints were test­ed for strength. The qual­i­ty of glu­ing lamel­las was eval­u­at­ed by the shear strength along the wood fibers accord­ing to stan­dard meth­ods. The results of the stud­ies showed that the cur­rent­ly wide­ly used melamine-urea ‑formalde­hyde and emul­sion poly­mer-iso­cyanate adhe­sives are less sen­si­tive to increased mois­ture in wood. The prin­ci­pal influ­ence is exert­ed by its den­si­ty. How­ev­er, it is known that in the process of exploita­tion, wood tends to estab­lish an equi­lib­ri­um mois­ture con­tent. If the ini­tial mois­ture con­tent of the sawn tim­ber in the glued beam is 6–14%, then at high tem­per­a­ture and low rel­a­tive humid­i­ty, the wood will dry up, and its shrink­age will be dif­fer­ent in dif­fer­ent parts of not only the beam, but also each lamel­la as a result of uneven dis­tri­b­u­tion of mois­ture, the het­ero­gene­ity of the struc­ture and its anisotropy of prop­er­ties. As a result of dif­fer­ent shrink­age in the adhe­sive lay­er, nor­mal stress­es capa­ble of destroy­ing the adhe­sive bond will arise . Dan­ger­ous are the tan­gen­tial stress­es aris­ing in the adhe­sive lay­er between the lamel­las of dif­fer­ent mois­ture con­tent. The ratio­nale for the max­i­mum per­mis­si­ble dif­fer­ence in humid­i­ty of adja­cent lamel­las is the sub­ject of fur­ther research.

Key­words: strength, glu­ing of sol­id wood, destruc­tion of adhe­sive layer

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Ermolin­sky V.G., Koval­e­va O.P. Opin­ions and facts in the the­o­ret­i­cal foun­da­tions of arti­fi­cial fiber and pulp and paper pro­duc­tion tech­nolo­gies. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 213–225 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.213–225

Abstract

The arti­cle deals with dif­fer­ent approach­es to under­stand­ing the nature of bonds in cel­lu­lose-fibrous sys­tems. Analy­sis of the results of numer­ous stud­ies shows that in the man­u­fac­ture of high-tech pulp and paper prod­ucts it is nec­es­sary to take into account the specifics of the process­es of struc­ture for­ma­tion in dis­persed sys­tems, the dis­per­sion medi­um in which is water or its solu­tions, at each stage in mul­ti-stage sys­tems of chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing of veg­etable raw mate­ri­als. The arti­cle high­lights the fea­tures of dialec­tics of applied sci­ence (denial of nega­tion) and its impact on solv­ing the prob­lems of the domes­tic sci­en­tif­ic school of tex­tile and pulp and paper indus­try. The sep­a­ra­tion of phys­i­cal chem­istry of solu­tions of high-mol­e­c­u­lar com­pounds from col­loidal chem­istry into a sep­a­rate sci­ence was the rea­son for the cre­ation of the the­o­ret­i­cal foun­da­tions of the tech­nol­o­gy of arti­fi­cial fibers and pulp and paper pro­duc­tion. Ignor­ing the sci­en­tif­ic pro­vi­sions on the struc­ture for­ma­tion of dis­persed sys­tems from the point of view of the phase inter­ac­tion of their com­po­nents and the relax­ation state is the rea­son for hold­ing back progress in improv­ing the tech­no­log­i­cal process­es of pulp and paper pro­duc­tion. The devel­oped the­o­ret­i­cal basis for obtain­ing dis­persed struc­tures with spec­i­fied mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties were not brought to the cre­ation of mod­els of tech­no­log­i­cal process­es nec­es­sary for the man­u­fac­ture of domes­tic tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment. Thus, the exclu­sion of col­loidal chem­istry, and its sec­tion – phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal mechan­ics, from the dai­ly prac­tice of pulp and paper pro­duc­tion pre­vents the pur­pose­ful solu­tion of prob­lems in the pro­duc­tion of high-tech materials.

Key­words: fibers, sul­phate cel­lu­lose, paper, phase inter­ac­tions, struc­ture for­ma­tion, defor­ma­tion, ther­mofix­a­tion, acti­va­tion, hydropho­bic interaction

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Сhu Cong Nghi, Spit­syn A.A., Pono­marev D.A., Chukhchin D.G., Sazanov Yu.N., Fedoro­va G.N. Prepa­ra­tion and acti­va­tion of bio-car­bon from bam­boo. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 226–236 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.226–236

Abstract

To inves­ti­gate the process of bio­car­bon prepa­ra­tion the car­boniza­tion of bam­boo stems was inves­ti­gat­ed. With this pur­pose the bam­boo stems were cut into pieces of 150 x 40 x 25 mm and then heat­ed in stain­less steel reac­tor with the speed 2 °С/min. After cool­ing in the atmos­phere of pyrol­y­sis gas­es a crude char­coal was sub­ject­ed to acti­va­tion in rotat­ing reac­tor by steam at the tem­per­a­ture 970 °C and per­ma­nent flow of gaseous nitro­gen and final­ly the mass loss­es were deter­mined. To detect the char­ac­ter­is­tic fea­tures of ther­mode­struc­tion of bam­boo stems com­pared with those for birch wood the depen­dences of mass loss­es ver­sus tem­per­a­ture were used which reveal clear endother­mic peak at 360 °С. Tak­ing into con­sid­er­a­tion the sim­i­lar­i­ty of chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion of bam­boo and birch this dif­fer­ence could be attrib­uted only to mor­pho­log­i­cal struc­ture of bam­boo tis­sues. By scan­ning elec­tron microscopy it was demon­strat­ed that acti­va­tion of crude biochar leads to the rise in num­ber of pores in char­coal with simul­ta­ne­ous changes of cross-sec­tion of pores which becomes ellip­soid in the shape after acti­va­tion. Iodine method to mea­sure an adsorp­tion activ­i­ty of acti­vat­ed char­coal was applied and it was deter­mined that its activ­i­ty ranges from 20 to 60%. A good agree­ment of this val­ue with weight loss­es dur­ing acti­va­tion is found. An increase of the time of acti­va­tion results in increase of adsorp­tion activ­i­ty of tar­get bam­boo charcoal.

Key­words: bam­boo, bio­car­bon, acti­vat­ed carbon

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Sinit­syn N.N., Telin N.V., Polevodo­va L.A. The dynam­ics of heat­ing a sin­gle piece of high-mois­ture wood bark locat­ed in a dense lay­er, blown by a high-tem­per­a­ture coolant. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 237–247 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.237–247

Abstract

The pur­pose of the study is to study the dynam­ics of heat­ing a sin­gle piece of high – mois­ture tree bark locat­ed in a dense lay­er of blown, high-tem­per­a­ture coolant. The analy­sis of the ener­gy use of wood bark in the process of its burn­ing in a lay­ered way in the fur­naces of heat gen­er­a­tors. The con­di­tions of effec­tive use of wood bark as fuel are revealed. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of warm­ing up a piece of high-mois­ture bark of wood locat­ed in a dense lay­er of blown, high-tem­per­a­ture coolant. The study of the dynam­ics of warm­ing pieces of high-mois­ture tree bark in the form of a par­al­lelepiped and an equiv­a­lent ball. The method of esti­ma­tion of time of warm­ing up of a piece of bark which is in a sta­tion­ary heat­ed dense lay­er is devel­oped. The math­e­mat­i­cal depen­dences allow­ing to deter­mine the time of heat­ing the sur­face lay­er of a piece of bark to the tem­per­a­ture of the begin­ning of the exit of volatile sub­stances are obtained by numer­i­cal method. The final rela­tions are giv­en to a dimen­sion­less form and expressed in terms of Fouri­er and Koso­vic num­bers. The obtained ratios take into account the geo­met­ric dimen­sions of the piece of bark, its ini­tial mois­ture and the para­me­ters of the heat­ing coolant. Prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tion of the results of this research is the orga­ni­za­tion of the com­bus­tion process in the boil­er unit.

Key­words: fuel com­bus­tion, bark dry­ing, fur­nace units

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Evstigneyev E.I. Quan­tifi­ca­tion of non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides and oth­er com­po­nents in veg­etable raw mate­ri­als. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 248–259 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.248–259

Abstract

The method of quan­ti­ta­tive deter­mi­na­tion of non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides in veg­etable raw mate­ri­als (wood and agri­cul­tur­al plants) is offered. He pro­vides deter­mi­na­tion in the ana­lyzed sam­ples the gen­er­al con­tent of poly­sac­cha­rides and cel­lu­lose, and non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides are deter­mined by a dif­fer­ence. As a method of deter­mi­na­tion of cel­lu­lose used Kürschn­er method which dif­fers in sim­plic­i­ty and lack of need of pre­lim­i­nary extrac­tion of a sam­ple as ethanol is the best sol­vent of extrac­tive sub­stances among indi­vid­ual sol­vents. For cor­rec­tion of con­tent of Kürschn­er cel­lu­lose on «pure» cel­lu­lose resid­ual pen­tosans are deter­mined by bro­mide bro­mat­ed method. As have shown results of the analy­sis of sam­ples with the known con­tent of non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides, the devel­oped method allows to deter­mine the spec­i­fied com­po­nents with high pre­ci­sion (the rel­a­tive error of def­i­n­i­tion does­n’t exceed 4.3%). Besides, in work the scheme deter­mi­na­tion of the main com­po­nents of veg­etable raw mate­ri­als is offered. It includes deter­mi­na­tion of poly­sac­cha­rides, cel­lu­lose, non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides, lignin, extrac­tive sub­stances and ash­es. With her help it is pos­si­ble to char­ac­ter­ize rather ful­ly com­po­nent com­po­si­tion of veg­etable raw mate­ri­als with­out resort­ing to use of the spe­cial equip­ment. Dif­fer­ences in con­tents and com­po­si­tion of poly­sac­cha­rides of wood of conif­er­ous and decid­u­ous breeds are defined by the new scheme of the analysis.

Key­words: poly­sac­cha­rides, non­cel­lu­losic poly­sac­cha­rides, Kürschn­er cel­lu­lose, resid­ual pentosans

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5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

Fedorenko N.I. Some con­di­tions for con­ver­gence of the method of iter­a­tions for solv­ing a non­lin­ear equa­tion. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii, 2018, is. 225, pp. 260–267 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.225.260–267

Abstract

One of the dif­fi­cul­ties aris­ing in con­nec­tion with the use of branch­ing process­es for solv­ing non­lin­ear equa­tions is the ful­fill­ment of the so-called majo­rant con­di­tions respon­si­ble for the exis­tence and finite­ness of the math­e­mat­i­cal expec­ta­tion of esti­mates built on the tra­jec­to­ries of the branch­ing process. The ques­tion of the ful­fill­ment of the majo­rant con­di­tion relat­ed to the con­ver­gence of the iter­a­tive method. The arti­cle dis­cuss­es some of the state­ments about the con­ver­gence of the iter­a­tion method for solv­ing a non­lin­ear equa­tion of the def­i­nite type. A less restric­tive majo­rant con­di­tion is estab­lished on the example.

Key­words: branch­ing process, non­lin­ear equa­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal expec­ta­tion, iter­a­tion method, majo­rant condition

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Issue 224
1. FORESTRY

Raevsky B.V., Schuro­va M.L., Chep­ic F.A. Some results of scotch pine plus trees breed­ing assess­ment in prog­e­ny tri­al in Kare­lia. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 6–20. (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.6–20

Abstract

Nowa­days Scotch pine prog­e­ny tri­al laid down in Pri­one­jskiy cen­tral lesnich­est­vo (Chep­ic plant­i­ngs) is the old­est and the best one in its way in Kare­lia. Among 107 prog­e­nies inves­ti­gat­ed at the age of 30 years – 17 ones (15.9%) had sta­tis­ti­cal­ly sig­nif­i­cant excess in growth para­me­ters com­pared with plot’s mean val­ues. These prog­e­nies had gen­er­al com­bin­ing abil­i­ty (GCA) equal to 13.6% (3.6–28.4%) in stem diam­e­ter and 32.8% (8.0–71.9%) in stem vol­ume. The results obtained in the prog­e­ny tri­al have a cru­cial val­ue in breed­ing assess­ment of plus trees inves­ti­gat­ed from the point of their selec­tion for seed orchards of the I.5 gen­er­a­tion. But it was con­clud­ed that esti­ma­tions giv­en for seed prog­e­nies should be nec­es­sar­i­ly accom­pa­ined by cor­re­spond­ing grades of habi­tus fea­tures and repro­duc­tive abil­i­ty of the same plus trees veg­e­ta­tive prog­e­nies grow­ing at graft­ed seed orchards. Only in this case breed­ing assess­ment could be con­sid­ered as ful­ly com­plet­ed. It was revealed that in the ear­ly onto­ge­n­e­sis stages saplings belong­ing to I and II mor­phogeny types had more rapid growth and devel­op­ment rates con­cern­ing veg­e­ta­tive growth and repro­duc­tive activ­i­ty. But by the time of our inves­ti­ga­tion the dif­fer­ences observed were not sta­tis­ti­cal­ly suf­fi­cient. So evi­dent­ly mor­phogeny type clsas­si­fi­ca­tion can’t be use­full for ear­ly eval­u­a­tion and breed­ing assess­ment purposes.

Key­words: scotch pine, seedlings, mor­phogeny types, ear­ly detec­tion, breed­ing assess­ment, plus trees

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Nakvasi­na E.N., Voevod­ki­na A.V., Volkov A.G. Influ­ence of tin­ning to soil prop­er­ties in young for­est. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 21–36. (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.21–36

Abstract

Thin­ning is influ­ence to eco­log­i­cal-cenot­ic con­di­tion that affects the for­ma­tion of the low­er tiers of the for­est ecosys­tem. The research was con­duct­ed on sta­tion­ary objects that cre­at­ed in 1959 by Arkhangel­sk’s Insti­tute of For­est and Wood Chem­istry (now North research insti­tute of forestry). There are 3 vari­ants of thin­ning with dif­fer­ent sam­ple by num­ber of tree trunks in pine-birch for­est with whortle­ber­ry-clus­ter­ber­ry cov­er. The first vari­ant is two-stage thin­ning with 27 years inter­val and inten­si­ty of cut­ting in the first recep­tion of 36% in the num­ber of trees, in the sec­ond recep­tion 30% in stock. At the moment there is 100% pine stock­ing with 837 trunks at hectare. Oth­er two vari­ants are one-stage thin­ning with inten­si­ty of cut­ting equal 76 and 84%. At the moment its 100% pine stock­ing with 894 and 596 trunks at hectare. Ref­er­ence is not thin­ning for­est. We stud­ied chem­i­cal and phys­i­cal prop­er­ties top­soil (O and E) of pod­zols, such as: thick­ness, den­si­ty, pH, organ­ic car­bon, humus and mobile forms of P2O5 and K2O.We eval­u­at­ed weight of for­est lit­ter (O) and detect its sig­nif­i­cant changes as results of thin­ning. Under the influ­ence of eco­log­i­cal-cenot­ic fac­tors grow lit­ter for­est thick­ness, den­si­ty, weight and organ­ic car­bon. This affects to albic hori­zon that organ­ic car­bon grow at 2–3 times com­pared ref­er­ence. Less influ­ence to soil and for­est lit­ter has two-stage thinning.

Key­words: thin­ning, pine-birch young for­est, for­est lit­ter, soil, chem­i­cal and phys­i­cal properties

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Slavskiy V.A., Chernyshov M.P. Com­pre­hen­sive assess­ment of wal­nut win­ter har­di­ness in the Voronezh region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 37–50. (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.37–50

Abstract

Wide intro­duc­tion of wal­nut in cul­ture to the North of the zone of the exist­ing area of dis­tri­b­u­tion, in par­tic­u­lar in the Voronezh region, is ham­pered by a num­ber of rea­sons, the most sig­nif­i­cant of which is insuf­fi­cient win­ter har­di­ness. In this regard, the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion, selec­tion and improve­ment of the prop­er­ties of win­ter-hardy vari­eties and forms of wal­nut, capa­ble of full valu­able growth and fruit­ing out­side the nat­ur­al area, is the main breed­ing task. This prob­lem looks quite solv­able, tak­ing into account the high lev­el of indi­vid­ual vari­abil­i­ty of adap­tive fea­tures in the select­ed wal­nut forms in the stud­ied region. Stud­ied gar­den and field plant­i­ngs, plan­ta­tions, land­scape group and sep­a­rate­ly stand­ing trees. In deter­min­ing the resis­tance of plants to adverse cli­mat­ic fac­tors used con­ven­tion­al tech­niques. For the assess­ment of win­ter har­di­ness the new approach to deter­mi­na­tion of com­plex sta­bil­i­ty of plants in the win­ter peri­od con­sist­ing of total indi­ca­tors of frost resis­tance, frost resis­tance and resis­tance to sharp changes of tem­per­a­tures is devel­oped, since these adap­tive fea­tures had the high­est lev­els of sig­nif­i­cance. The pro­posed accel­er­at­ed com­plex assess­ment of win­ter har­di­ness has a great advan­tage com­pared to the stan­dard method­ol­o­gy, for the reli­able deter­mi­na­tion of which it was nec­es­sary to observe for sev­er­al years. Dis­cov­ered sig­nif­i­cant sim­i­lar­i­ties between the expe­ri­enced and the approx­imable results of win­ter har­di­ness (assess­ment cri­te­ri­on Pir­son = 12.6). At the same time, the the­o­ret­i­cal val­ues of win­ter har­di­ness were slight­ly high­er than the prac­ti­cal ones. This is due, first of all, to the adapt­abil­i­ty to the cli­mat­ic con­di­tions of the Voronezh region and the high regen­er­a­tive capac­i­ty of most plants.

Key­words: wal­nut, har­di­ness, adap­tive fea­ture, intro­duc­tion, selection

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Nguyen Thi Thu Huong, Beli­ae­va N.V., Danilov D.A. Stand struc­ture, restore on posta­gro­genic and lands of the for­mer set­tle­ment in the con­di­tions of Viet­nam. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 51–70 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.51–70

Abstract

The arti­cle deals with the struc­ture of stands that have been restored on posta­gro­genic lands and lands of for­mer set­tle­ments in Viet­nam. It is estab­lished that the pres­ence of high-tree trees is not­ed on the lands of for­mer set­tle­ments, but their den­si­ty is not large and the species com­po­si­tion is sim­ple. The dom­i­nant trees are rep­re­sent­ed by the light-lov­ing rocks Brous­sone­tia papyrifera (L.), Lit­sea gluti­nosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob., Macaranga den­tic­u­la­ta (Blume) Muell. Arg, Bischofia javan­i­ca Blume (B. Tri­fo­li­ate (Roxb.) Hook.f.). These rocks are pio­neers at the ini­tial stage of restora­tion of woody veg­e­ta­tion on the lands of for­mer set­tle­ments and have great eco­log­i­cal sig­nif­i­cance, how­ev­er, a short life cycle. In addi­tion to the dom­i­nant species, new species also appear in plan­ta­tions: Cin­namo­mum bejol­gho­ta (Buch. Ham.) Sweet, Cin­namo­mum obtusi­foli­um (Roxb) Nees, Cary­o­daph­no­sis tonk­i­nen­sis (Leg) A‑Shaw. They are usu­al­ly seed-borne, light-lov­ing, fast-grow­ing and able to with­stand com­pe­ti­tion with oth­er species for bat­ter­ies and light. In adult­hood, they are present in the com­po­si­tion of the stand. The source of their renew­al are the seeds from the neigh­bor­ing for­est walls. The pres­ence of these species increas­es the species diver­si­ty of tree species and increas­es the sta­bil­i­ty of the plan­ta­tion as a whole. On the lands of the for­mer set­tle­ments there are only species of trees that were pre­vi­ous­ly grown by the inhab­i­tants of the set­tle­ments: Arto­car­pus het­ero­phyl­lus Lam., Melia azedarach L., Dimo­car­pus lon­gan Lour., Chukra­sia tab­u­laris M. Roem. The num­ber of species of tree species is small in the degrad­ed land. Here grow light-lov­ing, fast-grow­ing species. They are dom­i­nant at the ini­tial stage of for­est restora­tion: Macaranga den­tic­u­la­ta (Blume) Muell. Arg, Lit­sea gluti­nosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob., Bischofia javan­i­ca Blume (B. tri­fo­li­a­ta (Roxb.) Hook. F.) and espe­cial­ly Brous­sone­tia papyrifera (L.). These breeds have a short life cycle and are unsta­ble to neg­a­tive envi­ron­men­tal impact, there­fore in the future they are replaced by breeds that have a longer life cycle. In gen­er­al, the stand on the lands of the for­mer set­tle­ments is more diverse in species com­po­si­tion and struc­ture than in the plowed lands.

Key­words: posta­gro­genic land, land for­mer set­tle­ments, refor­esta­tion, woods struc­ture, species com­po­si­tion, bio­di­ver­si­ty, lay­er­ing, com­pact­ness, dis­tri­b­u­tion trees in diam­e­ter and height

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Duong Thi Anh Tuyet, Neshataev V.Yu. Plant asso­ci­a­tions of tree stands of the park of the Peter the Great Poly­tech­nic Uni­ver­si­ty (Saint-Peters­burg, Rus­sia). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 71–90 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.71–90

Abstract

The study of the veg­e­ta­tion of cities has both the­o­ret­i­cal and prac­ti­cal sig­nif­i­cance. For the city of St. Peters­burg, there are pub­li­ca­tions only on some areas. Clas­si­fi­ca­tion of veg­e­ta­tion is an eco­log­i­cal basis for the care of the green plan­ta­tions of the city. The park of the Poly­tech­nic Uni­ver­si­ty was found on the place of bil­ber­ry rich pine for­est on sand deposits simul­ta­ne­ous­ly with the con­struc­tion of the Uni­ver­si­ty in 1900. The park is under the influ­ence of atmos­pher­ic pol­lu­tion, with a fall of 192 to 200 kg/haper year of nitro­gen oxides (in amount of nitro­gen). Infor­ma­tion on plant com­mu­ni­ties was col­lect­ed on sam­ple plots 2020 m each. Accord­ing to 35 rev­elés, birch with 3 asso­ci­a­tions and pine for­ma­tions with 5 asso­ci­a­tions were dis­tin­guished. In the ground cov­er, most often dom­i­nate the obscure – Aegopodi­um poda­grara­ia, less often urban grav­el – Geum urbanum, hedge­hogs – Dactylis glom­er­a­ta, bone­less beet – Bro­mop­sis iner­mis, net­tle – Urtica dioica, wavy hair grass – Avenel­la flex­u­osa, species resis­tant to tram­pling (Poa annua annu­al – grasshop­per, Plan­ta­go major – plan­tain). Codom­i­nant and con­stant are species of the weed-sub­nemoral group (Aegopodi­um poda­grara­ia, Antriscus sylvestis, Geum urbanum, Gle­choma hed­er­acea, Lami­um album, Stel­lar­ia media, Urtica dioica). The forests of the park grow on more fer­tile soils (FS – fer­tile-salin­i­ty index after Ramen­skiy, 7.5–11.5) than the sub­ur­ban forests of the most rich drained habi­tats (nemoral series of for­est types, FS 7.0–7.5), and more fer­tile that soils of pine bil­ber­ry (FS 3.3–4.6) forests, in the place of which the park appeared. This is due to nitro­gen contamination.

Key­words: asso­ci­a­tion, birch, city, clas­si­fi­ca­tion of veg­e­ta­tion, for­est type, ordi­na­tion, pine, plant species, St. Petersburg

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Firsov G.A., Byalt A.V., Tkachenko K.G. Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Max­im. (Capri­fo­li­aceae) at Peter the Great Botan­ic Gar­den (Saint-Peters­burg, Rus­sia). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 91–102 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.91–102

Abstract

The Maak’s hon­ey­suck­le (Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herd.) was described in hon­or of R.K. Maack (1825–1886), a well-known nat­u­ral­ist and researcher of Siberia and the Far East. It was first intro­duced into the world cul­ture by the Impe­r­i­al St. Peters­burg Botan­i­cal Gar­den (BIN) around 1860. In the Peter the Great Botan­i­cal Gar­den it is known until 1880 and has since been pre­sent­ed con­tin­u­ous­ly to the present, with­out inter­rup­tions. This species belongs to the ser. Maack­ianae Pojark. ex Nedol. (sub­sec­tion Tatar­i­cae Rehd., sec­tion Lonicera), which includes, along with some oth­er rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the genus – L. deflex­i­ca­lyx Batal., L. pros­tra­ta Rehd., L. tri­chosan­tha Bureau & Franch. and L. xero­ca­lyx Diels. The old­est spec­i­mens, cul­ti­vat­ed in St. Peters­burg, have reached the age of 150 years. The species is dis­tin­guished by high win­ter har­di­ness. In the last years of the begin­ning of the 21st cen­tu­ry, frost­ing is absent or does not exceed the length of a year’s growth. In the past, only the harsh­est win­ters were frozen by shoots of an old­er age. Seeds are dif­fer­ent, and seed prog­e­ny are grown from them. In addi­tion to win­ter har­di­ness, Maak’s hon­ey­suck­le is valu­able for its dura­bil­i­ty and drought resis­tance, as well as high dec­o­ra­tive qual­i­ties. The expe­ri­ence of its grow­ing her in the Botan­i­cal Gar­den of Peter the Great showed that she is well tol­er­at­ed by urban con­di­tions. Dur­ing the flow­er­ing peri­od, the shrub is cov­ered with white fra­grant flow­ers, dur­ing fruit­ing, with red, notice­able fruits. Dec­o­ra­tive dark shiny foliage is pre­served until late autumn. And berries hang long after falling leaves, keep­ing dec­o­ra­tive­ness before the begin­ning of win­ter. Maack­’s hon­ey­suck­le, in con­di­tions of cli­mate warm­ing, main­tains high win­ter har­di­ness, repro­duc­tive capac­i­ty and dec­o­ra­tive qual­i­ties. The shrink­age of shoots and the spread of dis­eases and pests has not been observed. The species is promis­ing for the gar­den­ing of St. Peters­burg, it is resis­tant to pests and dis­eases and is more dec­o­ra­tive than the more famous and wide­spread Lonicera tatar­i­ca L. The cul­ture can be sig­nif­i­cant­ly advanced to the North, pri­mar­i­ly to the Kare­lian Isth­mus and to South Karelia.

Key­words: hon­ey­suck­le, Lonicera, Capri­fo­li­aceae, arbori­cul­ture, bio­log­i­cal pecu­liar­i­ties, qual­i­ty of seeds, Peter the Great Botan­ic Gar­den, Saint-Petersburg

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Firsov G.A., Byalt A.V., Tkachenko K.G. Win­ter har­di­ness and prospects of cul­ti­va­tion of Lonicera chamis­soi Bunge ex P. Kir­il­low (Capri­fo­li­aceae) at the Saint-Peters­burg in con­di­tions of the cli­mate change. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 103–118 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.103–118

Abstract

The range of species of trees and shrubs that are promis­ing for breed­ing in St.Petersburg under mod­ern con­di­tions is sub­ject to revi­sion. Cli­mate change in St.Petersburg at the begin­ning of the XXI cen­tu­ry com­pared with the last cen­tu­ry is man­i­fest­ed in the increase in min­i­mum, aver­age and annu­al air tem­per­a­tures, in the exten­sion of the grow­ing sea­son, and in the increase in the amount of pre­cip­i­ta­tion. Long win­ter thaws with a lack of snow cov­er become more like­ly. Woody intro­duc­ers react to such changes in dif­fer­ent ways. Hon­ey­suck­le Hon­ey­suck­le (Lonicera chamis­soi Bunge ex P. Kir­il­low) was intro­duced to St. Peters­burg in the mid­dle of the XIX cen­tu­ry, and lat­er this species was repeat­ed­ly rec­om­mend­ed for the green­ing of the city. It is a close species of the more famous black hon­ey­suck­le (L. nigra L.), togeth­er with which they form the series Nigrae Pojark. ex Nedol. (sub­sec­tion Rho­dan­thae (Max­im.) Rehd. sec­tion Isi­ka (Adans.) Rehd.). In con­di­tions of a marked warm­ing of the cli­mate in the 21st cen­tu­ry, the Chamis­so hon­ey­suck­le wors­ened its adap­tive capa­bil­i­ties and dec­o­ra­tive qual­i­ties. It can no longer be rec­om­mend­ed for mass breed­ing. How­ev­er, in St. Peters­burg it remains, as before, a botan­i­cal­ly inter­est­ing species for den­drol­o­gy col­lec­tions. The size of the Chamis­so hon­ey­suck­le, which it reach­es in St. Peters­burg, cor­re­sponds to those in the nat­ur­al range. The age of plants in the mod­ern col­lec­tion is 17 years. Analy­sis of the seeds shows that they are viable and char­ac­ter­ized by high qual­i­ty. As a species with proven and high win­ter har­di­ness, Chamis­so hon­ey­suck­le can be rec­om­mend­ed for cul­ti­va­tion in more north­ern con­di­tions, on the Kare­lian Isth­mus of the Leningrad Region, in Kare­lia and on the Kola Peninsula.

Key­words: Lonicera chamis­soi, Capri­fo­li­aceae, arbori­cul­ture, seeds qual­i­ty, changes of the cli­mate, Saint-Petersburg

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Sevru­go­va Ju.B. Urban bio­di­ver­si­ty index for water­fronts in St. Peters­burg. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 119–135 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.119–135

Abstract

Trans­for­ma­tion of the land­scapes under the urban­iza­tion process has led to fun­da­men­tal changes in struc­ture and dynam­ics of ecosys­tems. These tran­si­tions make it nec­es­sary to seek for resilient solu­tions for urban devel­op­ment. Estab­lish­ment of sus­tain­able green-blue infra­struc­ture is becom­ing one of the pri­or­i­ty tasks in urban design. The auton­o­my and iso­la­tion of large ele­ments of the eco­log­i­cal net­work is a sig­nif­i­cant dis­ad­van­tage of urban green space sys­tem. It is cru­cial to increase land­scape con­nec­tiv­i­ty by means of green cor­ri­dors in order to sup­port urban ecosys­tems. Trans­port and engi­neer­ing infra­struc­ture ele­ments can affect the flows of ener­gy and mat­ter in a pos­i­tive way. Among these ele­ments, water­sides of St. Peters­burg play a key role in the city struc­ture and pro­vide sub­stan­tial resource for green-blue infra­struc­ture devel­op­ment. The research was designed to analyse ten water­fronts of St. Peters­burg using urban bio­di­ver­si­ty index (URBIO-index) tool as a method­ol­o­gy for the inte­grat­ed assess­ment of urban green spaces with­in the frame­work of sus­tain­able devel­op­ment. Each of the sites was assessed by twen­ty-five indi­ca­tors reflect­ing dif­fer­ent aspects of sus­tain­abil­i­ty. The study showed that URBIO-index val­ues are equal­ly low for all of the sites, regard­less the spa­tial con­fig­u­ra­tion of water­fronts. The val­ues for each group of indi­ca­tors deter­mined the direc­tions for urban water­fronts improve­ment in pur­suit of the sus­tain­able green net­work estab­lish­ment. The paper gives rec­om­men­da­tions on opti­miz­ing the spa­tial struc­ture and func­tion­al load, as well as enhanc­ing the social, eco­nom­ic and envi­ron­men­tal effec­tive­ness of the water­fronts in St. Petersburg.

Key­words: urban bio­di­ver­si­ty index, water­fronts, urban land­scape, green-blue infra­struc­ture, sus­tain­able development

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Puryaev А.S., Zaripov I.N. Pro­duc­tive capac­i­ty of siber­ian larch grow­ing stands in the Repub­lic of Tatarstan. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 136–149 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.136–149

Abstract

The arti­cle eval­u­ates pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of larch stands in the Repub­lic of Tatarstan. It was estab­lished, that the stock of larch stands makes about 100 m³/ha. The main share of the stock is locat­ed in the stands grow­ing in the con­di­tions of sura­mens in pred­kam­je and zakam­je in the repub­lic. The largest share of trunk tim­ber comes from the stands of this species grow­ing in the con­di­tions of fresh sura­men and ramens (С2) and (D2), 69 and 26% respec­tive­ly. Age pro­file of larch stands is uneven, aver­age age of the stands of that species varies from 35,9 in Pred­kam­je to 39,1 in Pred­volzh­je. The largest larch tim­ber stock is in the stands locat­ed in fresh ramens, where­by up to 40 years of age, the dif­fer­ence in tim­ber stock between the stands of dif­fer­ent grow­ing con­di­tions is sta­ble, and lat­er the stock of larch in GC D2 sig­nif­i­cant­ly big­ger. Under con­di­tions D2 (fresh ramen) larch stands fea­ture the biggest aver­age stock, being the largest after 80 years of age. Under the same con­di­tions, larch stands form high-bonitet forests (Iа bonitet class) that also fea­ture the high­est rel­a­tive den­si­ty. Dis­tri­b­u­tion of the area of Siber­ian larch stands by rel­a­tive den­si­ty demon­strates that the key share of high-bonitet forests belongs to stands with den­si­ty 0.7–0.8. When eval­u­at­ing the types of con­di­tions of the site, it is not­ed that the for­est con­di­tion clas­si­fi­ca­tion used is not objec­tive. In the con­di­tions of fresh ramens, larch stands have Iа bonitet class in all dis­tricts of the repub­lic. In GC С2 this fig­ure varies from Iа,9 in Zakam­je and up to Iа,5 in Pred­kam­je. Aver­age annu­al incre­ment of the stock also varies depend­ing on GC and geo­mor­phic dis­tricts of the repub­lic almost in all age groups. Con­clu­sion is made that it is fea­si­ble and advan­ta­geous to grow Siber­ian larch in the con­di­tions of the Repub­lic of Tatarstan, and it is nec­es­sary to increase the area of larch stands in the region.

Key­words: Siber­ian larch, grow­ing stand struc­ture, type of forests, stock, bonitet, rel­a­tive density

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Danche­va A.V., Zalesov S.V. Fea­tures of refor­esta­tion of burned areas in dry pine forests of the Kaza­kh Upland in exam­ple State Nation­al Nature Park «Bayanaul». Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 150–160 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.150–160

Abstract

The results of fea­tures for­ma­tions of post-fire pine under­growth on burnt area in very dry (group of for­est site C1) and dry (group of for­est site C2) pine forests of the Kaza­kh Upland (by the exam­ple of State Nation­al Nature Park (SNPP) «Bayanaul») depend­ing on the dis­tance from the for­est bor­der and stand den­si­ty are pre­sent­ed in the cur­rent paper. Accord­ing to stud­ies it is observed of reaf­foresta­tion con­ti­nu­ity of burned areas. Accord­ing to cur­rent spec­i­fi­ca­tion, the pine nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion is assessed as «rea­son­able». There is a gen­er­al ten­den­cy of a slight decrease in the basic inven­to­ry indices of pine under­growth with an increase in the dis­tance from the for­est bor­der to 150 m, but the inher­ent dif­fer­ence in their absolute val­ues no found­ed. The birch under­growth con­tent in post-fire young stands have pos­i­tive effect on the growth chief species of for­est-form­ing species. Basic inven­to­ry indices of pine under­growth do not depend on the rela­tion birch and pine in the post-fire young stands. Diam­e­ter, tree height and height incre­ment of pine under­growth in 1.2–1.6 time high­er, than that of birch young under­growth. The observed dif­fer­ences is sta­tis­ti­cal­ly-valid. The close rela­tion­ship was found between the main inven­to­ry indices of the pine under­growth and the den­si­ty of their growth in post-fire young stands. The largest val­ues of diam­e­ter, tree height and height incre­ment under for­est den­si­ty from 3.1 to 5.4 thou­sand trees per 1 ha are not­ed. At this stage of the for­ma­tion of post-fire young pine stands of dry for­est sites of pine forests SNPP «Bayanaul», the best option of for­est den­si­ty is its val­ue to 3.1 thou­sand trees per 1 ha.

Key­words: burnt area, nat­ur­al reaf­foresta­tion, pinus sylvestris, dry for­est sites, den­si­ty of growth

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Debkov N.M., Bisiro­va E.M., Bocharov A.Yu. Dynam­ics of radi­al growth of siber­ian pine Pinus sibir­i­ca Du Tuor in focus of inva­sion of four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 161–175 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.161–175

Abstract

In the 21st cen­tu­ry cas­es of inva­sions of den­drophilous insects in bore­al forests increased sharply. A exam­ple of these process­es is inva­sion of four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf. in forests with siber­ian fir Abies sibir­i­ca Ledeb. in ter­ri­to­ry of Siberia. The aim of the research was to study dynam­ics of radi­al growth of siber­ian pine trees in dam­aged stands. The Lar­in­sky land­scape reserve was cho­sen as mod­el ter­ri­to­ry. A series of per­ma­nent tri­al plots (PTP) for mon­i­tor­ing the trans­for­ma­tion of for­est ecosys­tems was laid on its ter­ri­to­ry. As a result of invad­er impact, stands dom­i­nat­ed by fir were most affect­ed. They sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduced com­plete­ness and dom­i­nance passed to siber­ian pine. In stands with a pre­dom­i­nance of siber­ian pine and spruce, changes also occurred in struc­ture. How­ev­er, species changes did not occur. For entire life peri­od of siber­ian pine trees, radi­al growth was at PTP 1 – 2,3±0,1 mm, for PTP 2 – 2,1±0,1 mm, for PTP 3 – 2,5±0,1 mm, for PTP 4 – 1,6±0,1 mm. There were no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences (p = 0,9357 > 0,05). Imme­di­ate­ly before the inva­sion, a slight de crease in tree growth in thick­ness was not­ed, in par­tic­u­lar, for PTP 1, it was 2,2±0,1 mm, for PTP 2 – 1,1±0,1 mm, for PTP 3 – 2,1±0,1 mm, for PTP 4 – 0,9±0,1 mm. Thus, radi­al growth increased, but a sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ence was estab­lished only for PTP 1 (p = 0,0292 < 0,05), which is char­ac­ter­ized by a com­plete­ly degrad­ed state.

Key­words: siber­ian pine Pinus sibir­i­ca Du Tuor, four-eyed fir bark bee­tle Poly­gra­phus prox­imus Blandf., siber­ian fir Abies sibir­i­ca Ledeb., radi­al growth, inva­sion of xylophagous, Tom­sk region, trans­for­ma­tion of ecosystems

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Vysot­skii A.A., Kor­cha­gin O.M. Anno­sum root rot in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for­est plan­ta­tions. Prob­lems and ways to deal with them. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 176–192 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.176–192

Abstract

We present the sci­en­tif­ic find­ings obtained by the Research Insti­tute of For­est Genet­ics, Breed­ing and Biotech­nol­o­gy through the research­es on the pine breed­ing and the results of the long-term obser­va­tions over the trees of dif­fer­ent selec­tive cat­e­gories in the nidi of anno­sum root rot (Het­er­oba­sid­ion anno­sum). The research­es were con­duct­ed in nat­ur­al and plant­ed forests under dif­fer­ent envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions. We used soft resin yield from one sur­face wound per 1 cm of the trunk diam­e­ter (giv­en equal aver­age for this for­est stand tap­ping inten­si­ty) as a resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty cri­te­ri­on. The mutu­al influ­ence of path­o­gen­ic strains and tri­cho­der­ma (Tri­cho­der­mae viri­di Sp.) was stud­ied in lab­o­ra­to­ry con­di­tions on a wort-agar growth medi­um. We have stat­ed high lev­el of resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty inher­i­tance through both veg­e­ta­tive and seed prop­a­ga­tion and a strong cor­re­la­tion between pine-tree’s resis­tance to anno­sum root rot and its resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. This fact should be used as a bio­log­i­cal basis for cre­ation of pur­pose-ori­ent­ed for­est stands with high lev­el of resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty which will be high­ly resis­tant to anno­sum root rot. We have also shown that the cat­a­stroph­ic expan­sion of the pathogen in the Euro­pean part of Rus­sia is due to inten­sive har­vest­ing in indige­nous forests, cul­ti­va­tion of conifers mono­cul­tures on non-for­est areas and the lack of effec­tive meth­ods for con­trol of the pathogen. San­i­ta­tion clear felling does not solve the prob­lem, because its use trans­forms high-qual­i­ty raw wood into dead­wood and leads to pre­ma­ture for­est degra­da­tion. We have sci­en­tif­i­cal­ly proven the pos­si­bil­i­ty of pine breed­ing for the set of valu­able char­ac­ter­is­tics. We have also devised a breed­ing process scheme for cre­ation of spe­cial pur­pose-ori­ent­ed high­ly resis­tant to anno­sum root rot plan­ta­tions of Scots pine with high lev­el of resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. In order to pre­vent fur­ther spread of the pathogen our forestry needs a set of pre­ven­tive mea­sures and we should focus on cre­ation of sus­tain­able for­est stands instead of fight­ing the pathogen in already affect­ed and decay­ing forests.

Key­words: Scots Pine, anno­sum root rot, resin pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, inher­i­tance, resistance

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Thanh Nguen Van, Zhi­gunov А.V., Bon­darenko А.S. Growth and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of Brazil­ian Hevea on rub­ber plan­ta­tions in Viet­nam. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 193–210 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.193–210

Abstract

The growth and pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of Brazil­ian Hevea (Hevea brasilien­sis) on com­mer­cial plan­ta­tions in the Thong Nhat dis­trict, Dong Nai province, Viet­nam, are stud­ied and ana­lyzed. The plan­ta­tions were estab­lished with the graft­ed seedlings of five clones: GT1, PB260, PB235, RRIC121, and VM515, in the areas with a ground sur­face slope of less than 30°. The Brazil­ian Hevea seedlings grown in poly­eth­yl­ene tubes were used as root­stock. The seedlings were plant­ed into pits pre­pared man­u­al­ly. Before plant­i­ng, a com­plex of organ­ic and min­er­al fer­til­iz­ers was intro­duced into the pits. The poly­film was removed from the root­balls, and then the plants were placed into pits and embed­ded with soil mixed with organ­ic and min­er­al fer­til­iz­ers. The ini­tial plant­i­ng den­si­ty was 560 plants per ha for all vari­ants in this research. Tend­ing con­sist­ed in repeat­ed weed­ing of herba­ceous plants in the vicin­i­ty of the seedlings. The diam­e­ter of the cul­ti­vat­ed area was increased to the size of the crown pro­jec­tion. After the trees reached 3 meters in height, low­er branch­es were suc­ces­sive­ly pruned so that the trees could not have any branch­es up to 2.5–3.3 m in height. To deter­mine the growth rate, per­ma­nent tri­al plots were estab­lished on the Brazil­ian Hevea plan­ta­tions at the age of 1, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30, each 25 x 25 m, on which the bio­met­ric para­me­ters of all trees were mea­sured. Latex pro­duc­tiv­i­ty was deter­mined for 3 trees on the same per­ma­nent tri­al plots dur­ing 30 days for each clone at the age of 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30. Latex was col­lect­ed every day. The latex mass was deter­mined by weigh­ing each sam­ple from a sep­a­rate tree in grams every day. On the plan­ta­tions, all clones show high sur­vival and safe­ty, sta­ble high growth in height and diam­e­ter, and a high pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of latex. Clone RRIC121 has been show­ing a high­er growth rate since the age of five and this advan­tage shows itself until the end of the plan­ta­tion exploita­tion at the age of 30 both in bio­met­ric para­me­ters and latex pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. Bio­met­ric para­me­ters and dynam­ics of wood stock in clones GT1, PB235 and VM515 have no sig­nif­i­cant dif­fer­ences from each oth­er, but they are some­what low­er than those of clone RRIC121. Already at the age of 10, the wood stock of clone PB260 was small­er as com­pared with that of the oth­er clones and it has not changed over the entire obser­va­tion peri­od. Although on the Brazil­ian Hevea plan­ta­tions in Viet­nam, latex is col­lect­ed in pro­duc­tion quan­ti­ties from the trees aged from 7 to 30, the high­est pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of all the clones under study is shown by the trees with­in the age peri­od from 10 to 25, and the max­i­mum pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, at the age from 15 to 20. Clone RRIC121 has the lead­ing posi­tions in latex pro­duc­tiv­i­ty in the max­i­mum pro­duc­tiv­i­ty peri­od; some­what low­er pro­duc­tiv­i­ty is shown by clones PB235 and VM515. Clones GT1 and PB235 have the low­est pro­duc­tiv­i­ty. The high­est rela­tion­ship between the lateх pro­duc­tiv­i­ty and the bio­met­ric indi­ca­tors of Brazil­ian Hevea is record­ed for the root neck diam­e­ter, the crown length, and the trunk vol­ume of indi­vid­ual trees. Spe­cial agrotech­ni­cal mea­sures should be devel­oped and applied dur­ing the estab­lish­ment and man­age­ment of Brazil­ian Hevea plan­ta­tions in order to improve these parameters.

Key­words: Brazil­ian Hevea, plan­ta­tions, growth rate, lateх pro­duc­tiv­i­ty, bio­met­ric parameters–lateх pro­duc­tiv­i­ty ratio

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Cao Huy Giap, Kochnev A.M. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of the steer­ing wheel skid­der. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 211–222 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.211–222

Abstract

The steer­ing para­me­ters of the trac­tor have a sig­nif­i­cant impact on its per­for­mance, and pri­mar­i­ly on the maneu­ver­abil­i­ty, sta­bil­i­ty of a giv­en direc­tion of move­ment, as well as fatigue of the oper­a­tor. The choice of steer­ing para­me­ters should be based on dynam­ic analy­sis. The aim of the research is to devel­op a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of dynam­ics of hydraulic steer­ing wheel skid­ders. For spec­i­fi­ca­tion of a num­ber of para­me­ters of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of steer­ing con­trol the cycle of exper­i­men­tal research­es of wheel skid­ders is exe­cut­ed. The devel­oped math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of steer­ing wheel skid­ders, imple­ment­ed in the form of a pack­age of appli­ca­tion soft­ware for com­put­ers, ade­quate to the real dynam­ic process­es tak­ing place in it and is rec­om­mend­ed for use in ASNI and CAD «Wheel skid­ding trac­tor» in the study and opti­miza­tion of steer­ing para­me­ters of exist­ing and pro­ject­ed trac­tors for logging.

Key­words: math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el, wheel skid­der, steer­ing, dynamics

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Nguyen Long Lam, Cao Huy Giap, Guseynov E.M. Math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for deter­mi­na­tion of kine­mat­ic para­me­ters of tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment of an active forestry semi­trail­er. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 223–235 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.223–235

Abstract

Kine­mat­ic analy­sis showed that, with the exist­ing geo­met­ric rela­tion­ships of the shield and its mech­a­nism, a dou­ble blow can occur at the time of con­tact of the bun­dle of trees, lead­ing to a sharp increase in loads and destruc­tion of the shield. The pres­ence of a neg­a­tive angle of the rear levers makes it dif­fi­cult to load a bun­dle of trees. A math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for deter­min­ing the kine­mat­ic para­me­ters of the tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment of an active forestry semi­trail­er was devel­oped. To ana­lyze the influ­ence of var­i­ous fac­tors on the kine­mat­ic para­me­ters of motion, a block dia­gram of the algo­rithm and a FORTRAN cal­cu­la­tion pro­gram have been devel­oped. The cal­cu­la­tions were per­formed with ref­er­ence to the T‑40L wheeled tractor

Key­words: wheeled forestry trac­tor, active forestry semi­trail­er, kine­mat­ic para­me­ters and math­e­mat­i­cal model

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Nguyen Long Lam, Guseynov E.M. Deter­mi­na­tion of dynam­ic and sta­tis­ti­cal efforts in the con­struc­tion ele­ments of skid plate of the for­est trac­tor. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 236–246 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.236–246

Abstract

The arti­cle presents a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for study­ing the dynam­ics of a wheeled forestry trac­tor with an active semi­trail­er in the process of load­ing a bun­dle of trees. As a result of the stud­ies, the min­i­mum val­ues of the nor­mal com­po­nent of veloc­i­ty and shock pulse. Cal­cu­la­tions car­ried out on the basis of a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el showed that when load­ing a bun­dle of trees using a four-link shield, the min­i­mum val­ues of the nor­mal veloc­i­ty com­po­nent and the shock pulse cor­re­spond to the val­ue of the angle  deter­min­ing the posi­tion of the shield at the moment of con­tact with the pack­et equal to 55°. The mag­ni­tude of the shock pulse at a val­ue of φ = 55° is prac­ti­cal­ly inde­pen­dent of the coef­fi­cient of fric­tion f. Appro­ba­tion of the mod­el was car­ried out with ref­er­ence to the trac­tor T‑40L.

Key­words: wheeled forestry trac­tor, active forestry semi­trail­er (AFS), kine­mat­ic para­me­ters, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el and shock impulses

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Sidorenkov N.V., Mar­tynov B.G., Tara­ban M.V. The ratio­nale for a proac­tive strat­e­gy of pre­ven­tion of hydro­ma­nip­u­la­tors. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 247–255 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.247–255

Abstract

From the analy­sis of the research on the devel­op­ment of sys­tems of tech­ni­cal main­te­nance and repair of the most advanced sys­tem proac­tive­ly pro­vides pre­ven­ta­tive main­te­nance, based on the sta­tis­ti­cal results of the fail­ures of the least reli­able nodes and inter­faces. To jus­ti­fy a proac­tive strat­e­gy of pre­ven­tion (SRP) is nec­es­sary to deter­mine the reli­a­bil­i­ty of the GM, to col­lect sta­tis­ti­cal data on fail­ures of these ele­ments, to devel­op the rules by which IT is held and R. To jus­ti­fy the cri­te­ri­on of the SRP is the most suit­able tech­nique in which to form a strat­e­gy first, applied analy­sis of the cur­rent tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the object and, sec­ond­ly, intro­duced the con­cept of rel­a­tive prob­a­bil­i­ties, rep­re­sent­ing the dif­fer­ence between the prob­a­bil­i­ty of fail­ure and prob­a­bil­i­ty of fail­ure. Based on this the notion of the quan­tile of prob­a­bil­i­ty and on the basis of iden­ti­fied areas of favourable oper­a­tion of the mech­a­nism, where 0 ≤ r(t) ≤ 1, the time of the first diag­no­sis, tD 1 , where r(t) = 0.75 and the time of the sec­ond diag­no­sis tD 2 (cor­rec­tion curve changes a scan para­me­ter), in which the prob­a­bil­i­ty P(t) and Q(t) inter­sect (in the ide­al case this val­ue is equal to 0.5) and the time when the machine can be put in repair [r(t) = –0,5]. But since curves of prob­a­bil­i­ties are adjust­ed accord­ing to the results of the cur­rent tech­ni­cal state of machin­ery, the inten­si­ty of uptime and fail­ures have dif­fer­ent coef­fi­cients. And the pre­ven­tion area is deter­mined by the range of vari­a­tion of the rel­a­tive like­li­hood func­tion r(t) from +0.75 to 0.5 in. The point at which r(t) = 0 deter­mines the opti­mal main­te­nance time of the machine. This tech­nique allows the Man­ag­er to make deci­sions on the man­age­ment of the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the car. But in the case that such mech­a­nisms as the GM, who work main­ly sea­son­al and gen­der-Neu load need tight­en­ing or even the per­mis­si­ble lim­it val­ues of diag­nos­tic para­me­ters and in the orga­ni­za­tion of proac­tive main­te­nance and repair is not nec­es­sary to deter­mine the quan­ta of diag­no­sis. In this case, is mon­i­tored and it is there­fore nec­es­sary to deter­mine the crit­i­cal point, after which it fol­lows, nec­es­sar­i­ly, stop the GM, to car­ry out main­te­nance and advanced repairs. The pur­pose of the study. The ratio­nale for a proac­tive strat­e­gy of pre­ven­tion of the GM, pro­vid­ing pre­ven­ta­tive main­te­nance, on the basis of sta­tis­ti­cal results of the fail­ures of the least reli­able nodes and inter­faces. The arti­cle defines the con­di­tions for chang­ing para­me­ters of the tech­ni­cal con­di­tion to deter­mine the time of pre­ven­tion, con­trol para­me­ters and equa­tion to deter­mine the time prevention.

Key­words: hydraulic manip­u­la­tor, proac­tive strat­e­gy, prevention

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3. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIOTECHNOLOGY

Spit­syn A.A., Belousov I.I., Tur­sunov T.B., Hen V.A. Ther­mo­chem­i­cal con­ver­sion of grind­ed pressed plant bio­mass. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 256–272 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.256–272

Abstract

The paper deals with the seal­ing machine with par­tial chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing of raw mate­ri­als and the inno­v­a­tive tech­nol­o­gy for obtain­ing gran­u­lar acti­vat­ed car­bon­con­tain­ing prod­uct and liq­uid bio­fu­el by the method of com­paction (pel­letiz­ing) of pre-crushed raw mate­ri­als, accel­er­at­ed hydrol­y­sis, pyrol­y­sis and sub­se­quent acti­va­tion. The results of appro­ba­tion of the tech­nol­o­gy on bench instal­la­tions and devices are pre­sent­ed. It is shown that the obtained pel­lets cor­re­spond to the main indi­ca­tors of domes­tic and for­eign stan­dards for pel­lets from veg­etable raw mate­ri­als. In the pro­duc­tion process, a chem­i­cal mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the feed­stock takes place, as indi­cat­ed by the increased val­ue of lignin con­tent in the sam­ples. When pyrol­y­sis of the pel­lets is pro­duced, a gran­u­lar car­bona­ceous residue, liq­uid bio­fu­el, and a com­bustible gas-vapor mix­ture are pro­duced. From the gran­u­lar car­bona­ceous residue, acti­vat­ed car­bons with an adsorp­tion activ­i­ty of iodine com­pa­ra­ble to char­coal of the DAK brand were obtained. One of the direc­tions of fur­ther research is the selec­tion of var­i­ous addi­tives into the raw mate­r­i­al before com­paction and gran­u­la­tion to improve the prop­er­ties of pel­lets, in par­tic­u­lar, to increase the calorif­ic val­ue and to reduce ash con­tent. How­ev­er, the most inter­est­ing direc­tion of using com­pact­ed bio­mass residue in the form of pel­lets is to use as a raw mate­r­i­al for ther­mo­chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing in order to obtain ener­get­i­cal­ly dense prod­ucts, in par­tic­u­lar pyrol­y­sis. The work showed the expe­di­en­cy of devel­op­ing a sin­gle autonomous tech­nol­o­gy for plant bio­mass residues pro­cess­ing with the pro­duc­tion of com­pet­i­tive com­mod­i­ty prod­ucts: gran­u­lar acti­vat­ed car­bons, liq­uid bio­fu­el, as well as steam-gas sweep with suf­fi­cient calorif­ic val­ue to ensure the oper­a­tion of spe­cial com­bus­tion devices.

Key­words: pel­letiz­ing, com­paction, bio­fu­el, auto­hy­drol­y­sis, lignin, car­bona­ceous residue, plant raw mate­ri­als, pyrol­y­sis, acti­va­tion, gran­u­lar acti­vat­ed carbon

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Yev­doki­mo­va E.V., Yuriev Yu.L. The effect of rel­a­tive feed of steam and the tem­per­a­ture of the acti­va­tion process on the yield and qual­i­ty of acti­vat­ed aspen char­coal. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 273–279 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.273–279

Abstract

Aspen on wood sup­plies of decid­u­ous species ranks the sec­ond place in Rus­sia. Resources are not being used well, that is of inter­est to researchers at the present time. Pur­pose: to obtain active car­bon (AC) on the basis of aspen wood with suf­fi­cient­ly high sorp­tion char­ac­ter­is­tics. To do this, the nec­es­sary stud­ies were car­ried out, in which the influ­ence of the main fac­tors of the acti­va­tion process on the yield and qual­i­ty of the AC pro­duced was stud­ied. For acti­va­tion, a sam­ple of indus­tri­al con­trol, which cor­re­spond­ed to Russ­ian stan­dart 7657, was used. The con­trol sys­tem was obtained from aspen wood on a mod­u­lar pyrol­y­sis-retort unit at a final pyrol­y­sis tem­per­a­ture of 600°C. Con­ven­tion­al meth­ods of analy­sis were used to deter­mine the qual­i­ty para­me­ters of the AС. Math­e­mat­i­cal meth­ods of exper­i­ment plan­ning were used to deter­mine the reg­u­lar­i­ties of acti­va­tion process­es. Of the many fac­tors that affect the acti­va­tion process, we have cho­sen three main ones: tem­per­a­ture (X1), spe­cif­ic water vapor con­sump­tion (X2) and the dura­tion of the acti­va­tion process (X3).The tem­per­a­ture of the acti­va­tion process var­ied in the range of 760…820 C, the spe­cif­ic flow rate of water vapor was 1.3–1.8 kg/kg char­coal, the dura­tion of acti­va­tion var­ied from 90 to 120 min­utes. As the response func­tions were tak­en: Y1 – yield of AC (%); Y2 – total pore vol­ume (cm3/g); Y3 – adsorp­tion activ­i­ty of iodine (%). The exper­i­ment allowed us to obtain regres­sion equa­tions ade­quate­ly describ­ing the influ­ence of the main act­ing fac­tors on the out­put and prop­er­ties of the AC. The results obtained for the acti­va­tion of aspen AC were com­pared with sim­i­lar stud­ies that were car­ried out on the acti­va­tion of birch char­coal. As a result of the research it was deter­mined that the out­put of AC from both aspen and birch is more influ­enced by the spe­cif­ic con­sump­tion of steam. The total pore vol­ume of AC depends on the tem­per­a­ture and spe­cif­ic steam flow rate. While acti­vat­ing, the aspen con­trol unit has a greater impact spe­cif­ic steam con­sump­tion. The aspen AC has an iodine activ­i­ty rate of about 15–20% high­er than the birch AC obtained under the same conditions.

Key­words: aspen, aspen char­coal, active carbon

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4. PERSONALITIES

Kuznetsov E.N., Smirnov A.P., Cher­tov O.G. In mem­o­ry of Sve­tozar Niko­lae­vich Sen­nov. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 224. pp. 280–283 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.224.280–283

Abstract

On May 17, 2018 Sve­tozar Sen­nov, Pro­fes­sor of the Depart­ment of Forestry at St. Peters­burg State For­est Tech­ni­cal Uni­ver­si­ty, Doc­tor of Agri­cul­tur­al Sci­ences, Hon­ored Sci­en­tist of the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion, passed away.

Key­words: per­son­al­i­ties

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Issue 223
1. FORESTRY

Nguyen Van Dinh, Gryazkin A.V., Belye­va N.V., Phan Thanh Lam, Shakhov A.G. Nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of conifers on the area of for­est plan­ta­tions. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 6–15 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.6–15

Abstract

Cre­ation of for­est plan­ta­tions is an impor­tant part of refor­esta­tion activ­i­ties in forestry pro­duc­tion. Not always and every­where an arti­fi­cial for­est plan­ta­tions is effec­tive. The main rea­sons for this are not high qual­i­ty soil prepa­ra­tion and fail­ure to com­ply with the scheme of plant­i­ng (dis­tance between fur­rows and between plants in the fur­row), the non-obser­vance of tim­ing of plant­i­ng and the lack of pre­scribed treat­ments, i.e., in Gen­er­al, vio­lat­ed the tech­nol­o­gy of cre­ation of for­est plan­ta­tions. The result is low sur­vival rate and low safe­ty of for­est plan­ta­tions. On the oth­er hand soil prepa­ra­tion for plan­ta­tions is an effec­tive mea­sure to pro­mote nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, not only for hard­wood, but also soft­wood. Self-seed­ing is not expe­ri­enc­ing trans­fer shock and there­fore his growth and devel­op­ment nat­u­ral­ly occurs more rapid­ly. On rich soils the most suc­cess­ful being nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion ate. Pine under these con­di­tions is dis­placed by a pow­er­ful grass and dense hard­wood under­growth. The main rea­son for this is helio­phi­tos pine. The grow­ing num­ber of self-seed­ing conifers in all con­di­tions ahead of for­est plan­ta­tions. Espe­cial­ly clear­ly man­i­fest­ed in the first years after the estab­lish­ment of for­est plan­ta­tions, plant­ed when the seedlings or saplings are expe­ri­enc­ing trans­fer shock and to adapt to new con­di­tions of growth and self-seed­ing on the con­trary, with­out com­pe­ti­tion from the grass in the first years after soil prepa­ra­tion is suc­cess­ful­ly grow­ing. If soil prepa­ra­tion was car­ried out in the year an abun­dant har­vest of seeds of conifers, the num­ber of self-seed­ing in num­bers many times greater than for­est cul­ture of any den­si­ty. In addi­tion to the self-seed­ing on any clear­ing there is a cer­tain amount of under­growth is pre­served after the cut­ting. In some cas­es, the pro­por­tion of the under­growth pre­lim­i­nary renew­al in the com­po­si­tion of the young pop­u­la­tion reach­es 25–30%. The appear­ance of self-sown young growth and under­growth in the area of for­est cul­tures is due to the many con­found­ing fac­tors. First and fore­most is the num­ber of incom­ing seeds on the pre­pared soil. The sec­ond fac­tor in impor­tance is the qual­i­ty of the prepa­ra­tion of the soil, name­ly, the degree of min­er­al­iza­tion. The third, equal­ly impor­tant fac­tor is the grow­ing con­di­tions, type of site and stand con­di­tions. Fourth – com­pe­ti­tion from grass and young hardwoods.

Key­words: for­est ecosys­tems, for­est plan­ta­tions, nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion, self­sow­ing, young growth, liv­ing ground cover

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Mishuko­va I.A., Lebe­dev P.A., Kryukovskiy A.S., Bogo­molo­va E.V. Phy­ton­ci­dal activ­i­ty of plants in con­di­tions of closed soil on the exam­ple Fit­to­nia Gigan­tea (Acan­thaceae), Cos­tus Cus­p­i­da­tus (Costaceae) and Trades­cant­ia Spathaceae (Com­meli­naceae). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 16–27 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.16–27

Abstract

Urban envi­ron­ment con­tains a large num­ber of path­o­gen­ic microor­gan­isms (bac­te­ria, fun­gi of virus­es). From year to year, they are becom­ing more dan­ger­ous to humans. The air pol­lu­tion inside build­ings is much high­er than in the open air due to favor­able con­di­tions for the growth of the num­ber of dif­fer­ent microor­gan­isms, includ­ing mold fun­gi. The use of plants with active phy­ton­cide (bac­te­ri­ci­dal, antivi­ral and anti­fun­gal) prop­er­ties is the safest and most suit­able way of clean­ing air, despite the large num­ber of mod­ern tech­no­log­i­cal means. At present, a large num­ber of stud­ies have been car­ried out to study the phy­ton­ci­dal action of plants in closed soil, but an impor­tant prob­lem remains the search for new promis­ing species that have an active san­i­tiz­ing effect. The pur­pose of the explo­ration was to study species of plants that have phy­ton­ci­dal activ­i­ty against spores of mold fun­gi con­tained in the air of the premis­es. One of the most com­mon mold fun­gi indoors is Peni­cil­li­um auran­tiogri­se­um Dier­ckx, whose spores per­sist in the air for many years, are resis­tant to phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions and can cause a vari­ety of dis­eases in a per­son – aller­gies, infec­tious process­es, chron­ic tox­in poi­son­ing, etc. The study revealed the phy­ton­ci­dal effect of the volatile emis­sions of mag­no­liofit Fit­to­nia gigan­tea Lin­den com­pared with oth­er exper­i­men­tal flow­er­ing plants (Cos­tus cus­p­i­da­tus (Nees & Mart.) Maas, Trades­cant­ia spathacea Sw.) on spores of fun­gus P. auran­tiogri­se­um Dier­ckx. This plant can be rec­om­mend­ed for use in the green­ing of premis­es and san­i­ta­tion of the air envi­ron­ment from such path­o­gen­ic for human microor­gan­isms as mold fungi.

Key­words: phy­ton­cide activ­i­ty, air envi­ron­ment, volatile active ingre­di­ents, Fit­to­nia gigan­tea, Peni­cil­li­um aurantiogriseum

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Smirnov A.P., Smirnov A.A., Mongush B.Aj‑D. Pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of conifer forests and espe­cial­ly nat­ur­al for­est regen­er­a­tion on the felling with regard to for­est soil fer­til­i­ty. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 28–46 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.28–46

Abstract

The pur­pose of the study is to deter­mine the impact of effec­tive for­est soil fer­til­i­ty on pro­duc­tiv­i­ty of spruce and pine stands of pure the com­po­si­tion, as well as the suc­cess of the sub­se­quent nat­ur­al for­est regen­er­a­tion on the felling. Effec­tive for­est soil fer­til­i­ty by O.Chertov is the ratio of thick­ness the humus hori­zon and for­est lit­ter (humus-lit­ter coef­fi­cient, HLC). Spruce pro­duc­tiv­i­ty Leningrad region has high direct cor­re­la­tion with HLC (R2 = 0.884). The high­est pro­duc­tiv­i­ty trees (qual­i­ty class IA and Ia, 5) is char­ac­ter­ized by fer­til­i­ty coef­fi­cients, equal respec­tive­ly 2.3 and 2. Depen­dence of pro­duc­tiv­i­ty pine stands from HLC was sig­nif­i­cant­ly less close than spruce stands (R2 = 0.464). In stands with the high­est pro­duc­tiv­i­ty (qual­i­ty class Ia, 5‑Ib, 5) HLC is 1.7–3.5. On the felling where pre­scrip­tion 5–15 years the amount of HLC nat­u­ral­ly increas­es the orig­i­nal for­est types from the poor to the rel­a­tive­ly rich habi­tats. This change the den­si­ty and com­po­si­tion of for­est regen­er­a­tion, both gen­er­al and regen­er­a­tion of conifers. The high­est over­all den­si­ty of for­est regen­er­a­tion (20–22 thou­sand copies./ha), with a fair­ly large por­tion of pine regen­er­a­tion is 5–6 thou­sand copies./ha char­ac­ter­is­tic soil medi­um fer­til­i­ty (HLC = 1.2), but with some exces­sive mois­ture – poly­tri­chosum and nass myr­tillo­sum. The largest num­ber of young conifers (pine­dom­i­nat­ed com­po­si­tion) – 8–13 thou­sand copies./ha is inher­ent in the poor and arid habi­tats (vac­cin­io­sum and сladi­nosum for­est types). With the increase of effec­tive soil fer­til­i­ty changes of young pines on young spruce, with under­growth den­si­ty conifers declines in gen­er­al. This den­si­ty has a close rela­tion­ship with neg­a­tive non­lin­ear HLC (R2 = 0.916). Den­si­ty under­growth of birch from the soil fer­til­i­ty is not affect­ed (R2 = 0.025), where­as the den­si­ty of aspen regrowth has with him a high pos­i­tive rela­tion­ship (R2 = 0.706). Growth of under­brush with HLC loose­ly con­nect­ed, but in most cas­es the under­brush reduces den­si­ty under­growth of conif­er­ous species and, in par­tic­u­lar, young pine. Growth of grass­es, espe­cial­ly cere­als, char­ac­ter­is­ti­cal­ly for the rich soil, and also has a sig­nif­i­cant neg­a­tive effect on den­si­ty pine regrowth. Thus, soil, pos­sess­ing the high­est effec­tive fer­til­i­ty, after cut­ting down mater­nal stand soon devel­oped by com­peti­tors of pine and spruce: herbs, under­brush and decid­u­ous breeds, pri­mar­i­ly aspen. Con­se­quent­ly, the orig­i­nal for­est stand com­po­si­tion and type, deter­min­ing effec­tive soil fer­til­i­ty, in the absence of man­age­ment mea­sures on assis­tance to nat­ur­al regen­er­a­tion of conif­er­ous breeds, we can con­fi­dent­ly pre­dict the suc­cess of a nat­ur­al fol­low-up refor­esta­tion of all felling.

Key­words: conif­er­ous forests, for­est types, for­est soil fer­til­i­ty, cut­ting, for­est regen­er­a­tion, under­brush, grass cover

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Danilov D.A., Zhi­gunov A.V., Ryabinin B.N., Vaiman A.А. Assess­ment of the con­di­tion of for­est and posta­gro­genic soils of the Leningrad region and prospects of inten­sive for­est growth in these areas. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 47–63 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.47–63

Abstract

Using poten­tial fer­til­i­ty mosagro­gen soil you can grow of tar­get woody plants and to bal­ance and mar­ketable tim­ber in a short­er time than in the lands of the for­est Fund. The prob­lem of this issue is lit­tle inves­ti­gat­ed and now it is nec­es­sary to assess the prospects of grow­ing high pro­duc­tiv­i­ty plan­ta­tions on posta­gro­genic. The aim of the study was to com­pare for­est and posta­gro­genic soils in such para­me­ters as the car­bon con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter and total nitro­gen, to pre­dict the prospects for the orga­ni­za­tion of the econ­o­my with the accel­er­at­ed cul­ti­va­tion of pro­duc­tive tree plan­ta­tions on fal­low lands. In posta­gro­genic and wood­ed land were select­ed in the area with sim­i­lar con­di­tions of soil for­ma­tion under ripe for­est stands belong­ing to the for­est types: myr­tillus, oxalis and quer­cus-her­bosa and posta­gro­genic soil com­plex­es of fal­low lands. Con­duct­ed assess­ment of some physi­co-chem­i­cal para­me­ters of soil com­mon in soil sci­ence meth­ods: deter­mined par­ti­cle size dis­tri­b­u­tion, the den­si­ty of the com­po­si­tion and pow­er of the genet­ic soil hori­zons. The den­si­ty of addi­tion of all hori­zons was esti­mat­ed by Kaczyn­s­ki; deter­mi­na­tion of car­bon was car­ried out by dry ash­ing, total Kjel­dahl nitro­gen, pH salt extrac­tion by the poten­tio­met­ric method. Analy­sis of car­bon stocks of organ­ic mat­ter (С) and nitro­gen (N) in the genet­ic hori­zons of soils of blue­ber­ry, acidic and oak-grass for­est types shows an increase in the con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter and total nitro­gen from blue­ber­ry to oak-grass for­est type. There is a decrease in the con­tent of organ­ic car­bon from the humus hori­zon to the ashed one: in quer­cus-her­bosa for­est types – 2.8, acidic – 7.6, myr­tillus – 8.5 times. The posta­gro­genic restora­tion to the land is cur­tains char­ac­ter or occurs at the microde­pres­sions of the for­mer fur­rows. The organ­ic mat­ter con­tent in the arable hori­zon of posta­gro­genic par­cel of land be at the lev­el of par­ents type of the wood. The con­tent of total nitro­gen in these soils is high from 5 to 7.4 t/ha – at the lev­el of oak-grass for­est type. The ratio C: N, which char­ac­ter­izes the enrich­ment of humus nitro­gen, for most humus hori­zons of soils is 8–10, which cor­re­sponds to a high and medi­um degree of secu­ri­ty with this ele­ment. Accord­ing to the con­tent of weeds and Com­mu­ni­ties in the upper hori­zon of the soil form the fol­low­ing decreas­ing series: quer­cus-her­bosa type for­est > lands >for­est oxalis type > myr­tillus type for­est > arable land. Com­par­a­tive analy­sis of phys­i­cal and agro­chem­i­cal con­di­tion of posta­gro­genic and for­est soils showed that, in spite of pre­vi­ous anthro­pogenic impact, agron­o­my hori­zon main­tains a high organ­ic mat­ter con­tent and total nitro­gen. Dete­ri­o­ra­tion of the prop­er­ties of posta­gro­genic soils in the study areas does not occur and trans­for­ma­tion in the direc­tion of nat­ur­al for­est soils of the region is not observed, despite the long peri­od of occur­rence (over 30 years). The ratio of car­bon and nitro­gen in posta­gro­genic soils by soil pro­file shows a high­er fer­til­i­ty than in for­est soils, where the indi­ca­tor C:N is opti­mal only part of the hori­zon A1. Assess­ing the suit­abil­i­ty of the sur­veyed areas of fal­low lands for the accel­er­at­ed cul­ti­va­tion of dif­fer­ent species of wood to pro­duce bio­mass, it can be stat­ed that the lev­el of organ­ic mat­ter and total nitro­gen exceeds or cor­re­sponds to the con­di­tions of growth in Ia –I class of bonitet for the region of the study.

Key­words: for­est and posta­gro­genic soils, organ­ic mat­ter, total nitro­gen, soil den­si­ty, car­bon-nitro­gen ratio in soil

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Kho­dachek O.A. Impact of soil fac­tor on the state of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.) stands in Leningrad region and in Ida-Viru­maa coun­ty (Esto­nia). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 64–77 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.64–77

Abstract

This arti­cle dis­cuss­es the impact of soil fac­tors on the state of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.) stands. The aim of research is to iden­ti­fy the pos­si­ble rela­tion­ship between the con­di­tion of green spaces and phys­i­cal-chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil in which they grow. The study was found­ed on 11 sam­ple plots in ongo­ing mon­i­tor­ing, locat­ed in urban forests in dif­fer­ent dis­tricts of St. Peters­burg (Vyborg, Resort, Pushkin), in the Vyborg dis­trict of the Leningrad region and the Repub­lic of Esto­nia (the Coun­ty of IDA-Viru­maa). It was car­ried out tax­o­nom­ic descrip­tion and eval­u­a­tion of phy­tosan­i­tary con­di­tion of from 70 to 100 trees in each sam­ple area with the def­i­n­i­tion of the aver­age score of the state of the for­est as a whole. It was lists fac­tors of weak­en­ing, detect­ed dur­ing recon­nais­sance sur­vey con­duct­ed at the end of the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od in each sam­ple area (as of Sep­tem­ber 2017). The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the results of agro­chem­i­cal soil analy­sis of the sur­veyed plots: gran­u­lo­met­ric com­po­si­tion; the amount of organ­ic mat­ter and the acid­i­ty of the soil; the con­tent of soil exchange­able potas­si­um and phos­pho­rus. The arti­cle also presents data on the cation-anion­ic com­po­si­tion of the aque­ous extract of the soil, and cal­cu­lates the sum of tox­ic salts on the sur­veyed ter­ri­to­ries. The results of the soil analy­sis showed suf­fi­cient sup­ply of plant phos­pho­rus and organ­ic mat­ter, low con­tent of exchange potas­si­um and high lev­els of soil acid­i­ty on most of the This arti­cle dis­cuss­es the impact of soil fac­tors on the state of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.) stands. The aim of this research is to iden­ti­fy the pos­si­ble rela­tion­ship between the con­di­tion of green spaces and phys­i­cal-chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the soil in which they grow. The study was found­ed on 11 sam­ple plots in ongo­ing mon­i­tor­ing, locat­ed in urban forests in dif­fer­ent dis­tricts of St. Peters­burg (Vyborg, Resort and Pushkin), in the Vyborg dis­trict of the Leningrad region and the Repub­lic of Esto­nia (the Coun­ty of IDA-Viru­maa). It was car­ried out tax­o­nom­ic descrip­tion and eval­u­a­tion of phy­tosan­i­tary con­di­tion of from 70 to 100 trees in each sam­ple area with the def­i­n­i­tion of the aver­age score of the state of the for­est as a whole. It was lists fac­tors of weak­en­ing, detect­ed dur­ing recon­nais­sance sur­vey con­duct­ed at the end of the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od in each sam­ple area (as of Sep­tem­ber 2017). The arti­cle dis­cuss­es the results of agro­chem­i­cal soil analy­sis of the sur­veyed plots: gran­u­lo­met­ric com­po­si­tion; the amount of organ­ic mat­ter and the acid­i­ty of the soil; the con­tent of soil exchange­able potas­si­um and phos­pho­rus. The arti­cle also presents data on the cation-anion­ic com­po­si­tion of the aque­ous extract of the soil, and cal­cu­lates the sum of tox­ic salts on the sur­veyed ter­ri­to­ries. The results of the soil analy­sis showed suf­fi­cient sup­ply of plant phos­pho­rus and organ­ic mat­ter, low con­tent of exchange potas­si­um and high lev­els of soil acid­i­ty on most of the sur­veyed plots. The sum of tox­ic salts in the soil does not exceed the thresh­old lev­el. Research has iden­ti­fied the soil fac­tors that have the great­est impact on the phy­tosan­i­tary con­di­tion of pine and spruce stands: the lev­el of acid­i­ty, con­tent of tox­ic salts in the soil.plots. The sum of tox­ic salts in the soil does not exceed the thresh­old lev­el. Research has iden­ti­fied the soil fac­tors that have the great­est impact on the phy­tosan­i­tary con­di­tion of pine and spruce stands: the lev­el of acid­i­ty, con­tent of tox­ic salts in the soil.

Key­words: urban forests, agro-chem­i­cal soil analy­sis, fac­tors of weak­en­ing of the for­est stands of Picea abies (L.) and Pinus sylvestris (L.)

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Ershov P.V., Bess­chet­no­va N.N., Bess­chet­nov V.P. Mul­ti­di­men­sion­al assess­ment of plus trees of Nor­way spruce (Picea abies) in the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of nee­dles. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 78–99 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.78–99

Abstract

Researched mul­ti-para­me­ter affin­i­ty plus trees of Nor­way spruce using a range of indi­ca­tors of the pig­ment com­po­si­tion of nee­dles. Stud­ied veg­e­ta­tive prog­e­ny of 21 plus trees of Nor­way spruce at the age of 34 years. They are placed accord­ing to a uni­form scheme in the clone archive in the ter­ri­to­ry of the Nizh­ny Nov­gorod region. Clus­ter and fac­tor analy­sis of 24 char­ac­ter­is­tics of the pig­ment com­po­si­tion 1‑year and 2‑year-old pine estab­lished the genet­ic close­ness of objects. Extrac­tion of pig­ments in 96% ethanol were ana­lyzed with a spec­tropho­tome­ter «Grat­ing 722». The choice of wave­lengths cor­re­spond to absorp­tion max­i­ma: chlorophyll‑a (663 Nm), chlorophyll‑b (645 Nm), carotenoids (440 Nm). Defined their sep­a­rate and total con­tents, and the ratio between them. Dis­cov­ered dif­fer­en­ti­a­tion in assort­ment com­po­si­tion plus trees of Nor­way spruce. The extent of their phe­no­typ­ic het­ero­gene­ity due to numer­ous fea­tures intro­duced in the scheme expe­ri­ence varies. Con­firmed the sta­bil­i­ty of the ratios between the inves­ti­gat­ed plus trees. Their com­po­si­tion was orga­nized into clus­ters, in vary­ing degrees, dis­tant from each oth­er. As fixed dif­fer­ences and the nature of the group­ings of plus trees was formed in aligned envi­ron­men­tal con­di­tions, there is every rea­son to rec­og­nize their hered­i­tary char­ac­ter. Plus trees rep­re­sent­ing dif­fer­ent clus­ters are less like­ly to be close rel­a­tives, while the objects includ­ed in the same clus­ter, poten­tial­ly sim­i­lar in genet­ic terms. Received infor­ma­tion about their com­pre­hen­sive reach allows to form the opti­mal com­po­si­tion of seed orchards, elim­i­nat­ing the risk of the neg­a­tive effect of inbreed­ing depres­sion in seed progeny.

Key­words: Nor­way spruce, plus-trees, nee­dles, chlorophyll‑a, chlorophyll‑b, carotenoids, fac­tor analy­sis, clus­ter analysis

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Chernikhovsky D.M. Using the auto­mat­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of relief by Iva­hashi and Pike to assess the quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests on the basis of ele­va­tion mod­els of ter­rain and sur­face. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 100–126 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.100–126

Abstract

The aim of the arti­cle is to eval­u­ate and inter­pret the rela­tion­ships between the mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of the relief and for­est char­ac­ter­is­tics using geoin­for­ma­tion tech­nolo­gies and mor­pho­me­t­ric analy­sis. The rel­e­vance of this direc­tion is relat­ed to the search for quan­ti­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of land­scapes capa­ble of deter­min­ing the vari­abil­i­ty of quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests. As the mod­el ter­ri­to­ry, the cen­tral part of the for­mer Lisin­sky Edu­ca­tion­al and Exper­i­men­tal Leskhoz of the Leningrad Region was cho­sen. The mod­el ter­ri­to­ry has a rec­tan­gu­lar shape. It is divid­ed into cells of a reg­u­lar net­work with a step of 1000 m. On the mod­el ter­ri­to­ry was formed a geo-infor­ma­tion project with help for­est inven­to­ry data­bas­es and dig­i­tal ele­va­tion mod­els. The for­ma­tion and com­par­a­tive eval­u­a­tion of both ele­va­tion mod­els (dig­i­tal ter­rain mod­el on base of topo­graph­ic maps and dig­i­tal sur­face mod­el on base of SRTM data) was car­ried out. With help of pro­files and lin­ear regres­sion, the dif­fer­ences between the mod­els are esti­mat­ed. The homo­ge­neous char­ac­ter of changes in the heights of the two mod­els are not­ed. But sig­nif­i­cant vari­abil­i­ty in the alti­tudes of the SRTM mod­el and an aver­age dif­fer­ence between mod­el heights of about 15 m was not­ed too. For ele­va­tion and sur­face mod­els, Iva­hashi and Pike auto­mat­ed clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the relief topog­ra­phy was per­formed (by sequen­tial deter­mi­na­tion and analy­sis of a set of mor­pho­me­t­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics – steep­ness of slopes, tex­ture and con­vex­i­ty). The results of the clas­si­fi­ca­tion of both mod­els of heights are sig­nif­i­cant­ly dif­fer­ent, which can be explained by the influ­ence of the for­est canopy on the results of the SRTM sur­vey. The results of regres­sion analy­sis of rela­tion­ships between for­est char­ac­ter­is­tics (depen­dent vari­ables) with class­es of relief forms (inde­pen­dent vari­ables) are obtained. The rela­tion­ship between the char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests and the results of clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the relief can be explained by the influ­ence of the relief on the for­ma­tion of for­est habi­tats. Prospects for research in this area are relat­ed to the improve­ment of the the­o­ry and prac­tice of for­est inven­to­ry works on the basis of quan­ti­ta­tive analy­sis of spa­tial data on for­est land­scapes using geoin­for­ma­tion tech­nolo­gies and remote methods.

Key­words: auto­mat­ic clas­si­fi­ca­tion of the relief, for­est tax­a­tion, geo­mor­phom­e­try, quan­ti­ta­tive and qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of forests, dig­i­tal ter­rain mod­el, dig­i­tal sur­face model

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Kovyazin V.F., Pham Thi Hien Luong Hor­i­zon­tal struc­ture of phy­to­cenoses of the Kurort for­est park of Saint-Peters­burg in con­di­tions of inten­sive recre­ation­al load. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 127–139 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.127–139

Abstract

The Kurort for­est park is locat­ed on the ter­ri­to­ry of the North­ern coast of the Neva Bay, with­in the bound­aries of the Kurort­nyj and Pri­morsky admin­is­tra­tive of St. Peters­burg area. These urban forests are a favorite vaca­tion spot of Peters­burg­ers. Accord­ing to the for­est depart­ment of Kurort for­est park in the sum­mer, the num­ber of recre­ants is about a mil­lion peo­ple who focus on land locat­ed near the Gulf of Fin­land. Molodeg­ny, Komarovsky, Ses­troret­sky and Pesochin­sky forestry. A large num­ber of tourists are con­cen­trat­ed in a small area, which caus­es degra­da­tion of phy­to­cenoses, which affects the struc­ture of the plant­i­ngs. In par­tic­u­lar, the hor­i­zon­tal struc­ture of veg­e­ta­tion. The urban forests of St. Peters­burg from conif­er­ous tree species dom­i­nat­ed by Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies; from Lar­ix – Betu­la and Alnus gluti­nosa. The impor­tance of the prob­lem of hor­i­zon­tal for­est struc­ture is proved by all the expe­ri­ence of its devel­op­ment in low­land con­di­tions. The hor­i­zon­tal struc­ture of plant com­mu­ni­ties are rel­a­tive­ly homo­ge­neous. Parcels dif­fer only in terms of grow­ing plants. The par­cel struc­ture of for­est park phy­to­cenoses was stud­ied in dif­fer­ent for­est types with dif­fer­ent recre­ation­al load. Parcels dif­fer in com­po­si­tion, struc­ture, prop­er­ties of com­po­nents, their dis­tri­b­u­tion over the area. The more small parcels that have arisen as a result of inten­sive recre­ation, the high­er the degree of oppres­sion of all com­po­nents and phy­to­ceno­sis as a whole. The num­ber and size of the parcels depend on the for­est types and the devel­op­ment of liv­ing ground cov­er. Between them, there is a con­nec­tion owned by wood edi­fi­ca­to­ry, i.e. the types that have the strongest envi­ron­men­tal prop­er­ties. The num­ber and size of parcels depends on the for­est types and recre­ation­al impact on phytocenosis.

Key­words: par­cel, struc­ture, park’s phy­to­coeno­sis, liv­ing ground cov­er, recre­ation­al impact

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Duro­va А.S., Zhi­gunov А.V. Biochar effects of on soil fer­til­i­ty and growth of spruce seedlings in sow­ing sec­tions of for­est nurs­eries. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 140–153 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.140–153

Abstract

Improve­ment of agro­chem­i­cal, phys­i­cal, chem­i­cal and bio­log­i­cal prop­er­ties of soil as a result of biochar appli­ca­tion as an ame­lio­rant has been proved in numer­ous stud­ies. Appli­ca­tion of ame­lio­rant in biochar dos­es rang­ing from 1 to 30 tons per ha has proved to be most effec­tive in grow­ing crops. How­ev­er, biochar effects on the growth of conif­er­ous seedlings in the sow­ing sec­tion of for­est nurs­eries have not been con­sid­ered in the lit­er­a­ture. The aim of the research was to study the effects of dif­fer­ent biochar dos­es on agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of soils in for­est nurs­eries with dif­fer­ent gran­u­lo­met­ric soil com­po­si­tion and on the growth of spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L.)). Biochar fine-ground frac­tions (5 mm in diam­e­ter) were intro­duced into one-meter length lines of five-row sow­ing tapes in dos­es of 5 and 25 t/ha. In the con­trol vari­ants of the exper­i­ment, biochar was not intro­duced. For seed­ing, dry conifer seeds were used, which were pre­pared for sow­ing by stan­dard meth­ods. Agrotech­ni­cal meth­ods for grow­ing seedlings were car­ried out accord­ing to stan­dard tech­no­log­i­cal maps. The exper­i­ment had five repli­cates. The growth and devel­op­ment of Euro­pean spruce seedlings as well as soil fer­til­i­ty para­me­ters were stud­ied dur­ing three grow­ing sea­sons in the sow­ing sec­tions of for­est nurs­eries. At the exper­i­men­tal plots, the height of the seedlings and the diam­e­ter of their root col­lars were deter­mined at the end of each grow­ing sea­son. 30 mod­el seedlings were select­ed to deter­mine the mass of a seedling, which was done after the seedlings were dried to a con­stant weight at a tem­per­a­ture of 80 C. The soil fer­til­i­ty para­me­ters were eval­u­at­ed based on the car­bon con­tent of organ­ic mat­ter and acid­i­ty; in addi­tion, the con­tents of avail­able forms of nitro­gen, phos­pho­rus and potas­si­um were deter­mined. The agro­chem­i­cal analy­ses were per­formed using stan­dard meth­ods and pro­ce­dures. Soil sam­pling was car­ried out using the enve­lope method in accor­dance with GOST 174.3.01–83. The valid­i­ty of the applied biochar dos­es on the growth of seedlings was assessed with the sin­gle-fac­tor analy­sis of vari­ance. The intro­duc­tion of biochar to the soil of the nurs­ery sow­ing sec­tion in dos­es of 5 and 25 t/ha influ­enced the agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of both sandy and sandy loamy soil. In more fer­tile sandy loam soils, biochar pos­i­tive­ly influ­enced agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of the soil, which result­ed in high­er growth rates of spruce in the first grow­ing sea­son. How­ev­er, the biochar effects on the agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of sandy loamy soil grad­u­al­ly decreased with time. When biochar was applied in a dose of 5 t/ha, car­bon and nitro­gen con­tents decreased sig­nif­i­cant­ly, which led to lev­el­ing of height growth of seedlings after the sec­ond grow­ing sea­son. How­ev­er, increase in the seedling root col­lar diam­e­ter and weight was sig­nif­i­cant with respect to the con­trol for both dos­es of biochar, 5 and 25 t/ha, after three years of cul­ti­va­tion. On sandy soil, the biochar effects on soil were more extend­ed in time. By the end of 3 years, pos­i­tive changes in the agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of the soil were still going on for both dos­es, 5 and 25 t/ha. How­ev­er, due to low­er agro­chem­i­cal para­me­ters of sandy soil, the growth of seedlings in these con­di­tions remained low and the seedlings did not reach the stan­dard para­me­ters after three years of cul­ti­va­tion, even with the intro­duc­tion of ameliorant.

Key­words: biochar, for­est nurs­ery, growth rate, seedlings, Euro­pean spruce (Picea abies (L.))

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Gievaya L.P., Guse­va E.A., Kalmyko­va A.l., Ovcharenko E.A., Pchelyakov S.N. Sub­stan­ti­a­tion of plants’ selec­tion for the for­ma­tion of sen­so­ry mod­ules on school grounds in Sara­tov. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 154–164 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.154–164

Abstract

When design­ing or recon­struct­ing school grounds, it is nec­es­sary to take into account the mod­ern require­ments to the orga­ni­za­tion of the edu­ca­tion­al process and leisure of school­child­ren. 95% of the school ter­ri­to­ries in Sara­tov do not meet these require­ments. One of the con­tem­po­rary trends in the orga­ni­za­tion of the school ter­ri­to­ry is the cre­ation of sen­so­ry mod­ules with veg­e­ta­tion using to improve the recre­ation­al, health, cog­ni­tive and sen­so­ry per­cep­tion of school­child­ren. Sen­so­ry mod­ules should include a set of ele­ments, plants, designs and their com­bi­na­tions, to con­form to the stan­dards and safe­ty rules, to be bright and inter­est­ing for games and class­es of school­child­ren of dif­fer­ent ages. Most of the chil­dren study­ing in the edu­ca­tion­al insti­tu­tions of Sara­tov are kines­thet­ics and visu­als. This unique fea­ture is relat­ed to the specifics of the city infos­phere and the lack of nat­ur­al com­po­nents in it. To devel­op their olfac­to­ry, audi­to­ry and tac­tile sub­sys­tems, it is nec­es­sary to include plants and ele­ments that have the appro­pri­ate char­ac­ter­is­tics: aro­mas, tex­tured sur­faces and var­i­ous sounds in the sen­so­ry mod­ules. The soci­o­log­i­cal sur­vey made it pos­si­ble to deter­mine the qual­i­ta­tive char­ac­ter­is­tics of sen­so­ry mod­ules attrac­tive for school­child­ren. Groups of aro­mas pleas­ant for chil­dren, col­ors and their com­bi­na­tions, sounds of nature, tex­tures of sur­faces, tac­tile sen­sa­tions and prefer­able kinds of rest are revealed. On the basis of these char­ac­ter­is­tics, plants were select­ed for their place­ment in sen­so­ry mod­ules on the ter­ri­to­ry of school grounds in Sara­tov. Rec­om­men­da­tions are giv­en on the for­ma­tion of basic sen­so­ry mod­ules from selec­tion of trees, bush­es, lianas and peren­ni­al plants suit­able for grow­ing in school grounds in the cities of the steppe zone. Plants for school sen­so­ry units should have peak dec­o­ra­tive­ness in spring and autumn, i.e. dur­ing the aca­d­e­m­ic year. Basic sen­so­ry mod­ules can have an area of only a few square meters. There­fore, the oppor­tu­ni­ties for their place­ment are avail­able on school grounds of any area. Depend­ing on the con­fig­u­ra­tion of school grounds, their com­bi­na­tions may be different.

Key­words: Sara­tov, sen­so­ry mod­ule, per­cep­tion type, school­boy, school ground, mixboard­er, selec­tion, tree, bush, liana, flower garden

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Alek­san­rov V.A., Gomon D.Yu. Vibra­tion effect to the oper­a­tor of feller-skid­der in the process of point­ing the grap­ple head on a tree. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 165–173 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.165–173

Abstract

In arti­cle the dynam­ic mod­el of sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor-skid­ding trac­tor – tree bunch». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagranzha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tion is volved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion seats. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly felling and skid­ding machine LP-17A.

Key­words: dynam­ic mod­el, math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion, feller buncher

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Dru­chinin D.Yu., Dra­pa­lyuk M.V. Large plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al employ­ment in the cre­ation and recon­struc­tion of pro­tec­tive for­est plan­ta­tions. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 174–186 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.174–186

Abstract

The most impor­tant role of pro­tec­tive for­est plan­ta­tions in the issue of pro­tect­ing agri­cul­tur­al lands from neg­a­tive process­es of wind and water ero­sion, ravine growth and frost pen­e­tra­tion is indi­cat­ed. Con­sid­ered are the exist­ing struc­tures of for­est strips that are part of pro­tec­tive for­est plan­ta­tions. The dis­sat­is­fac­to­ry con­di­tion of the many of the exist­ing pro­tec­tive for­est strips is not­ed, as a result of which it is nec­es­sary to repair or recon­struct these plan­ta­tions. The prospects of using large plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al, trans­plant­ed with a soil clod, are shown when per­form­ing pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion work. The devel­oped plant lifter design is pre­sent­ed. The tool is aggre­gat­ed with a trac­tor and is used for work in for­est nurs­eries, where in-line escape­ment of lift­ing plants is observed. To improve the effi­cien­cy of the plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al har­vest­ing process with the abil­i­ty to work under the for­est canopy, tech­no­log­i­cal equip­ment has been devel­oped for lift­ing and trans­plant­i­ng large plantlets, locat­ed on the basis of grap­ple plants. Pre­sent­ed machines can also be used to pre­pare plant­i­ng places for plant­i­ng them with exca­vat­ed plantlets. In this case, the formed plant­i­ng place will com­plete­ly repeat the con­tours of the plant being plant­ed soil clod. The pro­vi­sions of the Strat­e­gy for the devel­op­ment of pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion in the Russ­ian Fed­er­a­tion until 2020 are con­sid­ered. The need to cre­ate 4 mil­lion hectares of pro­tec­tive for­est plan­ta­tions for elim­i­nat­ing the neg­a­tive process­es of ero­sion and deser­ti­fi­ca­tion of agri­cul­tur­al lands and pre­vent­ing fur­ther degra­da­tion of agroter­ri­to­ries was iden­ti­fied. The pro­posed tech­nol­o­gy for the use of large plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al in pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion and the means for mech­a­niza­tion of the process of lift­ing and trans­plant­i­ng plantlets with a soil clod make it pos­si­ble to improve the effi­cien­cy and qual­i­ty of the cre­ation, repair or recon­struc­tion of pro­tec­tive for­est strips.

Key­words: pro­tec­tive afforesta­tion, pro­tec­tive for­est plan­ta­tions, for­est strip, large plant­i­ng mate­r­i­al, plantlets lift­ing, plant lifter

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Zubo­va O.V., Silet­skii V.V., Kozlov A.P., Kuznetsov K.V. Research of road mix­tures on the basis of the soils of the for­est zone and nepheline sludge with addi­tives of min­er­al binders. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 187–200 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.187–200

Abstract

In the stud­ies, a vari­ant of solv­ing the prob­lem of build­ing for­est roads is con­sid­ered. One of the solu­tions to this prob­lem is the cre­ation of a new eco­nom­i­cal­ly acces­si­ble mate­r­i­al – mix­tures of soil and nepheline sludge, rein­forced with min­er­al binders. Pre­vi­ous stud­ies of roads built using slimes con­firmed the effi­cien­cy and eco­nom­ic ben­e­fits of using this indus­try waste. Nepheline sludge was main­ly stud­ied as an inde­pen­dent mate­r­i­al, mix­tures of nepheline sludge with for­est soils were lit­tle stud­ied. Stud­ies of nepheline sludge as a com­po­nent that strength­ens the soils of the for­est zone of the North­west have been car­ried out.The arti­cle presents the results of stud­ies of such mix­tures as: a mix­ture of sand treat­ed with slur­ry cement; mix­ture of loam treat­ed with slime cement. The results of the stud­ies con­firm the poten­tial effec­tive­ness of the use of nepheline sludge for the con­struc­tion of for­est roads in the zone of the Northwest.

Key­words: nepheline sludge, for­est roads, for­est soils, road con­struc­tion, sand, loam

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Gaag S.V. Mod­el­ing the dis­place­ment of the soil throw­er in extin­guish­ing for­est fires. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 201–212 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.201–212

Abstract

The use of soil to coun­ter­act for­est fires by throw­ing the milling units promis­ing, as in the forests on dry soils, on the plains near the edge of the fire it is avail­able in large vol­ume. The pur­pose of this arti­cle is to study the pat­terns of move­ment of grun­do­mat at sup­pres­sion of for­est fires due to the fact that the mod­ern­iza­tion of its tech­nol­o­gy is the assess­ment of dynam­ic fac­tors. Research method­ol­o­gy is based on the eval­u­a­tion of the influ­ence of macro envi­ron­ment on the work of grun­do­mat when fight­ing for­est fires, the mod­el­ing of this process on the basis of bal­ance equa­tions of forces and moments, and a numer­i­cal mod­el cal­cu­la­tion. A key advan­tage of grun­do­mat is a par­al­lel imple­men­ta­tion of the whole range of func­tions with the active fire sup­pres­sion: inhi­bi­tion (inhi­bi­tion and back­fill­ing of fire ground), local­iza­tion (through the fur­row to a depth of 15–30 cm, exca­va­tion) and dry­ing fire (by means of a band around the perime­ter of the fire). Note that the ran­dom nature of the het­ero­gene­ity of the soil will lead to tran­sient load­ing con­di­tions of the dri­ve, there will be speed vari­a­tions, and sto­chas­tic angu­lar accel­er­a­tion. Cut­ting dur­ing fire fight­ing, in con­trast to earth-mov­ing machin­ery requires high cut­ting speeds (vp > 20 m/s) and dynam­ic pri­or­i­ty fac­tors. In addi­tion, the design pro­vides grantomet small val­ues of the coef­fi­cient of fric­tion of the milling knife blades on the ground, as the trans­verse milling of the soil. These fac­tors deter­mine the need for the devel­op­ment of milling tech­nol­o­gy, with a sig­nif­i­cant speeds and a reg­u­lat­ing vec­tor of throw­ing soil on the edge of the fire. The results of numer­i­cal analy­sis of the mod­el move grantomet to cre­ate lanes for fire extin­guish­ing on the basis of forces of sup­ply and moment act­ing on the mill depend­ing on modes of ground resis­tance to cut­ting, kine­mat­ic para­me­ters indi­cate a range of modes of grantomet and chip for­ma­tion of soil, which allows to opti­mize the oper­a­tion and design of grundomat.

Key­words: for­est fire, mill, fire, soil, min­er­al­ized band, grantomet, modeling

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

One­gin V.I., Sergee­vichev A.V. Phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal bases of process­es of for­ma­tion of poly­mer­ic cov­er­ings on a sol­id sur­face. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 213–227 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.213–227

Abstract

Paint coat­ings are used var­i­ous branch­es of the nation­al econ­o­my. Suc­cess­ful­ly com­bin­ing a com­plex of the pos­i­tive prop­er­ties inher­ent in poly­mer­ic mate­ri­als, with dec­o­ra­tive and physic-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of wood and wood mate­ri­als, cov­er­ings allow to real­ize suc­cess­ful­ly numer­ous tasks of for­ma­tion of a pro­tec­tive dec­o­ra­tive coat­ing at the present stage of sci­en­tif­ic and tech­ni­cal progress. Due to the wide use of paint coat­ings in tech­nique new coat­ing com­po­si­tions, meth­ods of draw­ing and meth­ods of for­ma­tion of cov­er­ings are inten­sive­ly devel­oped, the equip­ment and research tech­niques is improved, the range of appli­ca­tion extends. In this arti­cle which prin­ci­ples results of numer­ous works in the field of the phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal process­es which are tak­ing place liq­uid on a demar­ca­tion – a sub­strate are at for­ma­tion of paint coat­ings the attempt to gen­er­al­ize the saved-up mate­ri­als for years of research­es is made, at the same time aspired to objec­tive assess­ment, the avail­able data that allows to indi­cate the need of fur­ther devel­op­ment of the sci­en­tif­ic rep­re­sen­ta­tions which are the cor­ner­stone of process­es of for­ma­tion of cov­er­ings. Authors sought to open a phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal sub­stance of process­es of for­ma­tion of cov­er­ings and to show a process ambi­gu­i­ty of for­ma­tion of a paint coat­ing. At the same time the atten­tion to con­crete­ness of this or that mode was to a less­er extent paid, and kinet­ic reg­u­lar­i­ties and ten­den­cies of process are con­sid­ered. For­ma­tion of paint coat­ings includes the com­pos­ite com­plex of stages and tech­no­log­i­cal oper­a­tions, each of which demands express mate­ri­als and an inven­to­ry. The known poly­mer­ic mate­ri­als can be mod­i­fied tak­ing into account require­ments of tech­nol­o­gy and prop­er­ties of a sol­id sur­face which plays a defin­ing role in inter­ac­tion with the coat­ing com­po­si­tions lead­ing to for­ma­tion of strong adhe­sion con­tact and pro­vid­ing demand­ed physic-mechan­i­cal and pro­tec­tive and dec­o­ra­tive with prop­er­ties of a cov­er­ing. Com­plex­i­ty of the phys­i­cal and chem­i­cal phe­nom­e­na on bor­der poly­mer – the sol­id sur­face demands use of the rec­om­men­da­tions which are avail­able in inter­fac­ing areas and the­o­ret­i­cal rep­re­sen­ta­tions. The con­duct­ed research­es allow to claim that for every­one con­crete a com­bi­na­tion of a coat­ing com­po­si­tion to a sub­strate the para­me­ters inher­ent only in this con­crete sys­tem of inter­ac­tion are set though the com­mon extreme char­ac­ter remains. The con­duct­ed research­es show that heat­ing of a sur­face of a sub­strate pro­motes wet­ting improve­ment by its coat­ing com­po­si­tions that, final­ly, increas­es qual­i­ty of cov­er­ings. Thus, if the task of the ratio­nal choice of tech­no­log­i­cal process of fin­ish­ing is set, it is nec­es­sary to con­sid­er influ­ence of numer­ous fac­tors of inter­fer­ence of the phase inter­ac­tions of a gaseous flu­id, liq­uid and a sol­id body.

Key­words: sub­strate (sol­id body), wet­ting, spread­ing, adhe­sion, cohe­sion, liq­uid, gas, wet­ting angle, mix sol­vent, mod­i­fi­ca­tion, ener­gy, curing

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Vurasko A.V., Simono­va E.I., Minako­va A.R., Mano­jlović D.D. The study of pat­terns of influ­ence of alka­li treat­ment on prop­er­ties of organo­sol­vent cel­lu­lose from straw of rice. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 228–248 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.228–248

Abstract

Receive avail­able sor­bents based on nat­ur­al mate­ri­als for visu­al col­or deter­mi­na­tion of the con­tent of met­al ions in con­t­a­m­i­nat­ed nat­ur­al and waste waters is a top­i­cal area of research. Sor­bents on the basis of tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose sat­is­fy these require­ments. In the process of obtain­ing tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose is pro­posed to use bio­mass straw rice. Removal of straw rice min­er­al com­po­nent when car­ry­ing out the oxi­da­tion-organo­sol­vent use the cook­ing stage alka­li treat­ment, which leads to degra­da­tion of poly­sac­cha­rides, reduc­ing the out­put of tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose. In this regard, the aim of this work is to study the reg­u­lar­i­ties of the alka­line treat­ment of rice straw for max­i­mum preser­va­tion of the high out­put tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose, extract­ing the min­er­al and the pos­si­bil­i­ty of using the cel­lu­lose as the colour of the sor­bent. Tak­ing into account the pre­lim­i­nary stud­ies, opti­mal con­di­tions of tech­no­log­i­cal fac­tors were found ensur­ing a high yield of fibrous mate­r­i­al from rice straw with a min­i­mum con­tent of min­er­al com­po­nents in it. Sub­se­quent organo­sol­vent pulp­ing yields tech­ni­cal pulp with a yield of 48.8% bone dry raw mate­r­i­al (BDRM), an min­er­al ash con­tent of 0.05% of BDRM, a lignin con­tent of 2.5% of BDRM, sat­is­fac­to­ry strength prop­er­ties, high sorp­tion prop­er­ties, the nec­es­sary white­ness and pH of aque­ous extract. It is revealed that the tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose from straw of rice con­tains met­als accu­mu­lat­ed bio­mass dur­ing the veg­e­ta­tion peri­od. Alka­line treat­ment and oxida­tive-organo­sol­vent the delig­ni­fi­ca­tion in most cas­es leads to a decrease of met­al con­cen­tra­tions in pulp tech­ni­cal. With the excep­tion of alu­minum, iron and lead, the con­tent of which is tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose increas­es. Thus, cel­lu­lose obtained in opti­mum con­di­tions of alka­line treat­ment and sub­se­quent oxi­da­tion-organo­sol­vent pulp­ing of straw of rice, tak­ing into account the con­tained met­als suit­able for use as a sor­bent for visu­al col­or deter­mi­na­tion of the con­tent of met­al ions in pol­lut­ed nat­ur­al and sewage waters.

Key­words: tech­ni­cal cel­lu­lose, absorbents, straw of rice, organo­sol­vent the delig­ni­fi­ca­tion, min­er­al ash, metals

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Bay­dakov D.L. Elec­trode prop­er­ties of halo­genid­chalko­genide glass­es and amor­phy films obtained by the method of chem­i­cal applic. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 249–259 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.249–259

Abstract

Mul­ti­com­po­nent halidechalco­genide films CuI-PbI2-As2Se3, CuI-AgI-As2Se3, PbI2-AgI-As2Se3 were syn­the­sized from the solu­tions of halo­gen­halco­genide glass­es in n‑butylamine and the elec­trode prop­er­ties of glass­es and films were stud­ied. It has been estab­lished that the elec­trode prop­er­ties of halo­genidechalco­genide glass­es and films of sim­i­lar com­po­si­tion are prac­ti­cal­ly the same. The sim­i­lar­i­ty of the elec­trode char­ac­ter­is­tics of halo­genidechalco­genide glass­es and films is explained by the preser­va­tion of the poly­mer­ic struc­ture of glass­es when they are dis­solved in nbuty­lamine and the films are applied from the solution.

Key­words: halo­genidechalco­genide glass­es and films, chem­i­cal depo­si­tion from n‑butylamine, elec­trode prop­er­ties of glass­es and films of sim­i­lar composition

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Mak­si­mo­va E.A., Vasi­lyev A.V. Ben­zy­la­tion and oxi­da­tion of ara­bino­galac­tan. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 260–266 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.260–266

Abstract

Ben­zy­la­tion of ara­bino­galac­tan was car­ried by reac­tion with ben­zyl chlo­ride in the pres­ence of sodi­um hydrox­ide. The ben­zy­lat­ed deriv­a­tive was obtained in a yield of 90%. Ben­zy­lat­ed ara­bino­galac­tan is hydropho­bic, glue-like, non-dry­ing mate­r­i­al. 13C NMR spec­trum of ben­zy­lat­ed ara­bino­galac­tan con­tains sig­nals in the range of 130.0–143.2 ppm. cor­re­spond­ing to the aro­mat­ic car­bon atoms of the ben­zyl group. The oxi­da­tion of ara­bino­galac­tan by reac­tion with hydro­gen per­ox­ide in the pres­ence of fer­ric chlo­ride (III) in aque­ous solu­tion was done. The oxi­dized ara­bino­galac­tan is an oil­ish mate­r­i­al. 13C NMR spec­trum of oxi­dized ara­bino­galac­tan con­tains sig­nals at 158–173 ppm cor­re­spond­ing to car­boxyl groups.

Key­words: larch wood, ara­bino­galac­tan, oxi­da­tion of ara­bino­galac­tan, ben­zy­la­tion of ara­bino­galac­tan, 13С NMR spectroscopy

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Sofrono­va E.D., Lipin V.A. Mod­ern tech­nolo­gies in the pulp indus­try. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 267–284 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.267–284

Abstract

Cel­lu­lose – as a nat­ur­al poly­mer, has a huge poten­tial for use in the poly­mer indus­try. The main type of raw mate­r­i­al for the pro­duc­tion of cel­lu­lose esters is cot­ton due to its high con­tent of «pure» cel­lu­lose. Also, mod­ern tech­nolo­gies of chem­i­cal pro­cess­ing of wood pulp can be achieved to its high qual­i­ty. The devel­op­ment of the pulp indus­try fol­lows the path of cre­at­ing bio­com­plex­es for wood pro­cess­ing, where the max­i­mum use of wood raw mate­ri­als takes place in order to obtain var­i­ous types of prod­ucts with low envi­ron­men­tal load on the envi­ron­ment. Extrac­tion of var­i­ous com­po­nents in the form of glu­cose, hemi­cel­lu­los­es, extrac­tives and lignin from the formed black liquor allows to use in the med­i­cine, in the form of bio­fu­el, the tex­tile indus­try for impart­ing cer­tain qual­i­ties in oth­er areas. The tech­nol­o­gy of gasi­fi­ca­tion of black liquor allows to obtain bio­fu­el in the form of methane or dimethyl ether. Twostage oxy­gen-alka­line bleach­ing allows to achieve more «soft» con­di­tions for extrac­tion of non-cel­lu­lose com­po­nents, lignin and extrac­tives. Envi­ron­men­tal friend­li­ness of pro­duc­tion is anoth­er area of active devel­op­ment of wood pro­cess­ing tech­nol­o­gy. The col­lec­tion and com­bus­tion of non-con­dens­able gas­es, the cre­ation of a sin­gle point for the dis­charge of puri­fied gas­es, the use of non-tox­ic bleach­ing agents, can reduce the bur­den on the envi­ron­ment. Gasi­fi­ca­tion tech­nol­o­gy that pro­vides envi­ron­men­tal­ly friend­ly pro­duc­tion of bio­gas for the needs of the plant, allows to stop the use of fos­sil fuels, and also allows to receive also liq­uid fuels, for exam­ple, gaso­line. The cur­rent real­i­ties of the devel­op­ment of the poly­mer indus­try cre­ate an excel­lent com­pet­i­tive envi­ron­ment for reveal­ing the poten­tial of wood pulp. Vari­ants of rad­i­cal mod­ern­iza­tion of cel­lu­lose pro­duc­tion on the basis of ener­gy-sav­ing and envi­ron­men­tal­ly safe tech­nol­o­gy are also possible.

Key­words: pulp and paper indus­try, by-prod­ucts of pulp pro­duc­tion, bio­com­plex, dis­solv­ing pulp, kraft pulp, bio­gas pro­duc­tion, gasi­fi­ca­tion, envi­ron­men­tal safe­ty, bleach­ing, con­tin­u­ous sul­phate cook­ing, mod­ern tech­nolo­gies, trends, future, pulp production

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5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS, MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND AUTOMATION SYSTEMS

Zay­ats A.M., Khabarov S.P. Orga­ni­za­tion of access to wire­less ad hoc net­works of infor­ma­tion sys­tems for mon­i­tor­ing for­est ter­ri­to­ries from the envi­ron­ment of OS Win­dows 10. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 223. pp. 285–299 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.223.285–299

Abstract

The tech­ni­cal imple­men­ta­tion of mod­ern infor­ma­tion sys­tems for mon­i­tor­ing for­est ter­ri­to­ries is based on wire­less self-orga­niz­ing Ad Hoc net­works. How­ev­er, unlike Win­dows 7, access to indi­vid­ual nodes of this net­work from lap­tops and tablets work­ing on the basis of the new­er Win­dows 10 is ham­pered by the lack of the abil­i­ty to work with Ad Hoc net­works in the graph­i­cal shell of this sys­tem. This arti­cle pro­pos­es an approach for orga­niz­ing this type of wire­less con­nec­tion, which uses inter­nal resources of Win­dows 10, avail­able from its com­mand line envi­ron­ment, and imple­ment­ed in the netsh wlan com­mand fam­i­ly. On the sim­plest exam­ple of direct Wi-Fi con­nec­tion of two vir­tu­al machines with wire­less USB adapters, the oper­abil­i­ty of the pro­posed approach is demon­strat­ed and the nec­es­sary sequence of actions is described in suf­fi­cient detail.

Key­words: wire­less sen­sor net­works, mon­i­tor­ing, forestry, ad hoc net­works, OS Win­dows 10

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Issue 222
1. FORESTRY

Cher­dant­se­va O.А., Zhuko­va E.А. On the impor­tance of cre­at­ing the com­mon method­ol­o­gy for green spaces inven­to­ry of his­tor­i­cal gar­dens in St. Peters­burg. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 6–22 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.6–22

Abstract

The pur­pose of the pre­sent­ed work is to draw atten­tion to one of the prob­lems in pre­serv­ing old-aged plant­i­ngs of his­tor­i­cal gar­dens and parks in St. Peters­burg – their inven­to­ry. The tasks were the analy­sis of the his­to­ry of the devel­op­ment and the iden­ti­fi­ca­tion of prob­lems of mod­ern inven­to­ry, the devel­op­ment of rec­om­men­da­tions for their elim­i­na­tion and the devel­op­ment of inven­to­ry meth­ods in mod­ern con­di­tions. Inven­to­ry for green plan­ta­tions in St. Peters­burg began at the end of the XIX cen­tu­ry. By the end of the 1950s, a uni­fied method for the inven­to­ry of urban green plan­ta­tions in major cities of the USSR had been adopt­ed, which had been used up to the present. In St. Peters­burg, the inven­to­ry of gar­dens and parks is, as before, a respon­si­bil­i­ty of the North-West For­est Inven­to­ry Enter­prise. But in the ear­ly 2000s, many new orga­ni­za­tions appeared, offer­ing ser­vices in this sphere. As a result, new meth­ods of inven­to­ry­ing green plan­ta­tions have emerged. Accord­ing to the results of the analy­sis of mod­ern inven­to­ry doc­u­ments, it is not­ed that there are cas­es of appli­ca­tion of dif­fer­ent meth­ods on one inven­to­ry object, which indi­cates the incon­sis­ten­cy of the actions of the orga­ni­za­tion itself, which under­took the oblig­a­tion to car­ry out works. In addi­tion, a lot of arith­meti­cal errors and the loss of exist­ing ele­ments on the object, as well as unjus­ti­fied deter­mi­na­tion of the age and species of trees, and much more are revealed. A com­mon stan­dard for car­ry­ing out inven­to­ries is impor­tant for the fur­ther use of these data in mod­ern geo­graph­ic infor­ma­tion sys­tems, which become an inte­gral ele­ment of eco­nom­ic activ­i­ty in gar­dens and parks in gen­er­al and in his­toric gar­dens in par­tic­u­lar. The arti­cle sug­gests a method for inven­to­ry­ing gar­dens, based on the old method­ol­o­gy and incor­po­rat­ing some of the pro­pos­als over the last years.

Key­words: his­tor­i­cal gar­dens, Sum­mer Gar­den, inven­to­ry of green spaces

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Ivano­va E.I., Ivanov-Omskiy V.I., Davy­do­va I.A., Gri­nenko E.V., Leon­tiev L.L., Selikhovkin A.V. The change in the struc­ture of hydro­gen bonds in elm wood due to dam­age by Euro­pean elm bark bee­tle Scoly­tus mul­ti­s­tria­tus (Mar­sham) (Coleoptera: Cur­culion­idae, Scolyti­nae). Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 23–35 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.23–35

Abstract

Hydro­gen bond (H‑bond) pro­vides the nec­es­sary flex­i­bil­i­ty and sta­bil­i­ty of bio­log­i­cal sys­tems, includ­ing wood. It is pos­si­ble to use Infrared spec­troscopy to study the ener­gy and con­cen­tra­tion of H‑bonds in wood. In this case, it is pos­si­ble to assess the nature of the hydrox­yl groups based on the lengths and ener­gies of H‑bonds, known for hydro­gen bonds in cel­lu­lose, lignin and oth­er wood com­po­nents, which had been stud­ied ear­li­er [Ivanov-Omskiy et al., 2017; Ivano­va et al., 2016]. Of spe­cial inter­est is the solu­tion of the prob­lem of chang­ing the strength and oth­er prop­er­ties of wood when the tree dies in case of dam­age by bio­log­i­cal agents. In this paper, the task was to study the effect of dam­age by bark bee­tles on the struc­ture of hydro­gen bonds of wood. The object of research was elm Ulmus glabra Huds infest­ed by the Euro­pean elm bark bee­tle Scoly­tus mul­ti­s­tria­tus. This bark bee­tle is the vec­tor of Dutch elm dis­ease in St. Peters­burg. Sec­tions for spec­tral analy­sis are tak­en from the sur­face of the elm sap­wood inhab­it­ed by bark bee­tle. The obtained results showed that on the sites dam­aged by the sap­wood, the strongest inter­mol­e­c­u­lar bond (which binds the cel­lu­lose mol­e­cules togeth­er and ensures the strength of the trunk) breaks down. The con­cen­tra­tion of intramol­e­c­u­lar bonds also increas­es. This means a fun­da­men­tal change in the water metab­o­lism of wood cells, asso­ci­at­ed with the destruc­tion of aqua­por­ins. This phe­nom­e­non may be relat­ed to the response of the elm to the vio­la­tion of the move­ment of solu­tions through ves­sels dur­ing mechan­i­cal destruc­tion of wood dur­ing the feed­ing of bark bee­tles and/or the inges­tion of enzymes from their sali­vary glands, amy­lase or oth­er car­bo­hy­dras­es. It is also pos­si­ble that oth­er enzymes (such as those pro­duced by the bee­tles’ sym­bionts) come into con­tact with wood.

Key­words: hydro­gen bond, absorp­tion ener­gy, wood, dam­ages, streamed sap­wood, aquaporins

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Ermako­va M.V. Growth and devel­op­ment of for­est cul­tures of pine under the canopy and cut­ting birch for­est of grass-mixed herbs in the Trans-Urals region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 36–49 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.36–49

Abstract

The results of research­es on growth and for­ma­tion of for­est pine cul­tures plant­ed on slash­es and under canopy of grass birch for­est at the ter­ri­to­ry of the Trans-Urals region hilly-foothill and plains province are con­sid­ered in the arti­cle. The cul­tures were cre­at­ed almost simul­ta­ne­ous­ly with the same type of place­ment and plant­i­ng the same num­ber of seedlings. At the age of trans­fer­ring of for­est plan­ta­tions to the for­est land under the under canopy cul­tures showed sig­nif­i­cant­ly high­er sur­vival rate com­pared to the cul­tures in slash­es. How­ev­er, the under canopy cul­tures dif­fered by dis­pro­por­tion­ate growth in height com­pared with the growth in trunk diam­e­ter and by sub­stan­tial­ly small­er pro­jec­tion of the crown area than the cul­tures in slash­es. Under the canopy the aver­age rel­a­tive height of the trees was 58% high­er, and the aver­age area of the crown pro­jec­tion was 48% less than the same para­me­ters area on the felled area. For­est cul­tures of pine under the canopy of the stand and on the felled areas demon­strate sim­i­lar vari­abil­i­ty and dis­tri­b­u­tion of trees by all basic den­dro­met­ric indi­ca­tors. It was revealed that a sig­nif­i­cant lag in height of the under canopy cul­tures began only at the 8th year of their plant­i­ng. The age and height ratio of the cul­tures, how­ev­er, allow to sug­gests that the max­i­mum peri­od of pine growth in the plant­i­ng area should not exceed 4 years. The upper canopy in this case should be removed main­ly in win­ter in order to pro­vide a suf­fi­cient safe­ty of the cul­tures. In oth­er peri­ods the removal of the upper canopy must be made not lat­er than the end of the 3rd year of pine growth in plant­i­ng area. The growth of for­est cul­tures in plant­i­ng area more than 4 years leads to devel­op­ing of trees with dis­pro­por­tion­ate height and diam­e­ter and with reduced crown.

Key­words: pine, under canopy cul­tures, growth, formation

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Sedikhin N.V., Masaitis V.V. Vis­it­ing of min­er­al licks by moose (Alces Alces L.) in spring-sum­mer peri­od on the ter­ri­to­ry of Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 50–65 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.50–65

Abstract

Remote meth­ods of study­ing pop­u­la­tions, name­ly the instal­la­tion of trail cam­eras in places of ani­mal con­cen­tra­tion, help to obtain more reli­able infor­ma­tion about the process­es of vital activ­i­ty of cer­tain species, in com­par­i­son with oth­er meth­ods. In Rus­sia, moose (Alces alces L.) is one of the most impor­tant species of hunt­ing resources. Using pho­to traps can sup­ple­ment and mul­ti­ply exist­ing infor­ma­tion about that species. Today, infor­ma­tion about the atten­dance of min­er­al licks by moos­es is rather mea­ger. In this arti­cle, the results of study­ing the lithofa­gial activ­i­ty of moose in the ter­ri­to­ry of the Leningrad Region are pre­sent­ed using the exam­ple of three regions. Obser­va­tions were con­duct­ed in the spring-sum­mer peri­od (May-July). The main char­ac­ter­is­tics of licks atten­dance are giv­en: aver­age, max­i­mum, min­i­mum dura­tion of vis­its by sex, age. Depen­den­cies of atten­dance for ten-month peri­ods and time of the day are pre­sent­ed. The pecu­liar­i­ties of vis­it­ing var­i­ous min­er­al licks by ani­mals have been estab­lished. The main rea­sons for dif­fer­ent atten­dance are ana­lyzed. The cat­e­gories of objects are dis­tin­guished by the nature of atten­dance. Con­clu­sions are made about the prospects of using hunt­ing cam­eras for studing the abun­dance and fea­tures of the moose biol­o­gy, and also ana­lyzed the var­i­ous exper­i­men­tal modes of cam­era work. Argu­ments are pre­sent­ed for the intro­duc­tion and mass-scale use of cam­eras in the hunt­ing area. In the future, authors plan to cre­ate a spe­cial­ized «moose» nomen­cla­ture that describes the mor­pho­log­i­cal and exte­ri­ors fea­tures, to ana­lyze the data obtained and to devel­op meth­ods for pre-har­vest­ing of moose on min­er­al licks.

Key­words: moose (Alces alces), min­er­al lick, lithofa­gial activ­i­ty, atten­dance of min­er­al licks, trail camera

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Smirnov A.P., Smirnov A.A., Mongush B.Aj‑D. For­est regen­er­a­tion on the felling of the Leningrad region. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 66–83 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.66–83

Abstract

Goal of the study is to deter­mine the impact on the suc­cess of the for­est regen­er­a­tion of the cat­ting areas where fac­tors such as the orig­i­nal (before felling) for­est type, com­po­si­tion and den­si­ty of under­brush, com­po­si­tion and extent of the pro­jec­tive cov­er grass. A lot pine under­growth, on sites where for­mer for­est type Pine­tum vac­cin­io­sum and Pine­tum сladi­nosum (8–10 thou­sand instance/ha), less under­growth in for­mer for­est type Pine­tum poly­tri­chosum and Pine­tum nass myr­tillo­sum (3.5–6 thou­sand instance/ha). In Pine­tum fresh myr­tillo­sum pine regrowth in just about 1 thou­sand instance/ha. Very lit­tle pine under­growth in cut­ting areas of the spruce for­est, and in the for­mer Birch and Aspen com­plete­ly miss­ing. The sub­se­quent spruce regen­er­a­tion bet­ter going in Picee­tum poly­tri­chosum and P. nass myr­tillo­sum (about 4.5 thou­sand instance/ha). In the Picee­tum fresh myr­tillo­sum, P. vac­cin­io­sum and oxali­do­sum den­si­ty of spruce under­growth 1–2.5 th. instance/ha. Den­si­ty of under­growth for indi­vid­ual species in one and the same source type of for­est is strong­ly ter­mi­nat­ed val­ue – coef­fi­cients of vari­a­tion reach 200% or more. The small­est vari­a­tion of the den­si­ty of conifers regrowth (37–62%) there has been in humid con­di­tions of growth – in Pine­tum and Picee­tum poly­tri­chosum, in Picee­tum nass myr­tillo­sum. In most cas­es, cre­at­ing con­di­tions close to for­est types have no reli­able dif­fer­ences in den­si­ty under­growth of the same species. Growth of under­brush in almost all cas­es, reduces the den­si­ty of under­growth; espe­cial­ly notice­able is the pine under­growth. Increase of the pro­jec­tive cov­er more than 15% grass on cat­ting 5–7 years ago dra­mat­i­cal­ly reduces the num­ber of young pine trees. Young spruce responds to growth of the pro­jec­tive cov­er herbs more moderately.

Key­words: felling, for­est types, for­est regen­er­a­tion, under­brush, grass cover

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Antonov O.I., Dzhikovich J.V. Tech­no­log­i­cal and eco­nom­ic fea­tures of cul­ti­va­tion of high-qual­i­ty wood of spruce Picea abies (L.) Karst. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 84–93 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.84–93

Abstract

The low effi­cien­cy of domes­tic forestry makes it a back­ward sec­tor of the coun­try’s econ­o­my. To rem­e­dy this sit­u­a­tion, it is nec­es­sary to improve for­est leg­is­la­tion, devel­op new evi­dence-based legal doc­u­men­ta­tion, change the psy­chol­o­gy of tem­po­rary work­ers in eco­nom­ic struc­tures, incl. ten­ants of the for­est fund and the intro­duc­tion of mod­ern tech­nolo­gies that increase the qual­i­ty of the cul­ti­vat­ed plan­ta­tions. Among these tech­nolo­gies is com­plex care for the for­est, which includes inten­sive thin­ning, repeat­ed appli­ca­tion of min­er­al fer­til­iz­ers, as well as mul­ti-tree prun­ing of tar­get trees. The use of this tech­nol­o­gy will make it pos­si­ble to obtain by the age of felling large-sized sawlog and ply­wood raw mate­ri­als, as well as var­i­ous spe­cial­ty grades, for exam­ple, res­o­nant, with homo­ge­neous branch­less wood, which has high phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal and acoustic prop­er­ties. Pos­sess­ing high cost, such wood will bring con­sid­er­able prof­it at for­est grow­ing. The deter­mi­na­tion of labor costs for prun­ing to a height of 2 m, 4 m, 6 m is per­formed by the time­keep­ing method with deter­mi­na­tion of chrono­log­i­cal sta­bil­i­ty. The psy­cho-phys­i­cal state of the per­form­ers was not tak­en into account. The devel­oped tech­nol­o­gy for grow­ing high-qual­i­ty spruce wood is as fol­lows: selec­tion of spruce stands of arti­fi­cial or nat­ur­al ori­gin of Ia–II bonitet class­es, first or sec­ond class of age; they select tar­get trees that meet cer­tain require­ments, in the amount of 600–800 pieces/ha, which will be includ­ed in the com­po­si­tion of ripe stand. On select­ed trees, using a suck­er-rod high-cut, the branch­es are pruned at inter­vals of 5 years to heights of 2 m, 4 m and 6 m. Thus, by the age of 25–30, it is nec­es­sary to form a 6‑m branch­less zone of the butt end of the trunk. Anoth­er vari­ant of this method is sin­gle-prun­ing up to a height of 6 m at the age of 25–30 years, but the total vol­ume of high-qual­i­ty wood will be low­er. The con­duct­ed stud­ies estab­lished the total addi­tion­al labor costs for prun­ing up to 6 m in 600–800 tar­get trees per 1 ha; a com­par­i­son is made between the cost of stan­dard edg­ing and knot­less, as well as res­o­nant sawn tim­ber, which ranges from 146% to 923%. It has been estab­lished that an increase in work­ing time per 1 person/hour leads to an increase in the aver­age cost of 1 m³ of wood by 1,6%–13,2%. Thus, the con­clu­sion is con­firmed that the time­ly prun­ing sig­nif­i­cant­ly increas­es the cap­i­tal­iza­tion of the cul­ti­vat­ed tar­get plantations.

Key­words: high-qual­i­ty spruce wood, prun­ing tech­nol­o­gy, eco­nom­ic features

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Gryazkin A.V., Sam­sono­va I.D., Noviko­va M.A., Phan Thanh Lam, Van­ju­rak G.V., Vu Van Hung The vari­abil­i­ty of bio­met­ric indi­ca­tors of birch bark, depend­ing on the char­ac­ter­is­tics of the for­est. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 94–109 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.94–109

Abstract

Birch bark is a unique nat­ur­al mate­r­i­al that is used in many indus­tries, phar­ma­col­o­gy, med­i­cine, cos­met­ics. For the man­u­fac­ture of house­hold uten­sils this mate­r­i­al is wide­ly used by the pop­u­la­tion of the for­est regions of Rus­sia for many cen­turies. The object of study – the phy­to­ceno­sis with a pre­dom­i­nance of birch in the struc­ture of for­est stands, which grow in dif­fer­ent for­est types. Birch on the exper­i­men­tal objects is a high­ly pro­duc­tive for­est stands of the I–III class­es of bonitet. The research objects are select­ed in the for­est Fund of the Leningrad region on the ter­ri­to­ry of sev­er­al for­est dis­tricts. Tax­o­nom­ic char­ac­ter­is­tics of the for­est stand at the exper­i­men­tal objects was giv­en using the stan­dard meth­ods of for­est inven­to­ry and for­est man­age­ment. Bark sam­ples were tak­en from trunks of mod­el trees at a height of 1.3 m, with­out dam­ag­ing the phloem. The sam­ples were aspired to take on the South side of the tree, dimen­sions approx­i­mate­ly 10×10 cm sam­ples of birch bark car­ried out with a mod­el tree of the pre­vail­ing lev­els of thick­ness (stage with the great­est num­ber of trunks of birch). From each dom­i­nant stage sam­ples were tak­en from not less than 3 mod­el trees. On each sam­ple site was select­ed from 10 to 28 mod­el trees. Each tree we mea­sured height, trunk diam­e­ter and record­ed its sta­tus. The bark sam­ples were weighed in fresh con­di­tion, and deter­min­ing the thick­ness, length, width and sur­face area. The dimen­sions of the sam­ples were mea­sured in the nor­mal range, and the thick­ness – a caliper with an accu­ra­cy of 0.1 mm. Each sam­ple is marked with the date, object, mod­el num­ber, diam­e­ter of the trunk. In the lab­o­ra­to­ry the sam­ples were dried to air-dry state and weighed again to deter­mine mois­ture con­tent of bark. The results of the study indi­cate that the char­ac­ter­is­tics of birch bark depends on the degree of devel­op­ment of the tree. One of the key tax­a­tion fac­tors affect­ing bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of birch bark is the trunk diam­e­ter, which in turn depends on the degree of devel­op­ment of the tree, age, con­di­tions of growth. It is estab­lished that the thick­ness of the bark in most cas­es depend on the inte­gral index of the trunk diam­e­ter, the larg­er the diam­e­ter, the greater the thick­ness of the bark. Excep­tions are made, the largest trunk diam­e­ter does not always cor­re­spond to the max­i­mum thick­ness of the bark and Vice ver­sa – with a min­i­mum trunk diam­e­ter bark thick­ness can be more than a tree with a large trunk diam­e­ter. In terms of absolute bark thick­ness at a height of 1.3 m from the select­ed mod­el trees var­ied from 0.3 to 4.2 mm. the Vari­a­tion of bark thick­ness expressed in trees with the same trunk diam­e­ter, which is asso­ci­at­ed with the age of the tree – the greater the age, the greater the thick­ness of the crust. At the same time revealed that the bark has a dif­fer­ent den­si­ty. On trunks of large diam­e­ter bark is less dense than on the trunks with a small diam­e­ter. This indi­ca­tor is also affect­ed by tree age, with the same diam­e­ter of the trunk bark has a high­er den­si­ty of trees whose age is more. Gen­er­al­ly man­i­fests itself fol­low­ing trend: the larg­er the diam­e­ter of the bar­rel, the less the den­si­ty of birch bark, i.e., larg­er trees the bark is loos­er, com­pared to small trees. The den­si­ty of bark varies wide­ly, from 220 to 794 kg/m3. The vol­ume per square meter of bark is asso­ci­at­ed with its thick­ness and also depends on diam­e­ter of trunk and age of tree. The obtained results can be used when adjust­ing the tables to deter­mine the stocks of indi­vid­ual ele­ments of the tree (bark) for North-West Rus­sia and with the assess­ment of birch forests of the taiga zone. In addi­tion, the research mate­ri­als can be used in devel­op­ing for­est plans, forestry poli­cies, devel­op­ment projects and for­est land. The main result of this research is a direct cor­re­la­tion of bio­met­ric char­ac­ter­is­tics of birch bark from the diam­e­ter of birch trunk and age of tree. While the iden­ti­fied excep­tions to the estab­lished reg­u­lar­i­ties that are asso­ci­at­ed with the influ­ence of oth­er factors.

Key­words: for­est Fund, the birch, the for­est, the expe­ri­enced objects, birch bark

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2. TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT OF LOGGING INDUSTRIES

Alek­san­rov V.А., Alek­san­rov А.V., Gomon D.Yu. On the issue of sus­pen­sion of the front car­riages of the run­ning sys­tem of a feller bunch­er. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 110–121 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.110–121

Abstract

In arti­cle the dynam­ic mod­el of sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor-skid­ding trac­tor – tree bunch». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagranzha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tion is volved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion of the sus­pen­sion seats. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly felling and skid­ding machine LP-19A.

Key­words: dynam­ic mod­el, math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion, feller buncher

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Alek­san­drov V.A., Luzano­va L.N., Alek­san­drov А.V. Vibra­tion effect to the oper­a­tor of feller bunch­er in the mode of start­ing from the place. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 122–130 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.122–130

Abstract

In arti­cle the mod­el of bio­dy­nam­ic sys­tem is devel­oped «the oper­a­tor – feller – the pack­ag­ing car (feller – bunch­er machine) – an object of the labor – a tree». The math­e­mat­i­cal descrip­tion is worked out in the form of the equa­tion of Lagranzha sec­ond num­ber. The sys­tem of the equa­tions is solved con­cern­ing elas­tic defor­ma­tion sus­pen­sion seats of the oper­a­tor by a method of Runge–Kutta, by engi­neer­ing math soft­ware Math­CAD. Mod­el appro­ba­tion is car­ried out on an exam­ple of seri­al­ly let out feller-pack­ag­ing cars LP-19A in the dis­per­sal mode at start-off from the place. As a result of research­es it is estab­lished: vibroload­ing oper­a­tors of feller-pack­ag­ing cars exceeds the san­i­tary code in 1.8–3.6 times. For decrease vibroload­ing oper­a­tors it is expe­di­ent to lim­it accel­er­a­tions at start-off from the place to 0.4 m/s2.

Key­words: feller-the pack­ag­ing car (feller-bunch­er machine), math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els, vibra­tion, seat

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Manichev D.N., Mya­sishchev D.G. Mod­el­ing of T‑16M self-pro­pelled chas­sis’ diesel engine start­ing motor ener­gy capac­i­ty. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 131–141 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.131–141

Abstract

The arti­cle is devot­ed to devel­op­ment of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of fuel con­sump­tion of the engine start­ed by a starter as well as com­par­i­son with the results of the research­es. Hourly fuel con­sump­tion of the MP‑5 «Ural-2T ELECTRON» – engine D‑21A1 sys­tem rep­re­sents the tar­get func­tion of the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el. The aim of the arti­cle is to describe a math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el for the giv­en log­i­cal sys­tem. As a result of math­e­mat­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions the hourly fuel con­sump­tion is B = 1.24 kg/h. Research tests of start­ing the T‑16M trac­tor engine by the starter in win­ter con­di­tions showed that the hourly fuel con­sump­tion B = 1.28 kg/h. Thus, dis­crep­an­cy between the­o­ret­i­cal cal­cu­la­tions and research tests is 6%. Com­par­i­son of the­o­ret­i­cal and prac­ti­cal results leads to fol­low­ing con­clu­sions: the­o­ry based on the math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el gives results clos­est to exper­i­men­tal ones with a dis­crep­an­cy of 6%; the devel­oped the­o­ret­i­cal mod­el can be includ­ed into the task of start­ing dri­ve com­po­nents’ optimization.

Key­words: starter, hourly fuel con­sump­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal model

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3. WOOD SCIENCE. MECHANICAL WOODWORKING INDUSTRY

Semen­ov A.V., Sergee­vichev A.V. The analy­sis of ways of increase in firm­ness of abra­sive belts in the con­di­tions of pro­cess­ing of wood and wood mate­ri­als. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 142–154 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.142–154

Abstract

Urgent ques­tions remain in improv­ing the qual­i­ty of the treat­ed by grind­ing sur­faces of wood prod­ucts and mate­ri­als based on it, as well as issues relat­ed to the increas­ing resis­tance of the grind­ing tool. Meth­ods of increase in resis­tance of abra­sive sand­ing belts when pro­cess­ing wood and wood mate­ri­als are con­sid­ered and proved. The work­ing capac­i­ty and resis­tance of the grind­ing tool in many respects depend from physics-mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of mate­r­i­al of the cut­ting tool and mate­r­i­al of the processed prepa­ra­tion, the mode of cut­ting and its assign­ment, geom­e­try of abra­sive grain, ways of its draw­ing on a sand­ing belt and pro­cess­ing con­di­tions. Pos­si­ble options of increase in resis­tance of sand­ing belts are use of dif­fer­ent con­fig­u­ra­tions of cor­ru­gat­ed and firmer con­tact shaft and use of the cut­ting tool on the basis of the self-sharp­en­ing abra­sive mate­r­i­al capa­ble in pro­cess­ing to bare the new sharp cut­ting edges. The first way allows to increase resis­tance of sand­ing belts, but at the same time in a zone of cut­ting opti­mum con­di­tions for emer­gence of the increased tem­per­a­tures lead­ing to the increased heat gen­er­a­tion in a zone of cut­ting and to edu­ca­tion on worked sur­faces of burns are cre­at­ed and also this way is labor-con­sum­ing in respect of read­just­ment of the grind­ing equip­ment. The sec­ond way is more rel­e­vant and pro­gres­sive, allows at increase in spe­cif­ic pres­sure of a clip of a con­tact shaft to the processed sur­face of prepa­ra­tions, to bare the new cut­ting abra­sive edges and also to improve qual­i­ty of the sur­face processed by grind­ing, but at the same time there is open a ques­tion of eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of use of these abra­sive mate­ri­als on a num­ber of domes­tic productions.

Key­words: grind­ing of wood and wood mate­ri­als, ways of increase in wear resis­tance of sand­ing belts, self-sharp­en­ing abra­sive grains

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Rusakov D.S., Chu­bin­sky A.N., Rusako­va L.N., Varank­i­na G.S. Inves­ti­ga­tion of the prop­er­ties of mod­i­fied phe­nol-formalde­hyde adhe­sives. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 155–174 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.155–174

Abstract

The main trend in the devel­op­ment of glue pro­duc­tion in the world today is the cre­ation and pro­duc­tion of mod­ern, effi­cient and non-tox­ic adhe­sives. In this regard, one of the urgent prob­lems is the search for new mod­i­fiers for glu­ing resins, which will allow to obtain prod­ucts from wood hav­ing the required per­for­mance prop­er­ties. For the pur­pose­ful change and improve­ment of the prop­er­ties of phe­nol-formalde­hyde resins used in wood­work­ing, var­i­ous fillers and mod­i­fiers are used. The study used phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin to which var­i­ous pec­tol mod­i­fiers, black shales with par­ti­cle sizes of 0.005–0.2 mm, tech­ni­cal lig­no­sul­fonates with par­ti­cle sizes of 0.01–0.2 mm, a cold sludge with par­ti­cle sizes of 0.01–0.2 mm. In the process of inves­ti­ga­tion, the con­di­tion­al vis­cos­i­ty of the adhe­sive was deter­mined 1 h after the intro­duc­tion of the mod­i­fiers, the via­bil­i­ty of the adhe­sive, the cur­ing time and the emis­sion of formalde­hyde. Spec­tropho­tom­e­try and derivatog­ra­phy were used to study the chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion and the cur­ing process of the mod­i­fied phe­nol-formalde­hyde glue. The qual­i­ty of the ply­wood was eval­u­at­ed by the con­tent of free formalde­hyde in the fin­ished prod­uct – by the per­fo­rat­ing method in accor­dance with GOST 27678, the phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of the ply­wood were eval­u­at­ed by the strength of the adhe­sive bond at shear­ing along the adhe­sive lay­er, the tests were car­ried out in accor­dance with GOST 9624. To sub­stan­ti­ate the bond­ing regimes and increase the strength of fin­ished prod­ucts, mul­ti­fac­tor exper­i­ments on glu­ing of ply­wood were car­ried out. Glu­ing was car­ried out in the con­di­tions of ply­wood pro­duc­tion in accor­dance with the tech­no­log­i­cal reg­u­la­tions adopt­ed at the enter­prise. The glued ply­wood was test­ed for strength in shear­ing along the adhe­sive lay­er. To sub­stan­ti­ate the decrease in the con­tent of free formalde­hyde in the fin­ished prod­uct, a mul­ti­fac­to­r­i­al exper­i­ment on glu­ing ply­wood in the con­di­tions of com­pa­ny Lesprom SPb was car­ried out. The glued ply­wood was test­ed for the con­tent of free formalde­hyde in the fin­ished prod­uct. At the final stage of the stud­ies, the eco­nom­ic fea­si­bil­i­ty of intro­duc­ing the pro­posed mod­i­fiers into the pro­duc­tion of ply­wood is jus­ti­fied. The results of the research allow us to draw the fol­low­ing con­clu­sions. Intro­duc­tion in adhe­sive for­mu­la­tions based on phe­nol-formalde­hyde resins rel­a­tive­ly cheap by-prod­ucts of pulp and paper pro­duc­tion, allows not only to improve the prop­er­ties of adhe­sives and to reduce the cost of fin­ished prod­ucts, but also to uti­lize the waste of the pulp and paper indus­try. Mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin with pec­tol and lig­no­sul­fonates accel­er­ates the cur­ing process of the adhe­sive, as evi­denced by an analy­sis of infrared absorp­tion spec­tra and DTA ther­mo­grams show­ing changes in the struc­ture cor­re­spond­ing to the min­i­mum gel time. The intro­duc­tion of the pro­posed mod­i­fiers into the phe­nol-formalde­hyde resins increas­es the strength of the ply­wood while reduc­ing the free formalde­hyde con­tent of the fin­ished product.

Key­words: veneer, ply­wood, mod­i­fi­ca­tion, phe­nol-formalde­hyde resin, pec­tol, black shale, lig­no­sul­fonates, cold pressed sludge, glue, ply­wood strength, ply­wood quality

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Sokolo­va Е.G. The ratio­nale for the modes of bond­ing veneer in the man­u­fac­ture of ply­wood, man­u­fac­tured with the use of melaminecar­bamide­formalde­hyde resins. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 175–187 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.175–187

Abstract

Improv­ing the effi­cien­cy of pro­duc­tion of ply­wood, its a com­pet­i­tive indus­try in a num­ber of pan­el mate­ri­als is an impor­tant issue. The main objec­tives are improv­ing per­for­mance, reduc­ing tox­i­c­i­ty of the prod­uct, its mate­r­i­al, ener­gy and labor cost. The tasks are solved by the use of new resins, adhe­sives for­mu­la­tions, tech­no­log­i­cal approach­es, in par­tic­u­lar through the use of melaminecar­bamide­formalde­hyde resins, mod­i­fied aèrosilom tech­ni­cal. Stud­ies have allowed to jus­ti­fy the modes of glu­ing of the veneer packs of dif­fer­ent thick­ness with the appli­ca­tion of the mod­i­fied adhe­sive based on melaminecar­bamide­formalde­hyde resin. By reduc­ing press­ing time were decreased expo­sure at max­i­mum pres­sure and the pres­sure reduc­tion in the sec­ond stage of com­pres­sion to reduce thin­ning of ply­wood. Set the required time of expo­sure at max­i­mum pres­sure and the pres­sure in the sec­ond stage of press­ing, which pro­vide the nec­es­sary strength and min­i­mum thin­ning of ply­wood. Describes the modes of glu­ing of the pack­ages of veneers of dif­fer­ent thick­ness, the val­ues of thin­ning of plywood.

Key­words: ply­wood, melamine-car­bamide-formalde­hyde resin, bond­ing modes, the bond­ing strength

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Glukhikh V.N., Okhlop­ko­va A.Y., Sivt­sev P.V. Research warp­ing and numer­i­cal sim­u­la­tion of defor­ma­tion sawn tim­ber of Dahuri­an Larch under grown stress­es of tree trunk. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 188–201 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.188–201

Abstract

The arti­cle presents a sub­stan­ti­a­tion of the assump­tion about the influ­ence of ini­tial stress­es, formed in the process of tree growth under the influ­ence of the trunk­’s own weight and wind load on defor­ma­tion of lum­ber with the sub­se­quent cut­ting of wood. Due to the dif­fer­ence in the char­ac­ter­is­tics of heart­wood and sap­wood, sub­stan­ti­a­tion of depen­den­cy of mag­ni­tude and pat­tern of stress dis­tri­b­u­tion in tran­sec­tion of a tree stem on cor­re­la­tion of the radii of the heart­wood to the radius of the tree stem is pre­sent­ed. Thus, for Dahuri­an larch tim­ber we can apply dis­tri­b­u­tion func­tion of ini­tial stress­es in the form of the 14th degree parab­o­loid. There­fore depend­ing on the loca­tion of lum­ber in the sec­tion of the round log, it is pos­si­ble to pre­dict the mag­ni­tude of twist­ing from the effect of the ini­tial stress­es of the lum­ber after saw­ing out. In order to con­firm this assump­tion, the authors made obser­va­tions of mag­ni­tude of twist­ing of lum­ber sawn out of Dahuri­an larch grow­ing in Yaku­tia. Based on the sug­gest­ed hypoth­e­sis and the obser­va­tions results, a numer­i­cal mod­el­ing of math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el of twist­ing of lum­ber was car­ried out. The com­pu­ta­tion­al algo­rithm was based on dis­place­ment by the finite ele­ment method spa­tial­ly. The numer­i­cal solu­tion found lin­ear elas­tic­i­ty prob­lem for lum­ber with anisotrop­ic elas­tic nature is char­ac­ter­ized by an ade­quate dis­tri­b­u­tion of deflec­tion along the sawn face with the max­i­mum mag­ni­tude with­in the lim­its fixed by obser­va­tion of real lum­ber. The obtained math­e­mat­i­cal mod­els can be used to opti­mize saw­ing process in order to obtain the max­i­mum amount of lum­ber of high qual­i­ty and reduce pro­duc­tion costs.

Key­words: grown stress­es, dahuri­an larch, sawn tim­ber, warp, defor­ma­tion, math­e­mat­i­cal mod­el­ing, lin­ear elas­tic­i­ty, finite ele­ment method, anisotropy

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4. CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY OF WOOD. BIO TECHNOLOGY

Okulo­va E.O., Guriev A.V. Analy­sis of the wood com­po­si­tion in the fiber line of bleached hard­wood kraft pulp. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 202–215 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.202–215

Abstract

Cur­rent­ly, hard­wood is wide­ly used as a raw mate­r­i­al for the pulp and paper indus­try for the pro­duc­tion of var­i­ous fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts. The main species are aspen and birch. These species dif­fer from each oth­er in phys­i­cal prop­er­ties, chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion and mor­phol­o­gy. It is known that the main diag­nos­tic fea­tures are the absence or pres­ence of a stair­case per­fo­ra­tion plate on the fibers of the ves­sels. Strength char­ac­ter­is­tics of the result­ing fibrous semi­fin­ished prod­ucts depend on the ini­tial ratio of aspen and birch in them. Semi-fin­ished prod­ucts with a high birch con­tent have high­er mechan­i­cal strength. In this paper, the species com­po­si­tion of incom­ing chips for cook­ing is ana­lyzed and the ratio of aspen and birch fibers in fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts at dif­fer­ent points in the tech­no­log­i­cal process for the pro­duc­tion of bleached sul­phate pulp is deter­mined. The native com­po­si­tion of the chips was deter­mined by treat­ment with sodi­um hydrox­ide. The com­po­si­tion of fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts was deter­mined by com­put­er visu­al­iza­tion using the main diag­nos­tic fea­tures. To con­firm the cor­rect­ness of the deter­mi­na­tion of the species com­po­si­tion of the fibrous semi­fin­ished prod­uct, strength char­ac­ter­is­tics were deter­mined in them. Analy­sis of the obtained data showed that fluc­tu­a­tions in the species com­po­si­tion of chips with­in a day can range from 12.3 to 63.7%; The range of aspen fibers for sam­ples from the blow­ing tank is 23.9 to 83.6%, for sam­ples from the 1 st press fil­ter – from 18.0 to 89.5%. The sta­tis­ti­cal sig­nif­i­cance of the depen­dence of the phys­i­cal and mechan­i­cal prop­er­ties of semi-fin­ished prod­ucts on the share of aspen and birch in fibrous semi-fin­ished prod­ucts with a change in the range from 10 to 80% has been confirmed.

Key­words: sul­phate pulp, com­po­si­tion of wood types of chips, species of tree com­po­si­tion in fibrous semi­fin­ished prod­ucts, birch wood, aspen wood

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Zakharov I.V., Zakharo­va N.L., Kanarsky A.V., Kaza­kov Ya.V., Popov A.V., Dulkin D.A. Increase of sta­bil­i­ty of card­board to aging impreg­na­tion bio­mod­i­fi­ca­tion gluten. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 216–227 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.216–227

Abstract

The aim of this work is the improve­ment of phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties and sta­bil­i­ty of card­board to aging impreg­na­tion bio­mod­i­fi­ca­tion gluten. For this pur­pose we deter­mined the changes in phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties dur­ing stor­age of a card­board impreg­nat­ed with gluten pre-treat­ed enzyme prepa­ra­tions and L‑cysteine. For assess­ment of phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties of fibrous mate­ri­als using stan­dard meth­ods. Wheat gluten was treat­ed with enzyme prepa­ra­tions and L‑cysteine to obtain a biopoly­mer with the desired rhe­o­log­i­cal prop­er­ties and is suit­able for appli­ca­tion to the card­board. In arti­cle giv­en the pos­si­bil­i­ty of the use of pro­teins as a sec­ondary resource in the pro­cess­ing of wheat and enzyme treat­ment of the pro­teins with fur­ther apply­ing them to the card­board. In arti­cle shows the effect of nat­ur­al aging of the card­board, impreg­nat­ed bio­mod­i­fi­ca­tion gluten on phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties. Estab­lished a spe­cif­ic influ­ence of enzyme prepa­ra­tions and amino acids, which were processed gluten on phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal and defor­ma­tion prop­er­ties of card­board. It is estab­lished that dur­ing stor­age of the card­board there is an increase in indi­ca­tors such as: ten­sile strength of a card­board impreg­nat­ed with gluten, mod­i­fied with a het­ero­ge­neous com­po­si­tion of a mix­ture pen­topan 500 BG, L‑cysteine and trans­g­lu­t­a­m­i­nase in dry and in wet con­di­tion; elon­ga­tion under ten­sion in a dry con­di­tion of a card­board impreg­nat­ed with gluten, mod­i­fied neu­trase in wet card­board, impreg­nat­ed gluten, mod­i­fied trans­g­lu­t­a­m­i­nase; stiff­ness in com­pres­sion of a card­board impreg­nat­ed with gluten, mod­i­fied pen­topan mono. The prac­ti­cal impor­tance due to the increas­ing life­time of the card­board. The direc­tion for future research is con­nect­ed with the increase of defor­ma­tion and phys­i­cal-mechan­i­cal char­ac­ter­is­tics of paper­board in sur­face bio­mod­i­fi­ca­tion plant biopolymers.

Key­words: aging, card­board, enzy­mat­ic treat­ment, impregnation

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Shkol’nikov E.V. Mech­a­nism of sur­face isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of TlAsS2 and TlAsSе2 glass­es. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 228–239 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.228–239

Abstract

Syn­the­sis and con­trol of homo­gene­ity of glass­es TlAsX2 and crys­tal­liza­tion prod­ucts car­ried out as pre­vi­ous­ly [Shkol‘nikov, 2017]. Aver­age speed of lin­ear growth of crys­tals (0.1– 3 μm/min) was deter­mined with an accu­ra­cy of ± 5−10% accord­ing to GOST 22290–76, mea­sur­ing with a micro­scope the thick­ness of the crys­tal­lized lay­er of pol­ished plates after heat treat­ment in a weigh­ing bot­tle with sil­i­cone oil. The results of the kinet­ic study of the sur­face isother­mal crys­tal­liza­tion of glass­es TlAsX2 (X − S, Se) are the­o­ret­i­cal­ly ana­lyzed in dif­fer­ent ways, tak­ing into account the struc­tur­al char­ac­ter­is­tics and with the use of the tem­per­a­ture depen­dence of the vis­cos­i­ty of glass­es. The semi­em­pir­i­cal cal­cu­la­tion of the tem­per­a­ture depen­dence of non­re­con­struc­tive crys­tal growth rate is per­formed. It is shown that the lay­ered sta­tion­ary growth of crys­tals in the TlAsS2 glass occurs on screw dis­lo­ca­tions. Unlike TlAsS2 glass, in the TlASe2 glass the tran­si­tion from the dis­lo­ca­tion mech­a­nism to two-dimen­sion­al nucle­ation and lay­er-bylay­er growth of crys­tals is pos­si­ble at super­cool­ing of more than 120°. Fold­ing of small chain seg­ments into pack­ets, rib­bons and thin plates can lead to the for­ma­tion of TlAsХ2 crys­tals in the form of lamel­lae. The rate of the lin­ear crys­tal growth in the TlAsS2 glass at T = 410−473 К and in the TlAsSe2 glass at T = 423−473 К can be sat­is­fac­to­ri­ly cal­cu­lat­ed if the prob­a­bil­i­ty fac­tor fT) growth on the steps of screw dis­lo­ca­tions is intro­duced to the the­o­ret­i­cal for­mu­la of Turnbull–Cohen, and the acti­va­tion ener­gy of the crys­tal growth ΔGa”(T) is tak­en equal to the kinet­ic bar­ri­er dur­ing the vis­cous flow of glass­es ΔGη #(T) from the Eyring‘s equa­tion . The inequal­i­ty of the acti­va­tion entropies ΔSa” < ΔSη # reflects the spe­cif­ic nature of the process­es of crys­tal­liza­tion and vis­cous flow.

Key­words: cal­cu­la­tion and mea­sure­ment of the lin­ear growth rate of the crys­talline lay­er, kinet­ic para­me­ters and sur­face crys­tal­liza­tion mech­a­nism of glasses

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Tim­o­feev I.V., Ivanov D.V., Leonovich A.A., Kru­tov S.M. Usage of mod­i­fied lignin to reduce the tox­i­c­i­ty of wood boards. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 240–253 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.240–253

Abstract

Mod­i­fied prepa­ra­tions of hydrol­y­sis lignin as accep­tors of formalde­hyde were researched in medi­um den­si­ty fiber­board tech­nol­o­gy. The hydrol­y­sis lignin of the Kirov Bio­chem­i­cal Plant, fine-dis­persed lignin, obtained by steam-blast­ing treat­ment, and ultra­dis­persed lignin, obtained on the disk mill were researched. Method, which can show how lignin sorbs formalde­hyde was devel­oped. The reac­tion between lignin and formalde­hyde was car­ried out in aquat­ic envi­ron­ment at 100 oC dur­ing 1 hour. The dif­fer­ence in val­ues before and after boil­ing of the reac­tion mix­ture was iden­ti­fied as the amount of sorbed formalde­hyde. The cor­re­la­tion pro­cess­ing of data estab­lished that the sorp­tion capac­i­ty of lignin prepa­ra­tions depends on their spe­cif­ic sur­face by 88%. Ultra-dis­persed lignin has spe­cif­ic sur­face 14 m²/g there­fore it’s more effec­tive accep­tor. IR spec­trums and NMR spec­trums of ultra-dis­persed lignin were researched after deter­min­ing their sorp­tion capac­i­ty. They showed that formalde­hyde came into reac­tion with func­tion­al groups of lignin. It was estab­lished that ultra-dis­persed lignin can sorb formalde­hyde, formed dur­ing hard­en­ing of urea-formalde­hyde resin. The physic-chem­i­cal prop­er­ties of the resin com­bined with the ultra-dis­perse lignin were also researched. While mak­ing MDF the full fac­to­r­i­al exper­i­ment was car­ried out. It allowed to find tech­no­log­i­cal modes for mak­ing wood board, which have emis­sion class E1, and cor­re­sponds state stan­dard for fiber­board. It is pos­si­ble to pro­duce wood boards of emis­sion class E0,5, how­ev­er, increased lignin con­sump­tion and use of hard­en­ing addi­tives are necessary.

Key­words: hydrol­y­sis lignin, formalde­hyde, accep­tors of formalde­hyde, tox­i­c­i­ty of wood boards

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Fedo­to­va N.N., Yolkin V.A. The feed­stock chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion (wood pine), cel­lolignin and hydrolyzate obtained with alco­hol boil­ing. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 254–262 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.254–262

Abstract

Recent­ly, the devel­op­ment of hydrol­y­sis indus­tries and the sta­ble oper­a­tion of a num­ber of oper­at­ing enter­pris­es are pri­mar­i­ly lim­it­ed by envi­ron­men­tal fac­tors, the impor­tance of which have long been under­es­ti­mat­ed. In order to have a car­di­nal solu­tion of the envi­ron­men­tal pro­tec­tion prob­lem, it is nec­es­sary to use eco­log­i­cal­ly opti­mal tech­nol­o­gy in hydrol­y­sis and alco­hol pro­duc­tion, which does not dis­turb the self-reg­u­la­tion process of nat­ur­al com­plex­es. The tech­ni­cal ethanol pro­duc­tion with wood raw mate­ri­als is accom­pa­nied by the large-ton­nage waste for­ma­tion – the socalled post-alco­hol dis­tillery waste, which is much greater than the main prod­uct yield. It may reach 135–150 m³ per 10 m³ of ethanol. From our point of view, the most opti­mal solu­tion of post-alco­hol dis­tillery waste uti­liza­tion is to use plant raw mate­ri­als in the main pro­duc­tion, par­tic­u­lar­ly in cook­ing acid pro­duc­tion process. The paper con­tains data of raw mate­r­i­al chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion (wood pine), cel­lolignin and hydrolyzate obtained with alco­hol pro­duc­tion. It is found out in research­ing the raw mate­r­i­al chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion that the pine wood con­tains: cel­lu­lose – 42.6%, eas­i­ly hydrolysable poly­sac­cha­rides (EHP) – 17.2% and lignin – 20.4%. The reduc­ing sub­stance con­cen­tra­tion in the hydrolyzate is 3.1%, dry mat­ter 3.5%, organ­ic acids in terms of acetic acid 0.54%, oligosac­cha­rides 0.34%, fur­fur­al 0.12%, hydrolyzate pH 1,2. The hydrolyzate ade­quate qual­i­ty is 88%. In study­ing the cel­lulignin chem­i­cal com­po­si­tion, it is found out that in the process of boil­ing all the EHP and some 45% hard­ly hydrolysable poly­sac­cha­rides (HHP) of the wood are trans­ferred to into the solu­tion. Thus, in study­ing the chem­i­cal feed­stock, cel­lolignin and hydrolyzate com­po­si­tion, it is found out that: the 20% HHP pres­ence in cel­lolignin indi­cates an insuf­fi­cient­ly opti­mal mode of plant mate­r­i­al hydrol­y­sis; the hydrolyzate good qual­i­ty meets the require­ments for hydrolysates in alco­hol pro­duc­tion; it is fore­seen to use post-alco­hol dis­tillery waste for cook­ing acid prepa­ra­tion in the pro­posed technology.

Key­words: pine wood, hydrolyzate, cel­lolignin, cir­cu­lat­ing water sup­ply, alco­hol cook­ing, good­ness, dis­tillery grains

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Ivanov D.V., Leonovich A.A., Mazur A.S. On the mech­a­nisms of action and meth­ods of eval­u­a­tion effi­cien­cy accep­tors of formalde­hyde in wood boards. Izves­tia Sankt-Peter­burgskoj Lesotehniceskoj Akademii. 2018. iss. 222. pp. 263–275 (in Russ­ian with Eng­lish sum­ma­ry). DOI: 10.21266/2079–4304.2018.222.263–275

Abstract

The effi­cien­cy of formalde­hyde accep­tors were stud­ied on the exam­ple of urea and cyanoguani­dine. The nature of the con­ver­sion of cyanoguani­dine was researched at the tem­per­a­tures of inner and out­er lay­ers of the wood boards. Medi­um den­si­ty fiber­boards, which have thick­ness of 4 mm were mak­ing for mod­el­ing the tem­per­a­ture con­di­tions. The mod­el of inner lay­er were mak­ing at the tem­per­a­ture of hot press plates 130 °С, and mod­el of out­er lay­ers at 220 °С. Sam­ples of medi­um den­si­ty fiber­boards were inves­ti­gat­ed using the meth­ods of NMR-spec­troscopy, improved pho­to col­ori­met­ric method of def­i­n­i­tion of formalde­hyde and stan­dards physic-mechan­i­cal tests. It was estab­lished that at the tem­per­a­ture of out­er lay­ers decom­po­si­tion of cyanoguani­dine with ammo­nia for­ma­tions pre­vails, and at the tem­per­a­ture of inner lay­er the addi­tion reac­tion of formalde­hyde to aminogroups pre­vails. Accep­tor, which was intro­duced into the board sep­a­rate­ly from glue in quan­ti­ty 1.5% of the mass of the board can bind more than 50% of the emit­ted formalde­hyde at 220 °C and only 15% at 130 °C. Pho­tos of the hor­i­zon­tal inci­sions of medi­um den­si­ty fiber­board sam­ples are shown. They demon­strate that sam­ples, which were made at tem­per­a­ture of inner lay­er have in its struc­ture accep­tor, which retains its aggre­gate state and is observed in the form of a coarse pow­der, and the sam­ples, which were made at tem­per­a­ture of out­er lay­er don’t have any inclu­sions in it is struc­ture. Func­tion­al eval­u­a­tion of the accep­tor was giv­en through rela­tion of quan­ti­ty tied formalde­hyde towards max­i­mum quan­ti­ty of formalde­hyde, which in the­o­ry can react with accep­tor. Results were expressed as degree of inter­ac­tion com­plete­ness. For cyanoguani­dine in sam­ples, mod­el­ing the tem­per­a­ture of inner lay­er it is 0.48%, and to sam­ples, which mod­el­ing the tem­per­a­ture of out­er lay­ers it is 0.89%. Com­par­ing the results with oth­er accep­tors it was defined, that degree of inter­ac­tion com­plete­ness is sim­i­lar and very low. It was estab­lished that con­di­tions of man­u­fac­tur­ing wood boards are poor­ly suit­able for chem­i­cal reac­tion because of dif­fu­sion and kinet­ic lim­i­ta­tions. To esti­mate the effec­tive­ness of accep­tors accord­ing to equimo­lar reac­tion is not enough, and the tech­ni­cal eval­u­a­tion through effi­cien­cy coef­fi­cient is required. 

Key­words: cyanoguani­dine, formalde­hyde, accep­tors of formalde­hyde, tox­i­c­i­ty of wood boards

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2017 issues

Issue 221
1. FORESTRY

Kuzminykh Iu.V., Gri­aznov S.E. For­est com­plex of Rus­sia in ensur­ing the nation­al com­mit­ments of the Paris cli­mate agree­men